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Monarchy 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

A monarchy is a form of government in which sovereignty is actually or nominally embodied in a single individual (the 
monarch). J 

Forms of monarchy differ widely based on the level of legal autonomy the monarch holds in governance, the method of selection of 
the monarch, and any predetermined limits on the length of their tenure. When the monarchs has no or few legal restraints in state 
and political matters, it is called an "absolute monarchy" and is a form of autocracy. Cases in which the monarchs discretion is 
formally limited (most common today) are called constitutional monarchies. In "hereditary monarchies", the office is passed 
through inheritance within a family group, whereas [[elective monarchies]] are selected by some system of voting. Historically 
these systems are most commonly combined, either formally or informally, in some manner. (For instance, in some elected 
monarchies only those of certain pedigrees are considered eligible, whereas many hereditary monarchies have legal requirements 
regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, and other factors that act both as de facto elections and to create situations of 
rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election.) Finally, there are situations in which the expiration of a monarch's 
reign is set based either on the calendar or on the achievement of certain goals (repulse of invasion, for instance.) The effect of 
historical and geographic difference along each of these three axes is to create widely divergent structures and traditions defining 
"monarchy." 

Monarchy was the most common form of government into the 

19th century, but it is no longer prevalent, at least at the 

national level. Where it exists, it now often takes the form of 

constitutional monarchy, in which the monarch retains a 

unique legal and ceremonial role, but exercises limited or no 

political power pursuant to a constitution or tradition which 

allocates governing authority elsewhere. Currently, 44 

sovereign nations in the world have monarchs acting as heads 

of state, 16 of which are Commonwealth realms that recognize 

Queen Elizabeth II as their head of state. All European 

monarchies are constitutional ones, with the exception of the 

Vatican City, but sovereigns in the smaller states exercise 

greater political influence than in the larger. The monarchs of 

Cambodia, Japan, Jordan, Malaysia and Morocco "reign, but 
King Solomon's royal court. do not rule" although there is considerable variation in the 

amount of authority they wield. Although they reign under 

constitutions, the monarchs of Brunei, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Swaziland appear to 
continue to exercise more political influence than any other single source of authority in their nations, either by constitutional 
mandate or by tradition. It is currently being used in England. 





King Leopold I, elected founder 
of the hereditary monarchy of 
Belgium. 



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Absolute monarchy 

Semi-constitutional monarchy 

Constitutional monarchy 

Commonwealth realms (constitutional monarchies in personal union) 

Subnational monarchies (traditional) 



Contents 


■ 1 Etymology 


■ 2 History 


■ 3 Characteristics and role 


■ 3.1 Powers of monarch 


■ 3.2 Person of monarch 


■ 3.3 Role of religion 


■ 3.4 Titles of monarchs 


■ 3.5 Dependent monarchies 


■ 4 Succession 


■ 4.1 Hereditary monarchies 


■ 4.2 Elective monarchies 


■ 5 Current monarchies 


■ 6 See also 


■ 7 Notes and references 


■ 8 External links 



Etymology 

The word monarch (Latin: monarcha) comes from the Greek monarches, juovap/r/g (from mdnos, juovog, "one/singular," and 
archon, ap/cov, "leader/ruler/chief") which referred to a single, at least nominally absolute ruler. In current usage the word 
monarchy generally refers to a traditional system of hereditary rule, as elective monarchies are rare in the modern period. 



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History 

Tribal kingship is often connected to sacral functions, so that the king acts as a priest, or is considered of Divine ancestry. The 
sacral function of kingship was transformed into the notion of "Divine right of kings" in the Christian Middle Ages, while the 
Chinese, Japanese and Nepalese monarchs continued to be considered living Gods into the modern period. 

The system of monarchy since antiquity has contrasted with forms of democracy, where executive power is wielded by assemblies 
of free citizens. In antiquity, monarchies were abolished in favour of such assemblies in Ancient Rome (Roman Republic, 509 BC), 
Ancient Athens (Athenian democracy, 500 BC). 

In Germanic antiquity, kingship was primarily a sacral function, and the king was elected from among eligible members of royal 
families by the thing. Such ancient "parliamentarism" declined during the European Middle Ages, but it survived in forms of 
regional assemblies, such as the Icelandic Commonwealth, the Swiss Landsgemeinde and later Tagsatzung, and the High Medieval 
communal movement linked to the rise of medieval town privileges. 

The modern resurgence of parliamentarism and anti-monarchism began with the overthrow of the English monarchy by the 
Parliament of England in 1649, followed by the American Revolution of 1776 and the French Revolution of 1792. Much of 19th 
century politics was characterized by the division between anti-monarchist Radicalism and monarchist Conservativism. 

Many countries abolished the monarchy in the 20th century and became republics, especially in the wake of either World War I or 
World War II. Advocacy of republics is called republicanism, while advocacy of monarchies is called monarchism. 



Characteristics and role 




A 19th century portrayal of 
Emperor Jimmu, the first Emperor 
of Japan. 



Monarchies are associated with political or sociocultural hereditary rule, in which monarchs 
rule for life (although some monarchs do not hold lifetime positions, such as the Yang 
di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, who serves a five-year term) and pass the responsibilities and 
power of the position to their children or family when they die. Most monarchs, both 
historically and in the modern day, have been born and brought up within a royal family, the 
center of the royal household and court. Growing up in a royal family (when present for several 
generations it may be called a dynasty), and future monarchs were often trained for the 
responsibilities of expected future rule. 

Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood, primogeniture, 
and agnatic seniority (Salic law). While traditionally most modern monarchs have been male, 
many female monarchs also have ruled in history; the term queen regnant may refer to a ruling 
monarch, while a queen consort may refer to the wife of a reigning king. Form of governments 
may be hereditary without being considered monarchies, such as that of family dictatorships^ J 
or political families in many democracies. J 

The principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the immediate continuity of leadership, 
usually with a short interregnum (as seen in the classic phrase "The King is dead. Long live the 
King!"). 



Some monarchies are non-hereditary. In an elective monarchy, monarchs are elected, or 
appointed by some body (an electoral college) for life or a defined period, but otherwise serve 

as any other monarch. Three elective monarchies exist today, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates are twentieth-century 

creations, while one (the papacy) is ancient. 

A self -proclaimed monarchy is established when a person claims the monarchy without any historical ties to a previous dynasty. 
Napoleon I of France declared himself Emperor of the French and ruled the First French Empire after previously calling himself 
First Consul following his seizure of power in the coup of 18 Brumaire. Jean-Bedel Bokassa of the Central African Republic 
declared himself "Emperor" of the Central African Empire. Yuan Shikai crowned himself Emperor of the short-lived "Empire of 
China" a few years after the Republic of China was founded. 

Powers of monarch 

Today, the extent of a monarch's powers varies: 



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■ In an absolute monarchy, the monarch rules as an autocrat, with absolute power over the state and government — for 
example, the right to rule by decree, promulgate laws, and impose punishments. Absolute monarchies are not necessarily 
authoritarian; the enlightened absolutists of the Age of Enlightenment were monarchs who allowed various freedoms. 

■ In a constitutional monarchy the monarch is subject to a constitution. The monarch serves as a ceremonial figurehead symbol 
of national unity and state continuity. The monarch is nominally sovereign but the electorate, through their 
parliament/legislature, exercise usually limited political sovereignty. Constitutional monarchs have limited political power, 
except in Japan, where the constitution grants no power to the Emperor. l a wn nee e J Typical monarchical powers include 
granting pardons, granting honours, and reserve powers, e.g. to dismiss the prime minister, refuse to dissolve parliament, or 
veto legislation ("withhold Royal Assent"). They often also have privileges of inviolability, sovereign immunity, and an 
official residence. A monarch's powers and influence may depend on tradition, precedent, popular opinion, and law. 

■ In other cases the monarch's power is limited, not due to constitutional restraints, but to effective military rule. In the late 
Roman Empire, the Praetorian Guard several times deposed Roman Emperors and installed new emperors. The Hellenistic 
kings of Macedon and of Epirus were elected by the army, which was similar in composition to the ecclesia of democracies, 
the council of all free citizens; military service often was linked with citizenship among the male members of the royal house. 
Military domination of the monarch has occurred in modern Thailand and in medieval Japan (where a hereditary military 
chief, the shogun was the de facto ruler, although the Japanese emperor nominally ruled). In Fascist Italy the Savoy 
monarchy under King Victor Emmanuel III coexisted with the Fascist single-party rule of Benito Mussolini; Romania under 
the Iron Guard and Greece during the first months of the Colonels' regime were much the same way. Spain under Francisco 
Franco was officially a monarchy, although there was no monarch on the throne. Upon his death, Franco was succeeded as 
head of state by the Bourbon heir, Juan Carlos I, who proceeded to make Spain a democracy with himself as a figurehead 
constitutional monarch. [d ^'™ needed] 

Person of monarch 



Most states only have a single person acting as monarch at any given time, although two 
monarchs have ruled simultaneously in some countries, a situation known as diarchy. 
Historically this was the case in the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta or 17th-century 
Russia, and there are examples of joint sovereignty of spouses or relatives (such as William 
and Mary in the Kingdoms of England and Scotland). Other examples of joint sovereignty 
include Tsars Peter I and Ivan V of Russia and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and Joanna 
of Castile of the Crown of Castile. 

Andorra currently is the world's sole constitutional diarchy or co-principality. Located in the 
Pyrenees between Spain and France, it has two co-princes: the Bishop of Urgell (a prince- 
bishop) in Spain and the President of France. It is the only situation in which an independent 
country's monarch is democratically elected by the citizens of another country. 

In a personal union, separate independent states share the same crown with one person as 
the monarch. The sixteen separate Commonwealth realms are sometimes described as being 
in a personal union with Queen Elizabeth II as monarch, however, legally each 
Commonwealth Realm has its own crown or monarchy, so they can also be described as 
being in a Shared Monarchy. 

A regent may rule when the monarch is a minor, absent, or debilitated. 

A pretender is a claimant to an abolished throne or to a throne already occupied by 
somebody else. 

Abdication is when a monarch resigns. 

Monarchs often take part in certain ceremonies, such as a coronation. 




Postcard of ruling monarchs, taken in 
1908 between February (accession of 
King Manuel II of Portugal) and 
November (death of Guangxu 
Emperor). 



Role of religion 

Monarchy, especially absolute monarchy, sometimes is linked to religious aspects; many monarchs once claimed the right to rule by 
the will of a deity (Divine Right of Kings, Mandate of Heaven), a special connection to a deity (sacred king) or even purported to 
be divine kings, or incarnations of deities themselves (imperial cult). Many European monarchs have been styled Fidel defensor 
(Defender of the Faith); some hold official positions relating to the state religion or established church. 



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In the Western Catholic political tradition, a morally-based, balanced monarchy is stressed as the ideal form of government, and 
little reverence is paid to modern-day ideals of egalitarian democracy: e.g. Saint Thomas Aquinas unapologetically declares: 
"Tyranny is wont to occur not less but more frequently on the basis of polyarchy [rule by many, i.e. oligarchy or democracy] than 
on the basis of monarchy." (On Kingship). However, Thomas Aquinas also stated that the ideal monarchical system would also 
have at lower levels of government both an aristocracy and elements of democracy in order to created a balance of power. The 
monarch would also be subject to both natural and divine law, as well, and also be subject to the Church in matters of religion. 

In Dante Alighieri's De Monarchia, a spiritualized, imperial Catholic monarchy is strongly promoted according to a Ghibelline 
world- view in which the "royal religion of Melchizedek" is emphasized against the sacerdotal claims of the rival papal ideology. 

In Muslim World, The King of Saudi Arabia is a head of state who is both a absolute monarch of country, and Custodian of the Two 
Holy Mosques of Islam (u^o-^ uj*j^ H^O- 

Titles of monarchs 

Monarchs have various titles, including king or queen, prince or princess (Sovereign Prince of Monaco), emperor or empress 
(Emperor of Japan, Emperor of India), or even duke or grand duke (Grand Duke of Luxembourg) or duchess. Many monarchs also 
are distinguished by styles, such as "Majesty", "Royal Highness" or "By the Grace of God". Islamic monarchs use titles such as 
Shah, Caliph, Sultan, Emir and Sheikh. In Mongolian or Turkic lands, the monarch may use the title Khan or Khagan. 

Sometimes titles are used to express claims to territories that are not held in fact (for example, English claims to the French throne) 
or titles not recognized (antipopes). 

Dependent monarchies 

In some cases monarchs are dependent on other powers (see vassals, suzerainty, puppet state, hegemony). In the British colonial 
era indirect rule under a paramount power existed, such as the princely states under the British Raj. 

In Botswana, South Africa, Ghana and Uganda, the ancient kingdoms and chief doms that were met by the colonialists when they 
first arrived on the continent are now constitutionally protected as regional and/or sectional entities. Furthermore, in Nigeria, 
though the hundreds of sub-regional polities that exist there are not provided for in the current constitution, they are nevertheless 
legally recognised aspects of the structure of governance that operates in the nation. In addition to these five countries, peculiar 
monarchies of varied sizes and complexities exist in various other parts of Africa. 

Succession 

The rules for selection of monarchs varies from country to country. In constitutional monarchies the rule of succession generally is 
embodied in a law passed by a representative body, such as a parliament. 

Hereditary monarchies 

In a hereditary monarchy, the position of monarch is inherited according to a statutory or customary order of succession, usually 
within one royal family tracing its origin through a historical dynasty or bloodline. This usually means that the heir to the throne is 
known well in advance of becoming monarch to ensure a smooth succession. 

Primogeniture, in which the eldest child of the monarch is first in line to become monarch, is the most common system in hereditary 
monarchy. The order of succession is usually affected by rules on gender. Historically "agnatic primogeniture" or "patrilineal 
primogeniture" was favoured, that is inheritance according to seniority of birth among the sons of a monarch or head of family, with 
sons and their male issue inheriting before brothers and their issue, and male-line males inheriting before females of the male 
line. J This is the same as semi-Salic primogeniture. Complete exclusion of females from dynastic succession is commonly referred 
to as application of the Salic law (see Terra salica). 

Before primogeniture was enshrined in European law and tradition, kings would often secure the succession by having their 
successor (usually their eldest son) crowned during their own lifetime, so for a time there would be two kings in coregency - a 
senior king and a junior king. Examples include Henry the Young King of England and the early Direct Capetians in France. 

Sometimes, however, primogeniture can operate through the female line. In some systems a female may rule as monarch only when 
the male line dating back to a common ancestor is exhausted. In 1980, Sweden became the first European monarchy to declare 



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equal (full cognatic) primogeniture, meaning that the eldest child of the monarch, whether female or male, ascends to the throne. J 
Other kingdoms (such as the Netherlands in 1983, Norway in 1990, Belgium in 1991, and the United Kingdom in 2011) have since 
followed suit. Sometimes religion is affected; under the Act of Settlement 1701 all Roman Catholics and all persons who have 
married Roman Catholics are ineligible to be the British monarch and are skipped in the order of succession. 

In the case of the absence of children, the next most senior member of the collateral line (for example, a younger sibling of the 
previous monarch) becomes monarch. In complex cases, this can mean that there are closer blood relatives to the deceased 
monarch than the next in line according to primogeniture. This has often led, especially in Europe in the Middle Ages, to conflict 
between the principle of primogeniture and the principle of proximity of blood, with outcomes that were idiosyncratic. 

Other hereditary systems of succession included tanistry, which is semi-elective and gives weight to merit and Agnatic seniority. In 
some monarchies, such as Saudi Arabia, succession to the throne usually first passes to the monarch's next eldest brother, and only 
after that to the monarch's children (agnatic seniority). 

Elective monarchies 

In an elective monarchy, monarchs are elected, or appointed by some body (an electoral college) for life or a defined period, but 
otherwise serve as any other monarch. There is no popular vote involved in elective monarchies, as the elective body usually 
consists of a small number of eligible people. Historical examples of elective monarchy include the Holy Roman Emperors (chosen 
by prince-electors, but often coming from the same dynasty), and the free election of kings of the Polish-Lithuanian 
Commonwealth. For example, Pepin the Short (father of Charlemagne) was elected King of the Franks by an assembly of Frankish 
leading men; Stanislaw August Poniatowski of Poland was an elected king, as was Frederick I of Denmark. Germanic peoples had 
elective monarchies. 

Three elective monarchies exist today. The pope of the Roman Catholic Church (who rules as Sovereign of the Vatican City State) 
is elected to a life term by the College of Cardinals. In Malaysia, the federal king, called the Yang di-Pertuan Agong ("Paramount 
Ruler") is elected for a five-year term from and by the hereditary rulers (mostly sultans) of nine of the federation's constitutive 
states, all on the Malay peninsula. The United Arab Emirates also has a procedure for electing its monarch. 

Appointment by the current monarch is another system, used in Jordan. In this system, the monarch chooses the successor, who is 
always his relative. 

See also: jure uxoris 

Current monarchies 

Currently there are 44 (or 45) nations in the world with a monarch as head of state. They fall roughly into the following categories: 

■ Commonwealth realms. The sixteen Commonwealth realms (Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, 
Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the 
Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) all share Queen Elizabeth 
II as monarch in a personal union arrangement. They all share a common British inheritance and have evolved out of the 
British Empire into membership of the Commonwealth of Nations as fully independent states where they retain Queen 
Elizabeth as head of state; unlike other members of the Commonwealth of Nations which are either dependencies, republics 
or have a different royal house. All sixteen realms are constitutional monarchies and full democracies where the queen has 
limited powers or a largely ceremonial role. The queen is head of the established Protestant Christian Church of England in 
the United Kingdom however, the other monarchies do not have an established church. 

■ Other European constitutional monarchies. Andorra, Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and 
Sweden are fully democratic states in which the monarch has a limited or largely ceremonial role. There is generally a 
Christian religion established as the official church in each of these countries. This is a form of Protestantism in Norway, 
Sweden, Denmark, and the Netherlands, while Belgium, Luxembourg, Andorra, and Spain are Roman Catholic countries. 

■ European Constitutional/ Absolute Monarchies Liechtenstein and Monaco are constitutional monarchies in which the 
Prince retains many powers of an absolute monarch. For example the 2003 Constitution referendum which gives the Prince 
of Liechtenstein the power to veto any law that the Landtag proposes and the Landtag can veto any law that the Prince tries 
to pass. The Prince can hire or dismiss any elective member or government employee from his or her post. However what 
makes him not an absolute monarchy is that the people can call for a referendum to end the monarchy's reign. The Prince of 
Monaco has simpler powers but can not hire or dismiss any elective member or government employee from his or her post, 



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but he can elect the minister of state, government council and judges. Both Albert II and Hans- Adam II have quite a bit of 
political power, but they also own huge tracts of land and are shareholders in many companies. 

Islamic monarchies. These Islamic monarchs of Bahrain, Brunei, Jordan, Kuwait, Malaysia, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi 
Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates generally retain far more powers than their European or Commonwealth counterparts. 
Brunei, Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia remain absolute monarchies; Bahrain, Kuwait and United Arab Emirates are 
classified as mixed, meaning there are representative bodies of some kind, but the monarch retains most of his powers. 
Jordan, Malaysia and Morocco are constitutional monarchies, but their monarchs still retain more substantial powers than 
European equivalents. Malaysia could also be considered as an East Asian constitutional monarchy (see next). 

East Asian constitutional monarchies. Bhutan, Cambodia, Japan, Thailand have constitutional monarchies where the 
monarch has a limited or ceremonial role. Bhutan, Japan, and Thailand are countries that were never colonised by European 
powers, but have changed from traditional absolute monarchies into constitutional ones during the twentieth century. 
Cambodia had its own monarchy after independence from France, which was deposed after the Khmer Rouge came into 
power and the subsequent invasion by Vietnam. The monarchy was subsequently restored in the peace agreement of 1993. 
Shintoism is the established religion in Japan, while Bhutan, Cambodia and Thailand are all Buddhist countries. However, 
most Japanese people practice Buddhism and Shinto simultaneously. 

Other monarchies. Five monarchies do not fit into one of the above groups by virtue of geography or class of monarchy: 
Tonga and Samoa in Polynesia; Swaziland and Lesotho in Africa; and the Vatican City in Europe. Of these, Lesotho and 
Tonga are constitutional monarchies, while Swaziland and Vatican City are absolute monarchies. Samoa falls into neither 
class, as one of the Four Paramount Chiefs of the country is elected to hold the position of O le Ao o le Malo, or "Chieftain 
of the Government". This position is not required by the Samoan constitution, which is why Samoa is officially classified as a 
republic rather than a constitutional monarchy. The pope is monarch of Vatican City by virtue of his position as head of the 
Catholic Church; he is an elected rather than hereditary ruler. 



See also 



Abolished monarchy 

Archontology 

Family as a model for the state 

Family dictatorship 

Federal monarchy 

King of Kings 

Maharaja 

Personal union 



List of current monarchs 

List of living former sovereign monarchs 

List of monarchies 

List of monarchs by nickname 

List of subnational monarchs 

List of usurpers 



Notes and references 



2. 



A Stuart Berg Flexner and Leonore Crary Hauck, editors, Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd Ed., Random House, New York 

(1993) 

A Examples include Oliver Cromwell and John Morgan was also there along with Richard Cromwell in the Commonwealth of England, 

Kim il-Sung and Kim Jong-il in North Korea, the Somoza family in Nicaragua, Francois Duvalier and Jean-Claude Duvalier in Haiti, and 

Hafez al-Assad and Bashar al-Assad in Syria. 

A For example, the Kennedy family in the United States and the Nehru-Gandhi family in India. See list of political families. 

A Murphy, Michael Dean. "A Kinship Glossary: Symbols, Terms, and Concepts" (http://www.as.ua.edu/ant/Faculty/murphy 

/436/kinship.htm) . http://www.as.ua.edu/ant/Faculty/murphy/436/kinship.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-05. 

A SOU 1977:5 Kvinnlig tronfoljd, p. 16. 



External links 

■ The Constitutional Monarchy Association (http://www.monarchy.net/) 

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index.php ?title=Monarchy&oldid=482804497" 

Categories: Monarchy Positions of authority Titles Constitutional state types Forms of government Heads of state 
Political systems | Greek loanwords 



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Monarch 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy. This is a form of 
government in which a state or polity is ruled or controlled by an 
individual who typically inherits the throne by birth and rules for life 
or until abdication. Monarchs may be autocrats (absolute monarchy) 
or ceremonial heads of state who exercise little or no power or only 
reserve power, with actual authority vested in a parliament or other 
body (constitutional monarchy). 



Royal, noble and chivalric ranks 



Contents 



1 Etymology 

2 Characteristics 

3 Classification 

4 Succession 

5 History 

6 Monarchs in Africa 

7 Monarchs in Europe 

8 Monarchs in Asia 

9 Monarchs in the Americas 

10 Titles and precedence 

■ 10.1 Titles by region 

1 1 Current monarchs 

12 Use of titles by non- sovereigns 

13 See also 

14 References 

15 External links 



Etymology 

The word monarch is derived from the Greek juovdpxrjg (from juovog, 
"one/singular," and dcpxcov, "leader/ruler/chief") through the Latin: 
monarcha (mono: "one" + arch "chief") which referred to a single, at 
least nominally, absolute ruler. In current usage the word monarchy 
generally refers to a traditional system of hereditary rule, as elective 
monarchies are rare in the modern period. 

Characteristics 

Most states have at most one monarch at any given time, although a 
regent may rule when the monarch is a minor, not present, or 
otherwise incapable of ruling. Two monarchs have ruled 
simultaneously in some countries, as in the ancient Greek city-state of 




Emperor & Empress consort 
Empress & Emperor consort 

Empress dowager or Empress mother 

King & Queen consort or Princess consort 
Queen & King consort or Prince consort 

Queen dowager or Queen mother 
Princess dowager or Princess mother 

Grand Duke & Grand Duchess 
Grand Prince & Grand Princess 

Viceroy & Vicereine 

Archduke & Archduchess 
Infante & Infanta 

Duke & Duchess 
Prince & Princess 

Marquess & Marchioness 

Marquis & Marquise 
Margrave & Margravine 

Count & Countess 
Earl & Countess 

Viscount & Viscountess 

Baron & Baroness 
Freiherr & Freifrau 



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Baronet & Baronetess 
Hereditary Knight, Ritter 



Knight & Dame 



Nobile, Edler von 



Sparta or the joint sovereignty of spouses or relatives (e.g. William and 
Mary of Kingdom of England and Scotland, Peter and Ivan of Russia, 
Charles and Joanna of Castile, etc.). 

Monarchs have various titles — king or queen, prince or princess (e.g. 
Sovereign Prince of Monaco), Malik or Malikah (e.g. Maliks of Middle 
eastern Mamlakahs), emperor or empress (e.g. Emperor of Japan, 
Emperor of India), Shah of Iran, archduke, duke or grand duke (e.g. 
Grand Duke of Luxembourg). Prince is sometimes used as a generic 
term to describe any monarch regardless of title, especially in older texts. 

Many monarchs are distinguished by titles and styles. They often take part in certain ceremonies, such as a 
coronation. 

Monarchy is associated with political or sociocultural in nature hereditary rule; most monarchs, both historically 
and in the modern day, have been born and brought up within a royal family (over a period of time called a 
dynasty) and trained for future duties. Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of 
blood, primogeniture, and agnatic seniority (Salic law). While traditionally most monarchs have been male, 
female monarchs have also ruled in history; the term queen regnant refers to a ruling monarch, as distinct from a 
queen consort, the wife of a reigning king. 

Some monarchies are non-hereditary. In an elective monarchy, the monarch is elected but otherwise serves as 
any other monarch. Historical examples of elective monarchy include the Holy Roman Emperors (chosen by 
prince-electors but often coming from the same dynasty) and the free election of kings of the Polish-Lithuanian 
Commonwealth. Modern examples include the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia and the pope of the Roman 
Catholic Church, who serves as Sovereign of the Vatican City State and is elected to a life term by the College of 
Cardinals. 

Monarchies have existed throughout the world, although in recent centuries many states have abolished the 
monarchy and become republics. Advocacy of republics is called republicanism, while advocacy of monarchies 
is called monarchism. The principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the immediate continuity of leadership, 
with a usually short interregnum (as illustrated in the classic phrase "The [old] King is dead. Long live the [new] 
King!"). However, this only applies in the case of autocratic rule. In cases where the monarch serves mostly as a 
ceremonial figure (e.g. most modern constitutional monarchies) real leadership does not depend on the monarch. 

A form of government may in fact be hereditary 
without being considered monarchy, such as family 
dictatorship or political families present in some 
nominally democratic countries. 

Classification 



A particular case is the French co-prince of Andorra, 
a position held by the elected President of France. 
Nonetheless, he is still generally considered a 
monarch because of the traditional use of a 
monarchical title (even though Andorra is, strictly 
speaking, a diarchy.) Similarly, the Yang di-Pertuan 
Agong of Malaysia is considered a monarch despite 
only holding the office for five years at a time. On 




The nine European Monarchs who attended the funeral of 



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarch 



the other hand, several life-time dictators around the 
world have not been formally classified as monarchs, 
even if succeeded by their children, but that may be 
more to do with international political sensitivities 
than with semantics. 

Succession 



King Edward VII of Britain, photographed at Windsor Castle 
on 20 May 1910. Standing, from left to right: King Haakon 
VII of Norway, King Ferdinand of Bulgaria, King Manuel II of 
Portugal, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, King George I of 
Greece and King Albert I of Belgium. Seated, from left to 
right: King Alfonso XHI of Spain, King George V of Britain 
and King Frederick VHI of Denmark. 



Hereditary succession within one family has been most 
common. The usual hereditary succession is based on some 
cognatic principles and on seniority, though sometimes merit 
has played a part. Thus, the most common hereditary system 
in feudal Europe was based on cognatic primogeniture where 
a lord was succeeded by his eldest son or, if he had no son, 
by either daughters or sons of daughters. The system of 
tanistry was semi-elective and gave weight also to merits and 
capability. 

The Quasi-Salic succession provided firstly for male 
members of the family to succeed, and secondarily males 
descended from female lines. In most feudal fiefs, females 
(such as daughters and sisters) were allowed to succeed, 
should the male line fail, but usually the husband of the 
heiress became the real lord and most often also received the 
title, jure uxoris. Great Britain and Spain today continue this 
model of succession law, in the form of cognatic 
primogeniture. In more complex medieval cases, the 
sometimes conflicting principles of proximity and 
primogeniture battled, and outcomes were often 
idiosyncratic. 

As the average life span among the nobility increased 
(thanks to lords limiting their personal participation in 
dangerous battles, and generally improved sustenance and 
living conditions among the wealthy), an eldest son was 
more likely to reach majority age before the death of his 
father, and primogeniture became increasingly favoured over 
proximity, tanistry, seniority and election. 

Later, when lands were strictly divided among noble families 
and tended to remain fixed, agnatic primogeniture 
(practically the same as Salic Law) became more usual: the 
succession would go to the eldest son of the monarch, or, if 
the monarch had no sons, the throne would pass to the 
nearest male relative through the male line, to the total 
exclusion of females. 




RULING hrijh d,KHJ Nil 



Pifti-k*! ■>-H[ l -i-r l ( C 



Postcard from 1908 showing nineteen of the world's 
reigning monarchs: (left to right) King Rama 
V/Chulalongkorn of Siam, King George I of Greece, 
King Peter I of Serbia, King Carol I of Romania, 
Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary, King 
Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, Sultan Abdul Hamid II of the 
Ottoman Empire, King Victor Emmanuel HI of Italy, 
Emperor Nicholas II of the Russia, King Edward VII 
of Britain, Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany, King 
Gustav V of Sweden, King Haakon VII of Norway, 
King Frederick VHI of Denmark, Queen Wilhelmina 
of the Netherlands, Emperor Guangxu of China, 
Emperor Meiji of Japan, King Manuel II of Portugal 
and King Alfonso XHI of Spain. 



In some countries however, inheritance through the female 

line was never wholly abandoned, so that if the monarch had 

no sons, the throne would pass to the eldest daughter and to her posterity. (This, cognatic primogeniture, was the 



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rule that let Elizabeth II become Queen.) 

In 1980, Sweden became the first monarchy to declare equal primogeniture or full cognatic primogeniture, 
meaning that the eldest child of the monarch, whether female or male, ascends to the throne. * Other kingdoms 
(the Netherlands in 1983, Norway in 1990, Belgium in 1991 and Denmark in 2009) have since followed suit. 

In some monarchies, such as Saudi Arabia, succession to the throne usually first passes to the monarch's next 
eldest brother, and only after that to the monarch's children {agnatic seniority). In some other monarchies (e.g. 
Jordan), the monarch chooses who will be his successor, who need not necessarily be his eldest son. 

Whatever the rules of succession, there have been many cases of a monarch being overthrown and replaced by a 
usurper who would then often install his own family as the ruling monarchy. 

History 

Further information: Monarchy 

Monarchs in Africa 

Further information: Monarchies in Africa 
Further information: History of Africa 

A series of Pharaohs ruled Ancient Egypt over the course of three millennia (circa 3150 BC to 31 BC) until it 
was conquered by the Roman Empire. In the same time period several kingdoms flourished in the nearby Nubia 
region, with at least one of them, that of the so-called A-Group culture, apparently influencing the customs of 
Egypt itself. 

West Africa hosted the Kanem Empire (700 - 1376) and its successor, the Bornu principality which survives to 
the present day as a part of the Federation of Nigeria. 

In East Africa, the Aksumite Empire and later the Ethiopian Empire (1270-1974) were ruled by a series of 
monarchs. Haile Selassie, the last Emperor of Ethiopia, was deposed in a communist coup. 

Central and Southern Africa were largely isolated from other regions until the modern era, but they did later 
feature kingdoms like the Kingdom of Kongo (1400-1914). 

As part of the Scramble for Africa, Europeans conquered, bought, or established African kingdoms and styled 
themselves as monarchs. 

Currently the African nations of Morocco, Lesotho and Swaziland are sovereign monarchies under dynasties that 
are native to the continent. Places like St. Helena, Ceuta, Melilla and the Canary Islands are ruled by the Queen 
of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the King of Spain, while so-called sub-national 
monarchies of varying sizes can be found all over the rest of the continent e.g. the Yoruba city-state of Akure in 
south-western Nigeria is something of an elective monarchy, with its reigning Oba having to be chosen by an 
electoral college of nobles from amongst a finite collection of royal princes and princesses of the realm. 

Monarchs in Europe 

Further information: Monarchies in Europe 



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarch 



Prince was a common title within the Holy Roman Empire, along with a number of 
higher titles listed below. Such titles were granted by the Emperor, while the 
titulation of rulers of sovereign states was generally left to their own discretion, most 
often choosing King or Queen. Such titulations could cause diplomatic problems, 
and especially the elevation to Emperor or Empress was seen as an offensive action. 

During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries most small monarchies in Europe 
disappeared, merging to form larger entities, and so King is the most common title 
for male rulers and Queen has become the most common title today for female 
rulers. 

As of 2010 in Europe there are twelve monarchies: seven kingdoms, one grand 
duchy, one papacy, and two principalities, as well as the diarchy of Andorra. 

Monarchs in Asia 




Queen of United 
Kingdom (as well as 
Canada, Australia, and 
other Commonwealth 
realms) 




Japanese emperor Hirohito, Crown Prince Akihito, 
Empress Nagako, and Crown Princess Michiko, 1959 



Further information: Monarchies in Asia 

In China, before the abolition of the monarchy in 1912, the 
Emperor of China was traditionally regarded as the ruler of 
"All under heaven". "King" is the usual translation for the 
term wang I, the sovereign before the Qin dynasty and 
during the Ten Kingdoms period. During the early Han 
dynasty, China had a number of small kingdoms, each about 
the size of a county and subordinate to the Empress or 
Emperor of China. 

The Japanese monarchy is now the only monarchy to still 

use the title of Emperor. Between 1925 and 1979, Iran was 

ruled by an Emperor that used the title of "Shahanshah" (or 

"King of Kings" in Persian). Thailand and Bhutan are like 

the UK in that they are constitutional monarchies ruled by a 

King. Saudi Arabia and many other Middle Eastern 

monarchies are ruled by a Malik and parts of the United Arab Emirates, such as Dubai, are still ruled by 

monarchs. 

Oman is led by Monarch Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said. The Kingdom of Jordan is one of the Middle East's 
more modern monarchies is also ruled by a Malik. In Arab and arabized countries, Malik (absolute King) is 
absolute word to render a monarch and is superior to all other titles. Nepal abolished their monarchy in 2008. Sri 
Lanka had a complex system of monarchies from 543BC to 1815. Between 47BC-42BC Anula of Sri Lanka 
became the country's first female head of state as well as Asia's first head of state. 

In Malaysia's constitutional monarchy, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (The Supreme Lord of the Federation) is de 
facto rotated every five years among the nine Rulers of the Malay states of Malaysia (those nine of the thirteen 
states of Malaysia that have hereditary royal rulers), elected by Majlis Raja-Raja (Conference of Rulers). Under 
Brunei Darussalam's 1959 constitution, His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda, Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah 
Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah is the head of state with full executive authority, including emergency powers, since 
1962. The Prime Minister of Brunei is a title held by the Sultan of Brunei. As the prime minister, the Sultan 
presides over the cabinet. 



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Monarchs in the Americas 

Further information: Monarchies in the Americas 

The concept of monarchy existed in the Americas long before the arrival of European colonialists. ^ J When 
the Europeans arrived they referred to these tracts of land within territories of different aboriginal groups to be 
kingdoms, and the leaders of these groups were often referred to by the Europeans as Kings, particularly 
hereditary leaders. J 

Pre-colonial titles that were used included: 

■ Cacique - Aboriginal Hispaniola and Borinquen 

■ Tlatoani - Nahuas 

■ Ajaw-Maya 

■ Qhapaq Inka - Tawuantin Suyu (Inca Empire) 

■ Morubixaba - Tupi tribes 

■ Sha-quan - King of the world used in some America Indian tribes 

The first local monarch to emerge in North America after colonization was Augustin I, who declared himself 
Emperor of Mexico in 1822. Mexico again had an emperor, Maximilian I from 1863 to 1867. In South America, 
Brazil had a Portuguese royal house ruling as emperor between 1822 and 1889, under Emperors Pedro I and 
Pedro II. 

These American emperors were deposed due to complex issues, including pressure from the highly republican 
United States, which had declared it independent of the British monarch in 1776. The British, worried about U.S. 
colonial expansion, invasion following the American Civil War, and the fact that the U.S. had aided the Mexican 
republican rebels in overthrowing Maximilian I, pushed for the union of the Canadian provinces into a country in 
1867. With Confederation, Canada became a self-governing nation which was considered a kingdom in its own 
right, J though it remained subordinate to the United Kingdom; thus, Victoria was monarch of Canada, but not 
sovereign of it. It was not until the passing of the Statute of Westminster that Canada was considered to be under 
a distinct Canadian Crown, separate to that of the British, and not until 1953 that the Canadian monarch, at the 
time Elizabeth II, was titled by Canadian law as Queen of Canada. 

Between 1931 and 1983 nine other previous British colonies attained independence as kingdoms, all, including 
Canada, in a personal union relationship under a shared monarch. Therefore, though today there are legally ten 
American monarchs, one person occupies each distinct position. 



iv/r i -T-.., Female 
Male Title ^.^ 
litle 


Realm 


Latin 


Examples 


Emperor 


Empress 


Empire 


Imperator 
(Imperatrix) 


Brazil, Mexico, Sapa Inca, Japan 


King 


Queen 


Kingdom 


Rex (Regina) 


Canada, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, 
Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and 
the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, 
Belize, Saint Kitts and Nevis 



Titles and precedence 

The normal monarch title in Europe — i.e., the one used if the monarch has no higher title — is prince or 



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princess, by convention. As an absolute ruler, a monarch can choose a title. However, titles are usually defined 
by tradition and diplomatic considerations. 

Note that some of these titles have several meanings and do not necessarily designate a monarch. A Prince may 
be a person of royal blood (some languages uphold this distinction, see Ftirst). A Duke may be a British peer. In 
Imperial Russia, a Grand Duke was a son or grandson of the Tsar or Tsarina. Holders of titles in these alternative 
meanings did not enjoy the same status as the monarchs of the same title. 

Within the Holy Roman Empire, there were even more titles that were used occasionally for monarchs although 
they were normally noble; Margrave, Count Palatine, and Landgrave. A monarch with such a low title was still 
regarded as more important than a noble Duke. [citation needed] 

The table below lists titles in order of precedence. According to protocol any holder of a title of monarchy took 
precedence over all holders of a lower title. Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom was arguably the most 
powerful monarch of her time, but at banquets was seated below all the Emperors until she took the title of 
Empress of India. 



Male 
version 


Female 
version 


Realm 


Adjective 


Latin 


Examples 


Emperor 


Empress 


Empire 


Imperial 


Imperator 
(Imperatrix) 


Roman Empire, 
Byzantine Empire, 
Ottoman Empire, Holy 
Roman Empire, Russia, 
Mongol Empire, Imperial 
China, First and Second 
French Empire, Austria, 
Mexico, Brazil, German 
Empire (none left in 
Europe after 1918), 
Empress of India (ceased 
to be used after 1947 
when India was granted 
independence from the 
British Empire), Japan 
(the only remaining 
enthroned emperor in the 
world). 


King 


Queen 


Kingdom 


Royal 


Rex (Regina) 


Common in larger 
sovereign states 


Viceroy 


Vicereine 


Viceroyalty 


Viceregal 


Proconsul 


Historical: Spanish 
Empire (Peru, New Spain, 
Rio de la Plata, New 
Granada), Portuguese 
Empire, (India, Brazil), 
British Empire 


Grand Duke 


Grand Duchess 


Grand Duchy 


Grand Ducal 


Magnus Dux 


Today: Luxembourg; 
historical: Lithuania, 
Baden, Finland, Tuscany 
et al. 



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Male 
version 


Female 
version 


Realm 


Adjective 


Latin 


Examples 


Archduke 


Archduchess 


Archduchy 


Archducal 


Arci Dux 


Historical: Unique only in 
Austria, Archduchy of 
Austria; title used for 
member of the Habsburg 
dynasty 


Prince 


Princess 


Principality, 
Princely state 


Princely 


Princeps 


Today: Monaco, 
Liechtenstein; Andorra 
(Co-Princes). Historical: 
Principality of Albania, 
Serbia 


Duke 


Duchess 


Duchy, 
Dukedom 


Ducal 


Dux 


There are none left 
currently. Though 
historical examples 
include Normandy. 


Count 


Countess 


County 


Countly, 
comital 


Comes 


Most common in the Holy 
Roman Empire, translated 
in German as Graf; 
historical: Barcelona, 
Brandenburg, Baden, 
numerous others 


Baron 


Baroness 


Barony 


Baronial 


Baro 


There are normal baronies 
and sovereign baronies, a 
sovereign barony can be 
compared with a 
principality, however, this 
is an historical exception; 
sovereign barons no 
longer have a sovereign 
barony, but only the title 
and style 


Pope 


Females 
cannot hold 
the office of 
Pope 


Papacy 


Papal 


Papa 


Monarch of the Papal 
States and later Sovereign 
of the State of Vatican 
City 



The pope is the Bishop of Rome (a celibate office always forbidden to women), in English however, reports of 
female popes such as (Pope Joan) refer to them as pope and Popess is used, among other things, for the second 
trump in the Tarot deck; some European languages also have a feminine form of the word pope, such as the 
Italian papessa, the French papesse, and the German Papstin. 

Titles by region 

When a difference exists below, male titles are placed to the left and female titles are placed to the right of the 
slash. 



Region 


Title 


Description and use 



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Almami 


Fulani people of west Africa 




Asantehene 


Ashanti, title of the king of the Ashanti people in Ghana 




Chieftain 


Leader of a people 




Eze 


Igbo people of Nigeria 




Kabaka 


Baganda people of Buganda in Uganda 




Malik 


King of Morocco 


Africa 


Mwami 


In both Rwanda and Burundi during the Tutsi domination of these 
countries, now the acknowledged ruling sections of only their 
fellow Tutsis 




Oba 


Yoruba and Bini peoples of Nigeria 




Omukama 


Bunyoro, title of some kings in Uganda 




Pharaoh 


Emperor of Ancient Egypt 




Sarki 


King of the Hausa people 




Arasan/Arasi 


Tamil Nadu (India), Sri Lanka 




Chakrawarti Raja 


India Sri Lanka 




Chogyal 


"Divine Ruler"; ruled Sikkim until 1975 




Datu 


title of leaders of small kingdoms during Ancient Philippines 




Druk Gyalpo 


Hereditary title given to the king of Bhutan 




Emperor of China 






Engku or Ungku 


Malaysia, to denote particular family lineage akin to royalty 




Gat 


Honorary title of the leaders in the Philippines 




Hang 


Limbu King of East Nepal Limbuwan 




Hari 


Filipino title for king 




Huangdi 


Imperial China Emperor 


Asia 


Hwangje 


States that unified Korea 




Maha Raja 


Used in India and Sri Lanka 




Maha Raju 


Used in Andhra Pradesh (India) 




Meurah 


Title used in Aceh before Islam 




Lakan 


title used by the rulers of the Kingdom of Tondo (now part of the 
Philippines) 




Padshah 

Shahinshah 

Shah 


Emperor of Iran or Hindustan (India) 




Preah Karuna Preah Bat 
Samdech Preah 
Baromneath 


King of Cambodia Khmer, the title literally means "The feet of the 
Greatest Lord who is on the heads (of his subjects)" (This royal 
title does not refer directly to the king himself but to his feet, 

according to traditions). [citation needed] 




Patabenda 


Sub- king Sri lanka 



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Phrabat Somdej 
Phrachaoyuhua 


King of Thailand (Siam), the title literally means "The feet of the 
Greatest Lord who is on the heads (of his subjects)" (This royal 
title does not refer directly to the king himself but to his feet, 

according to traditions.) [cto/ ™ meded] 




Qaghan 


Central Asian Tribes 




Racha 


Thailand same meaning as Raja 




Raja 


Malaysia, Raja denotes royalty in Perak and certain Selangor royal 
family lineages, is roughly equivalent to Prince or Princess. 




Raja 


Nepal King 




Raja 


pre-colonial Philippines 




Rani 


Nepali Queen 




Rao or Maharao 


Used in Indian states 




Rawal or Maharawal 


Used in northern and western India, Yaduvanshis. 




Susuhunan or Sunan 


The Indonesian princely state of Surakarta. 




Saopha 


Shan, king of Shan, today as a part of Myanmar 




Sayyid 


Honorific title given throughout the Islamic regions. Title given to 
males accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. 
Syed/Sharifah in Perlis if suffixed by the royal clan name, is 
roughly equivalent to Prince or Princess. 




Shogun 


Japanese military dictator, always a Samurai 




Sultan 


Aceh, Brunei Darussalam, Java, Oman, Malaysia, Sultan is the title 
of seven (Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and 
Terengganu) of the nine rulers of the Malay states. 




Sumeramiko to , Okimi 


Japan, king 




Tengku 


Malaysia, Tengku (also spelled Tunku in Johor), Negeri Sembilan 
and Kedah is roughly equivalent to Prince or Princess 




Tenno or Mikado 


Japan 




Veyndhan, ko/Arasi 


Tamil Nadu (India) 




Wang 


Pre-Imperial China. "King" is the usual translation for the Chinese 
term wang 8. 




Wang 


The king of Korea that control over all of Korea. It is called 
'Im-Geum-nym' or 'Im-Geum' 




Yang di-Pertuan Agong 


Monarch of Malaysia who is elected every five years by the 
reigning kings of the Malaysian constituent states, all of whom also 
serve as the only electoral candidates in each of the elections 




Autocrator 


Greek term for the Byzantine Emperor 




Ban 


Medieval Romania (Wallachia, Oltenia), Medieval Bosnia 


Europe 


Basileus 


Greek King 


Brenin/Brenhines, 


Welsh for king and queen; used in Wales by the petty kinglets 
during the Early Middle Ages. During the High Middle Ages, the 
kinglets mediatised into principalities and employed the title 



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'prince/princess' (tywysog/tywysoges). Brenhines is the title used 
in Welsh for Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. 




Despot 


Medieval Romania, Serbia (originating from Byzantium) 




Domn 


Medieval Romania (Moldova, Wallachia) 




Fejedelem 


Ancient/Medieval Hungarian 




Germanic king 






Giray 


Crimean King 




Imperator 


The Ruler of Imperial Russia 




Jupan 


Romania 




Kung 


Sweden 




Kaiser 


Imperial Germany 




Knyaz 


Kievan Rus', Serbia, Bulgaria, Grand Duchy of Lithuania. 
Generally translated as "prince" or "duke". 




Kralj 


Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia 




Kunigaikshtis 
(Kunigaikstis) 


duke as in Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In official Old Belarusian 
language documentation the title has been Knyaz (Belarusian: 
Kh^3b) or grand duke, Vialiki kniaz (Belarusian: B^jiki khjbb) 




Mbret 


Albanian King 




Mepe/Dedopali 


Georgian King, Queen 




Ri 


Gaelic king. Also Ruiri (regional overking), Ri ruirech (provincial 
king of overkings), and Ard Ri (pre-eminent Ri ruirech) 




Tsar/Tsaritsa/Czar 


Bulgaria, pre-imperial Russia, Serbia 




Vezer 


Ancient Hungarian 




Voivode, Voievod 


Serbian/Hungarian/Romanian Title 


Zupan 


Serbia, Croatia 






Shah 


Persian/Iranian and Afghanistan King 




Shahenshah 


Persian/Iranian "King of Kings" or Emperor 


Middle-East 


Sheikh 


Arabic leader, King or Prince (Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE) 


Malik 


Arabic King, (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Jordan) 




Emir 


Arabic Prince, (Kuwait, Qatar, UAE) 




Sultan/Sultana 


Arabic King (Oman and Ottoman Empire) 




Chieftain 


Leader of a tribe or clan. 


Oceania 


Hou'eiki, matai, ali'i, 
tulafale, tavana, ariki, 
Patu-iki 


Usually translated as "chief" in various Polynesian countries. 


Mo'i 


Normally translated as King, a title used by Hawaiian monarchs 
since unification in 1810. The last person to hold that title was 
Queen Lili'uokalani. 




Tu'i or Tui 


Kings in Oceania: Tonga, Wallis and Futuna, Nauru 



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South 
America 



Imperador 



Emperor of Brazil. 



Current monarchs 

Main articles: List of current sovereign monarchs and List of current constituent monarchs 

Use of titles by non-sovereigns 

It is not uncommon that people who are not generally seen as monarchs nevertheless use monarchical titles. 
There are at least five cases of this: 

■ Claiming an existing title, challenging the current holder. This has been very common historically. For 
centuries, the British monarch used, among his other titles, the title King of France, despite the fact that he 
had had no authority over French territory since the fifteenth century. Such as any one of the numerous 
antipopes who have claimed the Holy See. 

■ Retaining the title of an extinct monarchy. This can be coupled with a claim that the monarchy was in fact 
never, or should never have been, extinct. An example of the first case is the Prince of Seborga. Examples 
of the second case are several deposed monarchs or otherwise pretenders to thrones of abolished 
monarchies, e.g., Leka, Crown Prince of Albania who is styled by some as the "King of The Albanians." 
Retaining the title of an extinct monarchy can, however, be totally free of claims of sovereignty, for 
example it was customary of numerous European Monarchies to include "King of Jerusalem" in their full 
titles. When it comes to deposed monarchs, it is customary to continue the usage of their monarchical title 
{e.g., Constantine II, King of the Hellenes) as a courtesy title, not a constitutional office, for the duration 
of their lifetime. However the title then dies with them and cannot be used by anyone else unless the 
crown is restored constitutionally. Monarchs who have freely abdicated lose their right to use their former 
title. However where a monarch abdicated under duress (e.g., Michael I of Romania), it is customary to 
see the abdication as invalid and to treat them as deposed monarchs entitled to use their monarchical style 
for their lifetime. 

■ Inventing a new title. This is common by founders of micronations, and also may or may not come with a 
claim of sovereignty. When it does, it is disregarded by state leaders. A notable example is Paddy Roy 
Bates, styling himself the "Prince of Sealand," but not recognized as such by any national government, 
thus failing at least the constitutive condition for statehood (see Sealand for a fuller discussion of his 
claims). Another known example is that of Norton I, who invented the title "Emperor of the United States 
of America" and later declared himself "Protector of Mexico." 

■ Usage of a monarchical title by a fictional character. This is common in fairy tales and other works geared 
to children, as well as works of fantasy. Examples include Princess Leia and Princess Summerfall 
Winterspring. 

■ Honorific nicknames in popular music and other aspects of popular culture, such as "King of Rock and 
Roll". 

See also 

■ List of monarchs by country 

■ List of living former sovereign monarchs 

■ Archontology 



References 



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http : //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Li st_of_current_so vereign_monarchs 



List of current sovereign monarchs 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy, a form of government in which a state or polity 
is ruled by an individual who normally rules for life or until abdication, and typically inherits the 
throne by birth. J Monarchs may be autocrats (as in many absolute monarchies)^ J or may be 
ceremonial figureheads who exercise only reserve power, with actual authority vested in a 
parliament or other governing bodies (as in many constitutional monarchies). J In many cases, a 
monarch will also be linked with a state religion. J Most states only have a single monarch at 
any given time, although a regent may rule when the monarch is a minor, not present, or 
otherwise incapable of ruling. J Cases in which two monarchs rule simultaneously over a single 



state, as is the current situation in Andorra, are known as coregencies 



[6] 



Monarchs are distinguished by their titles and styles, which in most cases are defined by 
tradition, and guaranteed under the state's constitution. A variety of titles are applied in English; 
for example, "king" and "queen", "prince" and "princess", "emperor" and "empress". Although 
they will be addressed differently in their local languages, the names and titles in the list below 
have been styled using the common English equivalent. Roman numerals, used to distinguish 
related rulers with the same name, J have been applied where typical. 

In political and sociocultural studies, monarchies are normally associated with hereditary rule; 
most monarchs, in both historical and contemporary contexts, have been born and raised within 
a royal family. ^ J Succession has been defined using a variety of distinct formulae, such as 
proximity of blood, primogeniture, and agnatic seniority. Some monarchies, however, are not 
hereditary, and the ruler is instead determined through an elective process; a modern example is 
the throne of Malaysia. J These systems defy the model concept of a monarchy, but are 
commonly considered as such because they retain certain associative characteristics. J Many 
systems use a combination of hereditary and elective elements, where the election or nomination 
of a successor is restricted to members of a royal bloodline. ^ J 

Entries below are listed beside their respective dominions, which are organised alphabetically. 
These monarchs reign as head of state in their respective sovereign states. Monarchs reigning 
over a constituent division, cultural or traditional polity are listed under constituent monarchs. 
For current claimants to abolished thrones, see pretenders. 




King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen 
Silvia of Sweden 




Emperor Akihito of Japan 



Contents 


■ 1 Monarchs by country 


■ 2 See also 


■ 3 Notes 


■ 4 References 


■ 5 External links 



Monarchs by country 



Key 



Legend 

Description 



Monarch 



Name of monarch, preceded by title, with link to list of predecessors. 



Since 



Date of assumption of throne; coronation date listed in footnotes. 



House 



Name of royal family, with information on bloodline. 



Type 



Form of monarchy, with link to information on role of the monarch within government. 



Succession Method or pattern of succession, with link to current line of succession. 



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Standard 

N/A 



Heraldry attributed to the relevant monarch or monarchy. 



Denotes where specific field is not applicable. 



Denotes where data is not available. 



State 


Monarch 


Since 


House 


Type 


Succession 


Standard 


Ref(s) 


| Andorra 


Joan Enric 

Vives 

Sicflia [fnl] 


12 May 2003 


N/A 


Constitutional 


Ex officio 


N/A 


[13][14] 


| Andorra 


Nicolas 
Sarkozy [fn 1] 


16 May 2007 


N/A 


Constitutional 


Ex officio 


N/A 


[13][14] 


*"~J Antigua 
and Barbuda 


Queen 
Elizabeth II [fn2] 


1 November 1 98 l [fn3] 


Windsor [fn4] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


N/A 


[15][16] 


Sfl Australia 


Queen 
Elizabeth II [fn2] 


6 February 1952 


Windsor [fn4] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


B 


[15][17] 


^2 Bahamas 


Queen 
Elizabeth II [fil2] 


10 July 1973 [fn3] 


Windsor [fn4] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


N/A 


[15][18] 


M Bahrain 


King Hamad 
ibn Isa 


6Marchl999 [fn5] 


AlKhalifah [fn6] 


Mixed 


Hereditary 


- 


[19] 


|| Barbados 


Queen 
Elizabeth II [fil2] 


30 November 1966 [fo3] 


Windsor [fn4] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


•r 


[15][21] 


| | Belgium 


King Albert II 


9 August 1993 


Saxe-Coburg 
andGotha [fn7] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


■ 


[23] 


Fl Belize 


Queen 
Elizabeth II [fn2] 


21 September 198 l [fn3] 


Windsor [fn4] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


N/A 


[15][24] 


^J Bhutan 


King Jigme 

Khesar 

Namgyel 


14 December 2006 [fil8] 


Wangchuck 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


• 


[26] 


-*. Brunei 


Sultan Hassanal 
Bolkiah 


4 October 1967 [fn9] 


Bolkiah 


Absolute 


Hereditary 




[27] 


Cambodia 


King Norodom 
Sihamoni 


14 October 2004 [fil 10] 


Norodom [fnll] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary and 
elective [fhl2] 


■ 


[29] 


|*| Canada 


Queen 
Elizabeth II [fil2] 


6 February 1952 


Windsor [fn4] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


^^*!i 


[15][32] 


B Denmark 


Queen 
Margrethe II 


14 January 1972 


Glucksburg [fn 13] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


ST 


[34] 


§[3 Grenada 


Queen 
Elizabeth II [fil2] 


7 February 1974 [fn3] 


Windsor [fn4] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


N/A 


[15][35] 


US Jamaica 


Queen 
Elizabeth II [ftl2] 


6 August 1962 [fn3] 


Windsor [fn4] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


»- 


[15][36] 


• Japan 


Emperor 
Akihito [fnl4] 


7 January 1989 [fnl5] 


[not 
named] [fnl6] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


■ 


[38] 


^Z Jordan 


King Abdullah 
II 


7 February 1999 [fnl7] 


Hashim 


Constitutional 


Hereditary [fn 18] 


HH 


[44] [45] 


^S Kuwait 


Emir Sabah 
al-Ahmad 


29 January 2006 


AlSabah [fn6] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary and 
elective [fill9] 


— 


[49] 


™ Lesotho 


King Letsie III 


7 February 1996 [fn20] 


Moshesh 


Constitutional 


Hereditary and 
elective 


= 


[50][51] 


Liechtenstein 


Prince 
Hans- Adam II 


13 November 1989 [fil21] 


Liechtenstein 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


m 


[53] 



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State 


Monarch 


Since 


House 


Type 


Succession 


Standard 


Ref(s) 


Luxembourg 


Grand Duke 
Henri 


7 October 2000 [fn22] 


Nassau- 
Weilburg [fo23] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


■ 


[55] 


bf= Malaysia 


King Abdul 
HaW fn24 ] 


13 December 20 ll [fn25] 


Kedah 


Constitutional 


Elective and 
hereditary [fn26] 


■■ 


[61] 


^* Monaco 


Prince Albert II 


6 April 2005 [fn27] 


Grimaldi 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


Jiw 


[65] 


| Morocco 


King 
Mohammed VI 


23 July 1999 [fn28] 


Alawi 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


■ 


[67] 


Netherlands 


Queen Beatrix 


30 April 1980 


Orange - 
Nassau [fh29] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


■ 


[70] 


IS New 
Zealand 


Queen 
Elizabeth II [fil2] 


6 February 1952 


Windsor [fn4] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


M 


[15][71] 


515 Norway 


King Harald V 


17 January 1991 [fn30] 


Glucksburg [& 13] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


■ 


[72] 


Ijm Oman 


Sultan Qaboos 
bin Said 


23 July 1970 


AlBuSa'id 


Absolute 


Hereditary 


H 


[73] [74] 


Q Papua 

New Guinea 


Queen 
Elizabeth II [fn2] 


16 September 1975 [fn31] 


Windsor [fn4] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


N/A 


[15][75] 


■ Qatar 


Emir Hamad 
bin Khalifa 


27 June 1995 


Al Thani 


Absolute [fn32] 


Hereditary 


N/A 


[77] 


^ Saint 
Kitts and 

Nevis 


Queen 
Elizabeth II [fn2] 


19 September 1983 [fn3] 


Windsor [fn4] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


N/A 


[15][78] 


a Saint 
Lucia 


Queen 
Elizabeth II [fn2] 


22 February 1979 [fn3] 


Windsor [fn4] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


N/A 


[15][79] 


|.| Saint 
Vincent and 
the 
Grenadines 


Queen 
Elizabeth II [fn2] 


27 October 1979 [fil3] 


Windsor [fn4] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


N/A 


[15][80] 


3 Saudi 
Arabia 


King Abdullah 
bin Abdul' aziz 


1 August 2005 [fn33] 


Al Saud 


Absolute 


Hereditary and 
elective [fo34] 


■ 


[84] 


SSi Solomon 
Islands 


Queen 
Elizabeth II [fil2] 


7 July 1978 [fn3] 


Windsor [fn4] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


N/A 


[15][85] 


" Spain 


King Juan 
Carlos I 


22 November 1975 [fil35] 


Bourbon 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


■ 


[86] 


S3 Swaziland 


King Mswati III 


25 April 1986 


Dlamini 


Absolute 


Hereditary and 
elective [fo36] 


« 


[89] 


J 5 Sweden 


King Carl XVI 
Gustaf 


15 September 1973 [fn37] 


Bernadotte 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


:n 


[91] 


^S Thailand 


King Bhumibol 
Adulyadej [fh38] 


9Junel946 [fh39] 


Chakri 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


V 


[97] 


1 Tonga 


King Tupou VI 


18 March 2012 


Tupou^ 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


a 


[99] 


SB Tuvalu 


Queen 
Elizabeth II [fn2] 


1 October 1978 [fn3] 


Windsor [fn4] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


N/A 


[15][100] 


E United 

Arab 

Emirates 


President 
Khalifa bin 
Zayed 


3 November 2004 


AlNahyan [fn41] 


Mixed^ 


Elective and 
hereditary [fil43] 


= 


[104] 


£0 United 
Kingdom 


Queen 
Elizabeth II [fn2] 


6 February 1952 [fn44] 


Windsor [fn4] 


Constitutional 


Hereditary 


■n 

[fn45] 


[15] 



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State 


Monarch 


Since 


House 


Type 


Succession 


Standard 


Ref(s) 


Vatican 
City 


Pope Benedict rftl A11 
x ^ [f n46] 19 April 2005 [fn47] 


N/A Absolute Ex officio 


* 

■ 


[108][109] 



See also 



List of current constituent monarchs 

List of current heads of state and government 

List of current pretenders 

List of longest reigning current monarchs 

List of monarchies 

List of monarchs 

List of royal houses 



Notes 



3. 



6 
7 
8 
9 

10 

11 

12. 



13. 



14. 



A a The president of France and the bishop of Urgell each hold 
the position of co-prince of Andorra, but there is no personal title 
attached to the role. 

Aabcdefghijklmnop ElimhethJliscmentlyqueenTemnt 

of sixteen separate Commonwealth realms (see separate entries), 

and has previously reigned as queen of sixteen other countries, 

which have since abolished the monarchy. 

A ab cdefghijk E H za beth II previously reigned over this 

country as Queen of the United Kingdom, from 6 February 1952 

until the nation's independence and the creation of a separate 

crown. 
Aabcdef g hijklmnop ThQUomQofmndsorisalinQonhQ 

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which itself is a branch of the 

House of Wettin. [106] 

A Hamad ibn Isa reigned as Amir of the State of Bahrain until 14 

February 2002, when he assumed the new title of King of 

Bahrain under a new Constitution. J 

A a b A clan of the Utub tribe. [20] 

A A branch of the House of Wettin. [22] 

A Coronation took place 6 November 2008. [25] 

A Coronation took place 1 August 1968. [27] 

A Coronation took place 29 October 2004. [28] 

A A branch of the Varman dynasty. The surname "Norodom" is 

used by the descendants of Norodom I. ^ ^ 

A The king is selected for life by the Royal Council of the 

Throne from amongst the male descendants of kings Ang Duong, 

Norodom, and Sisowath. ] 

A a Officially the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg- 

Glticksburg, which is a branch of the House of Oldenburg. [ ] 

A "Akihito" is the current emperor's given name, but it is not his 

regnal name, and he is never referred to as this in Japanese. The 

era of Akihito's reign bears the name "Heisei", and according to 

custom he will be renamed "Emperor Heisei" following his 

death. [37] 



15. 
16. 



17. 
18. 



A Coronation took place 12 November 1990. [38] 

A The Japanese emperor does not have a family name. ][ ] The 

use of the name " Yamato" for the household derives from the 

ancient Yamato Court. J It is used often as a name for the 

imperial dynasty, but has no official basis. 

A Formally enthroned on 9 June 1999. [42] 

A Succession is based upon primogeniture. However, the reigning 



19. 



20. 



king may also select his successor from among eligible 

T431 
princes. 1 J 

A The heir is appointed by the reigning emir, and the nomination 

must also be approved by a majority of members in the National 

Assembly. J The throne is also traditionally alternated between 

the two main branches of the Al Sabah family: the Al Salem and 

Al Jaber. -"- * The current emir is of the Al Jaber branch. 

A Coronation took place 31 October 1997. Has previously 

reigned as king from 12 November 1990 until 25 January 



1995. 



26. 



27. 



28. 
29. 

30. 



[50] 



[52] 1 



21. A Formally enthroned on 15 August 1990. LJ J Prior to his 
accession, Hans -Adam had served as prince regent since 26 
August 1984. [53] On 15 August 2004, the prince formally 
appointed his son Prince Alois as regent, in preparation for his 
succession to the throne, but remained head of state in 
accordance with the constitution. [ ] 

22. A Prior to formal enthronement, Henri had served as prince regent 
since 4 March 1998. [55] 

23. A The royal family of Luxembourg is descended from the House 
of Nassau and the Parma branch of the House of Bourbon. 

24. A Official title: Yang di-Pertuan Agong. It roughly translates as 
"Supreme Head of State", and is commonly rendered in English 
as "King". [56] 

25. A Elected in October 2011. Coronation took place 13 
December. J Abdul Halim has previously reigned as king from 
21 September 1970 to 20 September 1975; [58] he is the first 
sultan to hold the throne twice. J 

A The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected to a five-year term by 
and from amongst the nine hereditary rulers of the Malay states, 
who form the Council of Rulers. The position has to date been, 
by informal agreement, systematically rotated between the nine; 
the order was originally based on seniority. J 
A Albert II was formally enthroned as prince in a two-part 
ceremony, in accordance with tradition, on 12 July and 19 



November 2005 



[62][63] 



He had previously been serving as regent 



,[66] 



since 31 March 2005. [64] 

A Coronation took place 30 July 1999. ' 

A The Dutch royal family is descended from the Houses of 

Nassau and Lippe. [68][69] 

A Formally enthroned on 21 January 1991, and consecrated on 23 

June 1991. Prior to his accession, Harald had served as prince 

regent since 1 June 1990. ] 



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Commonwealth realm - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_realm 



Commonwealth realm 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state within 
the Commonwealth of Nations that has Elizabeth II as 
its monarch and head of state. ^ * The sixteen current 
realms have a combined land area of 18.8 million km 2 
(7.3 million mi 2 , excluding Antarctic claims), and a 
population of 135 million, ^ of which all, except about 
two million, live in the six most populous states: the 
United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Papua New 
Guinea, New Zealand and Jamaica. 




The Commonwealth realms, shown in blue. Former 
Commonwealth realms are shown in red. 



Nearly all the realms were once British colonies that 

evolved into independent states, the current exceptions 

being the United Kingdom (UK) itself and Papua New 

Guinea, which was formed in 1975 as a union of the former German New Guinea — administered by Australia as 

an international trusteeship before independence — and the former British New Guinea — legally the territory of 

Papua, administered for the UK by Australia since 1905. The first realms to emerge were colonies that had already 

previously attained the status of a self-governing Dominion within the British Empire. 

For a time, the older term of Dominion was retained to refer to these non-British realms, even though their actual 
status had changed with the granting of full legislative independence. The word is still sometimes used today, 
though increasingly rarely, as the word realm was formally introduced with Britain's proclamation of Elizabeth II as 
queen in 1952 and acquired legal status with the adoption of the modern royal styles and titles by the individual 
countries. * The qualified term Commonwealth realm is not official, and has not been used in law; rather, it is a 
term of convenience for distinguishing this group of realms from other countries in the Commonwealth that do not 
share the same monarch. 



Contents 


■ 1 Current Commonwealth realms 


■ 2 Relationship of the realms 


■ 3 The Crown in the Commonwealth realms 


■ 3.1 Monarch's role in the realms 


■ 3.2 Religious role of the monarch 


■ 3.3 Royal family 


■ 4 Flags 


■ 5 Historical development 


■ 5.1 Dominions emerge 


■ 5.2 Between the wars 


■ 5.3 Post-war evolution 


■ 6 Former Commonwealth realms 


■ 6.1 Republican referendums 


■ 7 See also 


■ 8 Notes 


■ 9 References 


■ 10 Bibliography 



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Commonwealth realm - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_realm 



Current Commonwealth realms 



Country [ * 1] 


PopJ* 2 ] 


Monarchy 


Date™ 


Queen's Title 


Sovereign's 

Royal 
Standard 


E_| Antigua and 
Barbuda 


0.08 


Monarchy of Antigua 
and Barbuda 


1981 


Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace 
of God, Queen of Antigua and 
Barbuda and of Her other Realms 
and Territories, Head of the 
Commonwealth. 


None 


___| Australia 


22.75 


Monarchy of 
Australia 


1942 r* 4 ] 


Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace 
of God, Queen of Australia and Her 
other Realms and Territories, Head 
of the Commonwealth. 




__I The Bahamas 


0.35 


Monarchy of the 
Bahamas 


1973 


Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace 
of God, Queen of the 
Commonwealth of the Bahamas 
and of Her other Realms and 
Territories, Head of the 
Commonwealth. 


None 


|| Barbados 


0.28 


Monarchy of 
Barbados 


1966 


Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace 
of God, Queen of Barbados and of 
Her other Realms and Territories, 
Head of the Commonwealth 


•*• 


] Belize 


0.33 


Monarchy of Belize 


1981 


Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace 
of God, Queen of Belize and of Her 
Other Realms and Territories, Head 
of the Commonwealth 


None 


«□ IS 1*1 
Canada [ * 5] 


34.63 


Monarchy of Canada 


1931 


English: Elizabeth the Second, by 
the Grace of God of the United 
Kingdom, Canada and Her other 
Realms and Territories Queen, 
Head of the Commonwealth, 
Defender of the Faith 
French: Elizabeth Deux, par la 
grace de Dieu Reine du 
Royaume-Uni, du Canada et de ses 
autres royaumes et territoires, 
Chef du Commonwealth, Defenseur 

de la For J 


^tf* 


g3 Grenada 


0.11 


Monarchy of 
Grenada 


1974 


Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace 
of God, Queen of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland and of Grenada 
and Her other Realms and 
Territories, Head of the 
Commonwealth 


None 



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_SI Jamaica 


2.85 


Monarchy of Jamaica 


1962 


Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace 
of God, Queen of Jamaica and of 
Her other Realms and Territories, 
Head of the Commonwealth 


UftftS 

LJ 


___ Realm of 
New Zealand 


4.39 


Monarchy of New 
Zealand 


1947 


Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace 
of God, Queen of New Zealand and 
Her Other Realms and Territories, 
Head of the Commonwealth, 
Defender of the Faith 


H*S 


J Papua New 
Guinea 


6.19 


Monarchy of Papua 
New Guinea 


1975 


Elizabeth the Second, Queen of 
Papua New Guinea and Her other 
Realms and Territories, Head of the 

Commonwealth^ ^ 


None 


[gg Saint Kitts 

and Nevis 


0.05 


Monarchy of Saint 
Kitts and Nevis 


1983 


Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace 
of God, Queen of Saint Christopher 
and Nevis and of Her other Realms 
and Territories, Head of the 
Commonwealth 


None 


a Saint Lucia 


0.17 


Monarchy of Saint 
Lucia 


1979 


Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace 
of God, Queen of Saint Lucia and 
of Her other Realms and Territories, 
Head of the Commonwealth 


None 


| Saint Vincent 
and the 
Grenadines 


0.12 


Monarchy of Saint 
Vincent and the 
Grenadines 


1979 


Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace 
of God, Queen of Saint Vincent and 
the Grenadines and of Her other 
Realms and Territories, Head of the 
Commonwealth 


None 


_5_ Solomon 
Islands 


0.52 


Monarchy of the 
Solomon Islands 


1978 


Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace 
of God, Queen of the Solomon 
Islands and of Her other Realms 
and Territories, Head of the 
Commonwealth 


None 


* Tuvalu 


0.01 


Monarchy of Tuvalu 


1978 


Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace 
of God, Queen of Tuvalu and of 
Her other Realms and Territories, 
Head of the Commonwealth 


None 


H3 United 
Kingdom 


62.26 


Monarchy of the 
United Kingdom 


n/a™ 


English: Elizabeth the Second, by 
the Grace of God, of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland and of Her other 
Realms and Territories Queen, 
Head of the Commonwealth, 
Defender of the Faith 
Latin: Elizabeth Secunda Dei 
Gratia Britanniarum Regnorumque 
Suorum Ceterorum Regina 
Consortionis Populorum Princeps 

Fidei Defensor^ J 




WM 


iittE! 



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_realm 



1 • A The flags shown are those in use since the country became a Commonwealth realm. 

*" A In millions. Source: Member state profiles at the Commonwealth of Nations secretariat 

* • A Dates indicate the year of enactment of the Statute of Westminster (Canada), adoption by realm (Australia and New Zealand), or grant of independence 
(all others except the UK); the monarch became head of state of the particular realm on this date as a result of one of these events. The monarch had 
previously been head of state over the same territory by virtue of being monarch of the United Kingdom, or, in the case of Papua New Guinea, monarch 

of Australia. 

4. A Adoption of Statute of Westminster was declared retroactive to 1939. 

5. A The de facto national flag from 193 1 to 1965 was the Canadian Red Ensign, whose design was changed in 1957. The current Canadian flag was adopted 
in 1965. See List of Canadian flags#National flags. 

6. A A date is not applicable to the United Kingdom as it was the original realm from which other realms became independent. 



Relationship of the realms 

The Commonwealth realms are sovereign states, united only in the voluntary and symmetric sharing of the 
institution of the monarchy, ^ the succession, and the Queen herself; the person of the sovereign and the Crown 

were said in 1936 to be "the most important and vital link" between the realms. J This grouping of countries 
associated in this manner has been called "an achievement without parallel in the history of international relations 
or constitutional law." L J Terms such as personal union, ^ ^ ^ ^ J a/brm of personal union, ^ J and 
shared monarchy, amongst others, JL J have all been advanced as definitions since the beginning of the 
Commonwealth itself, though there has been no agreement on which term is most accurate, ^ ^ or even whether 
personal union is applicable at all.'-* ■"■ ^ The United Kingdom no longer holds any legislative power over any 
country besides itself, although some countries continue to use, by their own volition, the Judicial Committee of the 
British Privy Council as part of their own judiciary; usually as the highest court of appeal. 

Conflicts of interest have arisen from this relationship amongst independent states, ranging from minor diplomatic 
matters — such as the monarch expressing on the advice of one of her cabinets views that counter those of another 
of her cabinets^ * — to more serious conflicts regarding matters of armed conflict, wherein the monarch may be 
simultaneously at war and at peace with himself as head of two hostile nations. J In such cases, viceroys have 
tended to avoid placing the sovereign directly in the centre of the conflict, meaning that a governor-general may 
have to take controversial actions entirely on his or her own initiative through the exercise of the reserve 

powers. * 



The Crown in the Commonwealth realms 

The evolution of the Commonwealth realms has led to the scenario wherein 
the Crown has both a separate and a shared character; it is a singular 
institution with one sovereign, but also simultaneously operates separately 
within each country, with the Queen being equally a part of each state and 
acting in right of a particular realm as a distinct legal person guided only by 
the advice of the cabinet of that jurisdiction. [24][25][26][27][28][29][30] This 
means that in different contexts the term Crown may refer to the extra- 
national institution shared amongst all 16 countries, or to the Crown in each 
realm considered separately. J However, though the monarchy is 
therefore no longer an exclusively British institution, ^ ^ having become 

"domesticated" in each of the realms, J it may in the media and legal 

fields often still be elaborated as the British Crown for reasons historical, of 

convenience, or political, regardless of the different, specific, and official national titles and terms used when 

addressing the Queen of the citizenry in each jurisdiction; for example, in Barbados the Queen is titled as Elizabeth 




Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, 
Duke of Edinburgh, pose at Windsor 
Castle with the Queen's fifteen 

rt 71 

governors-general in April 2002 LI J 



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//, Queen of Barbados, or simply the Queen of Barbados, with her full title making mention of her position as 
queen of the other Commonwealth realms. To guarantee the continuity of this arrangement, the preamble of the 
1931 Statute of Westminster stipulates that any alteration to the line of succession in any one country must be 
voluntarily approved by the parliaments of all the realms, J LT JL J or? alternatively, a realm may choose to end its 
participation in the shared monarchy. 

From a cultural standpoint, the shared nature of the Crown is less clear. In all realms, the sovereign's name and 
image and other royal symbols unique to each nation are visible in the emblems and insignia of governmental 
institutions and militia, leading to the argument that the Crown as a shared link between the Commonwealth 
realms, with the Crown in right of each country having unique domestic characteristics. The Queen's effigy, for 
example, appears on coins and banknotes in some countries, and an oath of allegiance to the Queen is usually 
required from politicians, judges, military members and new citizens. It is also asserted, however, that the Crown 
throughout the realms remains essentially British and primarily of the United Kingdom, despite the legal and 
cultural evolution of the Commonwealth since the 1930s. Indeed, by 1959 it was being asserted by Buckingham 
Palace officials that the Queen was "equally at home in all her realms. " L J 

Monarch's role in the realms 

The monarch is, in theory, the supreme governor of each of the Commonwealth realms, charged with issuing 
executive orders, commanding the military forces, and creating and administering laws. However, each country 
now operates under the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy and the concept of responsible 
government, meaning that the monarch only exercises her powers on the advice of her Crown ministers, who are 
usually drawn from, and thus responsible to, the elected lower house of the relevant parliament. 

While this remains the case for all the Commonwealth realms, their sovereign resides predominantly in her oldest 
realm, the United Kingdom, and thus carries out her duties there mostly in person. In the other realms, the Queen 
normally exercises only those powers related to the appointment of her viceroys (a governor-general in all cases, 
and a governor in each of the Australian states), usually on the advice of the prime minister of the country or state 
concerned, though this process may have additional requirements. * In certain other cases, the extent to which 
varies from realm to realm, specific additional powers are reserved exclusively for the monarch — such as the 
appointment of extra senators to the Canadian Senate, the creation of honours, or the issuance of letters patent — 
and on occasions of national importance, the Queen may be advised to perform in person her constitutional duties, 
such as granting Royal Assent or issuing a royal proclamation. Otherwise, all royal powers, including the Royal 
Prerogative, are carried out on behalf of the sovereign by the relevant viceroy, which, apart from those already 
mentioned, include a lieutenant governor in each province of Canada (appointed by the Governor General of 

Canada) and the Queen's Representative in the Cook Islands, who is appointed by the Queen herself. J In the 
United Kingdom, the Queen appoints Counsellors of State to perform her constitutional duties in her absence. 

Similarly, the monarch or other members of the Royal Family will perform ceremonial duties in the Commonwealth 
realms to mark historically significant events. * They do so most frequently in the United Kingdom, and in the 
other countries during tours at least once every five or six years, meaning the Queen is present in a number of her 
dominions outside the UK, or acting on behalf of those realms abroad, approximately every other year. 

Citizens in Commonwealth realms or British overseas territories may request birthday or wedding anniversary 
messages to be sent from the sovereign. This is available for 100th, 110th, and beyond for birthdays; and 60th 
("Diamond"), 65th, 70th ("Platinum"), and beyond for wedding anniversaries. J 

Religious role of the monarch 

The sovereign's religious role differs from country to country. In all realms except Papua New Guinea the Queen is 



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sovereign "By the Grace of God", a phrase that forms a part of her official title within those states. In Canada, the 
United Kingdom, and New Zealand, "Defender of the Faith" (in Latin: fidei defensor) — the ancient phrase first 
granted in 1521 by Pope Leo X to King Henry VIII — is also included as a part of the royal title and the sovereign 
is anointed as such in the only coronation that takes place in any of the realms, J a ceremony in the context of a 
church service imbued with theological and constitutional symbolism and meaning, held at Westminster Abbey in 
London, United Kingdom. 

However, it is solely in the United Kingdom that the Queen actually plays a role in organised religion. In England, 
she acts as the Supreme Governor of the Church of England and appoints its bishops and archbishops who 
thereafter act as her Lords Spiritual. In Scotland, she swears an oath to uphold and protect the Church of Scotland 
and sends to meetings of the church's General Assembly a Lord High Commissioner as her representative, when 
she is not personally in attendance. J Unusually for the Church of Scotland, Glasgow and Dunblane Cathedrals 
are both owned by the British Crown, ^ Cltatwn needed \ though they are not like the Chapels Royal, which exist in 
both the United Kingdom and Canada and form a part of the Ecclesiastical Household in those two countries. In 
England and Scotland, these chapels are Royal Peculiars, and fall directly within the jurisdiction of the British 
monarch, as opposed to a diocese, as is the r\DYm. ltatwn nee e * To them, the Queen may also appoint her own 
chaplains from either the Church of England or of Scotland. 

Royal family 

As with the sovereign, a single royal family is shared by the Commonwealth realms, similarly being most frequently 
referred to in a casual fashion as the British Royal Family, sometimes causing conflict with official national titles, 
such as in Canada. Though there is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the Royal 
Family, the group is loosely defined as the extended family of the monarch. These persons constitute the apex of a 
modern royal court, regularly performing public duties at hundreds of events throughout the 16 realms each year. 
For this work, the Royal Family members receive no salary from any state; instead, only the expenses incurred for 
each event (security, transportation, venue, etc.) are, due to the nature of the Crown in the realms, funded by the 
relevant state individually through the ordinary legislative budgeting process. These engagements are organised in 
order for the Crown to honour, encourage, and learn about the achievements or endeavours of individuals, 
institutions, and enterprises in a variety of areas of the lives of the Queen's subjects. As representatives of the 
monarch, Royal Family members often also join the nation in commemorating historical events, holidays, and 
celebratory and tragic occurrences, as well as sponsoring or participating in numerous charitable, cultural, and 
social activities. Their work, which is all formally recorded in the Court Circular, draws public attention to amicable 
relations within and between the nations of the Commonwealth and beyond; the members of the Royal Family 
draw enormous media coverage in the form of photographic, written, and televised commentary on not only their 
activities and public roles, but also family relationships, rites of passage, personalities, attire, and behaviour. 

Flags 

The Queen employs various royal standards to mark her presence, the particular one used depending on which 
realm she is in or acting on behalf of at the time. There are currently unique flags for Australia, Barbados, Canada, 
Jamaica, New Zealand, and two variations for the United Kingdom — one for Scotland and another for the rest of 
the country. All are heraldic banners displaying the shield of the sovereign's coat of arms for that state, and each, 
save for those of the UK, are defaced in the centre with the Queen's Personal Flag, a crowned E for Elizabeth 
surrounded by a garland of roses representing the countries of the Commonwealth. This latter flag on its own is 
used for realms that do not have a unique personal standard for the monarch, as well as for general use in 
representing the Queen as Head of the Commonwealth. The monarch previously held royal standards for Sierra 
Leone, Mauritius, Malta, and Trinidad and Tobago, but these banners became obsolete when the countries became 
republics. 



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Other members of the Royal Family have their own personal standards. In 
the United Kingdom, most have their own distinctive banner or banners. 
The Prince of Wales and the Duke of Cambridge also have one each for 
Canada. Those who do not possess a standard for an individual realm will 
use their British standard to identify themselves when touring other 
Commonwealth realms and foreign countries. 

The governors-general throughout the Commonwealth realms also each use 
a personal flag, which, like that of the sovereign, passes to each successive 
occupant of the office. Most feature a lion passant atop a St. Edward's royal 
crown with the name of the country across a scroll underneath, all on a blue 
background. The two exceptions are those of, since 1981, Canada (bearing 
on a blue background the crest of the Royal Coat of Arms of Canada) and, 
since 2008, New Zealand (a St. Edward's Crown above the shield of the 
Coat of Arms of New Zealand). The lieutenant governors of the Canadian 
provinces each have their own personal standards, as do the governors of 
the Australian states. 




The Personal Flag of Queen Elizabeth 
II, used in a general capacity within the 
Commonwealth 



Historical development 



Dominions emerge 

The possibility that a colony within the British Empire might become a new kingdom was first mooted in the 1860s, 
when it was proposed that the British North American territories of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the Province 

of Canada unite as a confederation that might be known as the Kingdom of Canada} ^ JL J In light of 
geo-political circumstances at the time, however, the name was abandoned in favour of the Dominion of 

Canada. J As more British colonies followed Canada in gaining legislative independence from the United 
Kingdom, Prime Minister of Canada Wilfrid Laurier was led to insist at the 1907 Imperial Conference that a 
formula be created to differentiate between the Crown and the self-governing colonies. For the latter the Canadian 
precedent was followed, and the term Dominion was extended to apply to Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland, 
and the colonies of the Cape, Natal, and Transvaal, before and after they merged in 1910 with the Orange River 
Colony to form the Union of South Africa. These countries were joined in 1921 by the Irish Free State. 

Although the Dominions were capable of governing themselves internally, 
they technically remained — especially in regards to foreign policy and 
defence — subject to British authority, wherein the governor-general of 
each Dominion represented the British monarch-in-Council reigning over 
these territories as a single imperial domain. It was commonly held in some 
circles that the Crown was a monolithic element throughout all the 
monarch's territories; A.H. Lefroy wrote in 1918 that "the Crown is to be 
considered as one and indivisible throughout the Empire; and cannot be 
severed into as many kingships as there are Dominions, and self-governing 

colonies. " L J This unitary model began to erode, however, when the 
Dominions gained more international prominence as a result of their 
participation and sacrifice in the First World War, in 1919 prompting 
Canadian prime minister Robert Borden and South African minister of 
defence Jan Smuts to demand that the Dominions be given at the Versailles 
Conference full recognition as "autonomous nations of an Imperial 
Commonwealth." The immediate result was that, though the King signed as 
High Contracting Party for the empire as a whole, J the Dominions were 




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A compiled portrait of the main 
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of Versailles, including some of the 
Dominion delegates. L ' J 




King George V with his prime 
ministers at the Imperial Conference of 
1926 



[f 13] 



also separate signatories to the Treaty of Versailles, as well as, together with 
India, founding members of the League of Nations. 

The pace of independence thereafter increased, with Canada exchanging 
envoys with the United States the following year and in 1923 concluding in 
its own right the Halibut Fisheries Treaty, ^ Prime Minister of the United 
Kingdom David Lloyd George stating in 1921 that the "British Dominions 
have now been accepted fully into the community of nations, "^ * and, by 
1925, the Dominions felt confident enough to refuse to be bound by 
Britain's adherence to the Treaty of Locarno. This, combined with a 
realisation that the Crown was already operating distinctly and separately 
within each of the jurisdictions of the Canadian provinces and Australian 
states, ^ ^ J appeared to put to rest previous assertions that the 
Crown could never be divided amongst the Dominions. 

Between the wars 



Another catalyst for change came in 1926, when then Governor General of Canada the Lord Byng of Vimy refused 
the advice of his prime minister (William Lyon Mackenzie King) in what came to be known colloquially as the 
King-Byng Affair. ^ Mackenzie King, after resigning and then being reappointed as prime minister some months 
later, pushed at the Imperial Conference of 1926 for a reorganisation of the way the Dominions related to the 
British government, resulting in the Balfour Declaration, which declared formally that the Dominions were fully 
autonomous and equal in status to the United Kingdom. ^ What this meant in practice was not at the time worked 
out; conflicting views existed, some in the United Kingdom not wishing to see a fracturing of the sacred unity of the 
Crown throughout the empire, and some in the Dominions not wishing to see their jurisdiction have to take on the 
full brunt of diplomatic and military responsibilities. * 

What did follow was that the Dominion governments gained a separate and direct relationship with the monarch, 
without the British Cabinet acting as an intermediary, and the governors-general now acted solely as a personal 
representative of the sovereign in right of that Dominion. J Though no formal mechanism for tendering advice 
to the monarch had yet been established — former Prime Minister of Australia William Morris Hughes theorised 
that the Dominion cabinets would provide informal direction and the British Cabinet would offer formal 



advice 



[52] 



the concepts were first put into legal practice with the passage in 1927 of the Royal and 



Parliamentary Titles Act, which implicitly recognised the Irish Free State as separate from the UK, and the King as 
king o/each Dominion uniquely, rather than as the British king in each Dominion. At the same time, terminology in 
foreign relations was altered to demonstrate the independent status of the Dominions, such as the dropping of the 
term "Britannic" from the King's style outside of the United Kingdom. * Then, in 1930 George V's Australian 
ministers employed a practice adopted by resolution at that year's Imperial Conference,^ ^ directly advising the 
King to appoint Sir Isaac Isaacs as his Australian governor-general, against the preferences of the British 
government and the King himself. 

These new developments were explicitly codified in 1931 with the passage of the Statute of Westminster, through 
which Canada, the Union of South Africa, and the Irish Free State all immediately obtained formal legislative 
independence from the UK, while in the other Dominions' adoption of the statute was subject to ratification by the 
Dominion's parliament. Australia and New Zealand did so in 1942 and 1947, respectively, with the former's 
ratification back-dated to 1939, and, though originally covered by it, Newfoundland never ratified the bill and 
reverted to direct British rule in 1934. What resulted was the inability for the parliament at Westminster to legislate 
for any Dominion unless requested to do so. Further, the Judicial Committee of the British Privy Council was left 
available as the last court of appeal for some Dominions. * This was all met with only minor trepidation either 



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before or at the time, J and the government of Ireland was confident that the relationship of these independent 
countries under the Crown would function as a personal unioiv ^ akin to that which had earlier existed between 
the United Kingdom and Hanover (1801 to 1837), or between England and Scotland (1603 to 1707). The civil 
division of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales later found in 1982 that the British parliament could have 
legislated for a Dominion simply by including in any new law a clause claiming the Dominion cabinet had requested 
and approved of the act, whether that was true or not. J Further, the British parliament was not obliged to fulfill a 
Dominion's request for legislative change. However, the words in the Statute of Westminster became written 
expression of a conventional rule that developed whereby British law would not extend beyond the borders of the 
United Kingdom unless a Dominion supplicated otherwise. J By 1937, the Appeal Division of the Supreme Court 
of South Africa ruled unanimously that a repeal of the Statute of Westminster in the United Kingdom would have 
no effect in South Africa, stating: "We cannot take this argument seriously. Freedom once conferred cannot be 
revoked. " L J Others in Canada upheld the same position. J 

The first prominent example of this arrangement working in practice came with the abdication of King Edward VIII 
in 1936, J for which it was necessary to gain the approval of all the Dominions of the Commonwealth before the 
resignation could take placed ^ Canada, the Union of South Africa, and the Irish Free State even passed unique 

legislation to solidify the changes in succession within their jurisdictions. J Following the accession of Edward's 
brother, George VI, to the throne, the United Kingdom created legislation that would provide for a regency in the 
event of the incapacitation of the monarch. Though input was sought from the Dominions on this matter, all 
declined to make themselves bound by the British legislation, feeling instead that the governors-general could carry 
out royal functions in place of a debilitated sovereign. ^ 



During his tenure as Governor General of Canada, Lord Tweedsmuir urged 
the organisation of a royal tour of the country by King George VI, so that he 
might not only appear in person before his people, but also personally 
perform constitutional duties and pay a state visit to the United States as 
king of Canada.^ ^ While the idea was embraced in Canada as a way to 
"translate the Statute of Westminster into the actualities of a tour," 
throughout the planning of the trip that took place in 1939, the British 
authorities resisted at numerous points the idea that the King be attended by 
his Canadian ministers instead of his British ones. * The Canadian prime 
minister (still Mackenzie King) was ultimately successful, however, in being 
the minister in attendance, and the King did in public throughout the trip 
ultimately act solely in his capacity as the Canadian monarch. Yet, the 
international status of the Crown was also illustrated by George VI 
simultaneously bolstering from both Canada and the United States support 
for the UK in the looming war with Nazi Germany. * 



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The prime ministers of five 
Commonwealth countries at the 1 944 
Commonwealth Prime Ministers' 
Conference; from left to right: William 
Lyon Mackenzie King (Canada), Jan 
Smuts (South Africa), Winston 
Churchill (United Kingdom), Peter 
Fraser (New Zealand), and John Curtin 
(Australia) 



When this threat became reality, there was some uncertainty in the 

Dominions about the ramifications of Britain's declaration of war against 

Adolf Hitler. Australia and New Zealand had not yet ratified the Statute of 

Westminster; the Australian prime minister, Robert Menzies, considered the 

government bound by the British declaration of war, ^ J while New Zealand coordinated a declaration of war to 

be made simultaneously with Britain's. J As late as 1937, some scholars were still of the mind that, when it came 

to declarations of war, if the King signed, he did so as king of the empire as a whole; at that time, W. Kennedy 

wrote: "in the final test of sovereignty — that of war — Canada is not a sovereign state... and it remains as true in 

1937 as it was in 1914 that when the Crown is at war, Canada is legally at war," L J and, one year later, A. 

Berriedale Keith argued that "issues of war or neutrality still are decided on the final authority of the British 

Cabinet."^ ^ In 1939, however, Canada and South Africa made separate proclamations of war against Germany a 



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few days after the UK's. Their example was followed more consistently by the other realms as further war was 

declared against Italy, Rumania, Hungary, Finland, and Japan. J At the war's end, it was said by F.R. Scott that "it 
is firmly established as a basic constitutional principle that, so far as relates to Canada, the King is regulated by 

Canadian law and must act only on the advice and responsibility of Canadian ministers." L J 
Post-war evolution 

Once the Second World War was over, India and Ceylon became independent Dominions of the Commonwealth, 
though it was made clear at the time that India would soon move to a republican form of government. Unlike 
Ireland and Burma at the time of their becoming republics, however, there was no desire on the part of India to give 
up its membership in the British Commonwealth, prompting a Commonwealth Conference and the issuance of the 
London Declaration in 1949, which entrenched the idea of Canadian prime minister Louis St. Laurent that different 
royal houses and republics be allowed in the Commonwealth so long as they recognised as the international 

organisation's symbolic head the shared sovereign of the UK and the Dominions. J At approximately the same 
time, the tabling in 1946 of the Canadian parliament's Canadian Citizenship Act brought into question the 
homogeneity of the King's subjects, which, prior to that year, was uniformly defined in terms of allegiance to the 
sovereign, without regard to the individual's country of residence. Following negotiations, it was decided in 1947 
that each Commonwealth member was free to pass its own citizenship legislation, so that its citizens owed 
allegiance only to the monarch in right of that country. 

As these constitutional developments were taking place, the Dominion and 
British governments became increasingly concerned with how to represent 
the more commonly accepted notion that there was no distinction between 
the sovereign's role in the UK and his or her position in any of the 
Dominions. Thus, at the 1948 Prime Ministers' Conference the term 
Dominion was avoided in favour of Commonwealth country, in order to 
avoid the subordination implied by the older designation. Then, with the 
British proclamation of Elizabeth II's accession to the throne in 1952, the 
phrases Commonwealth realm and Head of the Commonwealth became 
established, deriving from the words that declared the monarch as "of this 
Realm, and of her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the 
Commonwealth." The Commonwealth realms' prime ministers thereafter 
discussed the matter of the new monarch's title, with St. Laurent stating at 
the 1953 Commonwealth Conference that it was important to agree on a 
format that would "emphasise the fact that the Queen is Queen of Canada, regardless of her sovereignty over other 
Commonwealth countries."^ ^ The result was a new Royal Style and Titles Act being passed in each of the seven 
realms then existing (excluding Pakistan), which all identically gave formal recognition to the separateness and 
equality of the countries involved, and replaced the phrase "British Dominions Beyond the Seas" with "Her Other 
Realms and Territories", the latter using the medieval French word realm (from royaume) in place of dominion. 
Further, at her coronation, Elizabeth II's oath contained a provision requiring her to promise to govern according to 
the rules and customs of the realms, naming each one separately. The change in perspective was summed up by 
Patrick Gordon Walker's statement in the British House of Commons: "We in this country have to abandon... any 
sense of property in the Crown. The Queen, now, clearly, explicitly and according to title, belongs equally to all her 
realms and to the Commonwealth as a whole." ^ ^ 

In the same period, Walker also suggested to the British parliament that the Queen should annually spend an equal 
amount of time in each of her realms. The Lord Altrincham, who in 1957 criticised Queen Elizabeth II for having a 

court that encompassed mostly Britain and not the Commonwealth as a whole, * was in favour of the idea, but it 
did not attract wide support. J Another thought raised was that viceregal appointments should become trans- 
Commonwealth; the Governor-General of Australia would be someone from South Africa, the Governor-General 



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Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of 
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Duke of Edinburgh, on a tour of 


Canada, 3 November 1951 



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of Ceylon would come from New Zealand, and so on. The prime ministers 
of Canada and Australia, John Diefenbaker and Robert Menzies, 

respectively, were sympathetic to the concept, but, again, it was never put 

T721 
into practice. J 

The principle of fully separate and equal realms was followed in all future 

grants of independence, including those that came through the winds of 

change that swept through Africa in the 1960s, the collapse of the 

Federation of the West Indies in 1961, and at later dates. In post-colonial 

Africa, within a few years of their founding the realms drafted new 

constitutions in order to become republics within the Commonwealth; South 

Africa was the only exception, having been a Dominion and then a realm 

for 54 years before becoming a republic in 1961. The white minority 

government of Rhodesia in 1965 issued its unilateral declaration of 

independence, and its members affirmed their loyalty to Elizabeth II as 

Queen of Rhodesia, a title to which she had not consented, did not accept, 

and was not recognised internationally. Her representative in the colony, Sir Humphrey Gibbs, immediately 

dismissed his prime minister, Ian Smith, but this action was ignored by Smith and he appointed, without the Queen's 

consent, an Officer Administrating the Government to perform the governor's constitutional duties until 1970, when 

Smith's government declared Rhodesia a republic. The country to most recently become a Commonwealth realm 

was Saint Kitts and Nevis, achieving the status in 1983. At the same time, in other Commonwealth realms, 

including the United Kingdom, movements emerged advocating a republican government in place of constitutional 

monarchy; they were, and continue to be, countered by monarchist leagues that support the existing system and/or 

celebrate the historical and modern connections the shared monarchy provides. Unsuccessful referenda on 

proposed models of republics have taken place in Australia, Papua New Guinea, and Saint Vincent and the 

Grenadines. 



Princess Alexandra represents her 
cousin, Queen Elizabeth n, at the 
opening of the newly created realm of 
Nigeria's federal parliament, 3 October 
1960 



On 6 July 2010, Queen Elizabeth II addressed the United Nations in New York City as queen of all 16 
Commonwealth realms. J The following year, the Prime Minister of Jamaica spoke of a desire to make that 
country a republic, ^ J while the First Minister of Scotland and leader of the Scottish National Party (which 
favours Scottish independence) stated an independent Scotland would be a Commonwealth realm. L J 

Former Commonwealth realms 



Country^ 1] 


Dates as 
realm 


Original republican system 


Method of transition 


Royal 
Standard 


ra 1 □ Ceylon^ 2] 


1948- 
1972 


Parliamentary republic 


New constitution 




^t Fiji 


1970- 
1987 


Parliamentary republic 


Military coup 




= Gambia 


1965- 
1970 


Presidential republic 


Referendum 




^J Ghana 


1957- 
1960 


Presidential republic 


Referendum 




g3 Guyana 


1966- 
1970 


Parliamentary republic 


Constitutional amendment 





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^£ India 


1947- 
1950 


Parliamentary republic 


New constitution 




I | Ireland 


1931 - 

1949 W 3] 


Parliamentary republic 


Act of parliament 




""■ Kenya 


1963- 

1964 


Presidential republic 


New constitution 




■"■ Malawi 


1964- 
1966 


Single -party republic 


New constitution 




+ | Malta 


1964- 
1974 


Parliamentary republic 


Constitutional amendment 


1 


^ m Mauritius 


1968- 
1992 


Parliamentary republic 


Constitutional amendment 


m 


I | Nigeria 


1960- 
1963 


Parliamentary republic 


Constitutional amendment 




Q Pakistan 


1947- 
1956 


Parliamentary republic 


New constitution 




^^ Sierra Leone 


1961 - 

1971 


Presidential republic 


New constitution 


■ 


^J South Africa 


1931 - 

1961 


Parliamentary republic 


Referendum and new 
constitution 




B Tanganyika^ ^ 


1961 - 

1962 


Presidential republic 


New constitution 




|g| Trinidad and 
Tobago 


1962- 
1976 


Parliamentary republic 


New constitution 


^ 


SS Uganda 


1962- 
1963 


Parliamentary republic 


Constitutional amendment 




A • A The flags shown are those in use at the time the country was a Commonwealth realm. 

2. A Now called Sri Lanka. The Ceylonese flag changed in 1 95 1 . 

3. A See also: Irish head of state from 1936-1949. 

4. A Now a part of Tanzania. 



Republican referendums 

Various Commonwealth realms have held referendums to consider whether they should become republics. These 
include: 

■ Ghanaian constitutional referendum, 1960 (passed) 

■ South African republic referendum, 1960 (passed) 

■ Gambian republic referendum, 1965 (failed) 

■ Gambian republic referendum, 1970 (passed) 

■ Australian republic referendum, 1999 (failed) 

■ Tuvaluan constitutional referendum, 2008 (failed) 

■ Saint Vincent and the Grenadines constitutional referendum, 2009 (failed) 



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Elizabeth II 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 
1926' note ^ is the constitutional monarch of 16 sovereign 
states known as the Commonwealth realms, and head of the 
54-member Commonwealth of Nations. In her specific role as 
the monarch of the United Kingdom, one of her 16 realms, she 
is also Supreme Governor of the Church of England. 

Elizabeth was born in London, and educated privately at 
home. Her father acceded to the throne as George VI in 1936 
on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII. She began to 
undertake public duties during the Second World War, in 
which she served in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. On the 
death of her father in 1952, she became Head of the 
Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent 
Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, 
Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon. 
Her coronation service in 1953 was the first to be televised. 
Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as 
territories gained independence and some realms became 
republics. Today, in addition to the first four aforementioned 
countries, Elizabeth is Queen of Jamaica, Barbados, the 
Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, 
Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize, 
Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis. 

In 1947 she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, with 
whom she has four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew, and 
Edward. In 1992, which Elizabeth termed her annus horribilis 
("horrible year"), Charles and Andrew separated from their 
wives, Anne divorced, and a severe fire damaged part of 
Windsor Castle. Revelations continued on the state of 
Charles's marriage to Diana, Princess of Wales, and they 
divorced in 1996. The following year, Diana died in a Paris 
car crash, and the media criticised the royal family for 
remaining in seclusion in the days before her funeral. 
Elizabeth's personal popularity rebounded after she appeared 
in public and has subsequently remained high. 

Her reign of 60 years is the second-longest for a British 
monarch; only Queen Victoria has reigned longer. Her Silver 
and Golden Jubilees were celebrated in 1977 and 2002; her 
Diamond Jubilee is being celebrated during 2012. 



Contents 



Elizabeth II 






Elizabeth H in 2007 


Queen of the Commonwealth realms 


List 




Reign 


6 February 1952 - present 


Coronation 


2 June 1953 


Predecessor 


George VI 



Heir apparent Charles, Prince of Wales 
Prime Ministers See list 

Spouse Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh 

(m. 1947) 



Issue 

Prince Charles, Prince of Wales 
Princess Anne, Princess Royal 
Prince Andrew, Duke of York 
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex 

Full name 

Elizabeth Alexandra Mary 

House House of Windsor 

Father George VI 

Mother Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon 

Born 21 April 1926 

Mayfair, United Kingdom 



Detail 



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■ 


1 Early life 


■ 


2 Heiress presumptive 




■ 2.1 Second World War 




■ 2.2 Marriage 


■ 


3 Reign 




■ 3.1 Accession and coronation 




■ 3.2 Continuing evolution of the 




Commonwealth 




■ 3.3 Silver Jubilee 




■ 3.4 1980s 




■ 3.5 1990s 




■ 3.6 Golden Jubilee and beyond 


■ 


4 Public perception and character 




■ 4.1 Finances 


■ 


5 Titles, styles, honours, and arms 




■ 5.1 Titles and styles 




■ 5.2 Arms 


■ 


6 Issue 


■ 


7 Ancestry 


■ 


8 See also 


■ 


9 Notes 


■ 


10 References 


■ 


11 Bibliography 


■ 


12 External links 



Religion Church of England 

Church of Scotland 



Early life 







Princess Elizabeth aged 3, 
1929 



Elizabeth was the first child of Prince Albert, Duke of York (later King George 
VI), and his wife, Elizabeth. Her father was the second son of King George V and 
Queen Mary, and her mother was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat 
Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. She was born by 
Caesarean section at 2.40 am (GMT) on 21 April 1926 at her maternal 

grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. J The Anglican 
Archbishop of York, Cosmo Lang, baptised her in the private chapel of 

Buckingham Palace on 29 May. J|note J She was named Elizabeth after her 
mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, and 
Mary after her paternal grandmother. J Her close family called her "Lilibet". J 
George V cherished his granddaughter, and during his serious illness in 1929 her 
regular visits were credited in the popular press and by later biographers with 
raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. J 



Elizabeth's only sibling was Princess Margaret, born in 1930. The two princesses were educated at home under 

the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford, who was casually known as "Crawfie". * 

Lessons concentrated on history, language, literature and music. J To the dismay of the royal family, J in 1950 
Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses. The 

book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, and her attitude of responsibility. J Others 



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Princess Elizabeth aged 7, 1933 
Painting by Philip de Laszlo 



echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character. She has an 
air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant."^ J Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a 
jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". J 

Heiress presumptive 

As a granddaughter of the monarch in the male line, Elizabeth's full style 
at birth was Her Royal Highness Princess Elizabeth of York. She was 
third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle, Edward, 
Prince of Wales, and her father. Although her birth generated public 
interest, she was not expected to become queen, as the Prince of Wales 
was still young, and many assumed he would marry and have children of 
his own. J In 1936, when her grandfather, George V, died and her uncle 
Edward succeeded, she became second in line to the throne after her 
father. Later that year, Edward abdicated after his proposed marriage to 
divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. J 
Elizabeth's father became king, and she became heiress presumptive, 
with the style Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth} J If her 
parents had had a son, he would have been heir apparent and above her 
in the line of succession. J 

Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry 

Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, * and learned French from a 

succession of native-speaking governesses. J A Girl Guides company, 

the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed specifically so she could socialise with girls her own age. J 

Later she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. J 

In 1939 Elizabeth's parents toured Canada and visited the United States. As in 1927, when her parents had 
toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain as her father thought her too young to 

undertake public tours. J Elizabeth "looked tearful" as her parents departed. J They corresponded 

regularly, J and on 18 May, she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call. J 

Second World War 

From September 1939, with the outbreak of the Second World War, Elizabeth and Margaret stayed at Balmoral 

Castle, Scotland, until Christmas 1939, when they moved to Sandringham House, Norfolk. J From February to 

May 1940, they lived at Royal Lodge, Windsor, until moving to Windsor Castle, where they stayed for most of 

T221 
the next five years. J The suggestion by senior politician Lord Hailsham that the two princesses should be 

evacuated to Canada was rejected by Elizabeth's mother; she declared, "The children won't go without me. I 

won't leave without the King. And the King will never leave. "^ J At Windsor, the princesses staged pantomimes 

at Christmas in aid of the Queen's Wool Fund, which bought yarn to knit into military garments. ^ In 1940, the 

14-year-old Elizabeth made her first radio broadcast during the BBC's Children's Hour, addressing other 

children who had been evacuated from the cities. J She stated: 

We are trying to do all we can to help our gallant sailors, soldiers and airmen, and we are trying, too, 
to bear our share of the danger and sadness of war. We know, every one of us, that in the end all will 

be well. [25] 



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The Royal Family of the 

United Kingdom and the 

other Commonwealth realms 




In 1943, at the age of 16, Elizabeth undertook her first solo public appearance on a visit to the Grenadier Guards, 

of which she had been appointed Colonel-in-Chief the previous year. J As she approached her 18th birthday, 
the law was changed so that she could act as one of five Counsellors of State in the event of her father's 
incapacity or absence abroad, such as his visit to Italy in July 1944.^ J In February 1945, she joined the 
Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service, as an honorary Second Subaltern with the service number of 230873. J 
She trained as a driver and mechanic, J and was promoted to honorary Junior Commander five months 
laterJ 30 ] 

During the war, plans were drawn up to quell Welsh nationalism 
by affiliating Elizabeth more closely with Wales. ^ Welsh 
politicians proposed that Elizabeth be made Princess of Wales on 
her 18th birthday. The idea was supported by Home Secretary 
Herbert Morrison, but rejected by the King because he felt such a 
title belonged solely to the wife of a Prince of Wales, and the 
Prince of Wales had always been the heir apparent. J In 1946, 
she was inducted into the Welsh Gorsedd of Bards at the National 
Eisteddfod of Wales. [33] 

At the end of the war in Europe, on Victory in Europe Day, 
Elizabeth and her sister mingled anonymously with the celebratory 
crowds in the streets of London. She later said in a rare interview, 
"we asked my parents if we could go out and see for ourselves. I 
remember we were terrified of being recognised ... I remember 
lines of unknown people linking arms and walking down 
Whitehall, all of us just swept along on a tide of happiness and 
relief."^ J Two years later, the princess made her first overseas 
tour, when she accompanied her parents through southern Africa. 
During the tour, in a broadcast to the British Commonwealth on 
her 21st birthday, she pledged: "I declare before you all that my 
whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your 
service and the service of our great imperial family to which we all 
belong. " [35] 

Marriage 

Further information: Wedding of Princess Elizabeth and 
Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh 

Elizabeth met her future husband, Prince Philip of Greece and 
Denmark, in 1934 and 1937. J After another meeting at the 
Royal Naval College in Dartmouth in July 1939, Elizabeth - 
though only 13 years old - fell in love with Philip, and they began 

to exchange letters. ^ They married on 20 November 1947 at 
Westminster Abbey. They are second cousins once removed 
through King Christian IX of Denmark and third cousins through 
Queen Victoria. Before the marriage, Philip renounced his Greek 
and Danish titles, converted from Greek Orthodoxy to 
Anglicanism, and adopted the style Lieutenant Philip 



HM The Queen 

HRH The Duke of Edinburgh 

■ HRH The Prince of Wales 
HRH The Duchess of Cornwall 

■ HRH The Duke of Cambridge 
HRH The Duchess of Cambridge 

■ HRH Prince Harry of Wales 

■ HRH The Duke of York 

■ HRH Princess Beatrice of York 

■ HRH Princess Eugenie of York 

■ HRHTheEarlofWessex 
HRH The Countess of Wessex 

■ Viscount Severn 

■ Lady Louise Windsor 

■ HRH The Princess Royal 

■ HRH The Duke of Gloucester 
HRH The Duchess of Gloucester 

■ HRH The Duke of Kent 
HRH The Duchess of Kent 

■ HRH Prince Michael of Kent 
HRH Princess Michael of Kent 

■ HRH Princess Alexandra 



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Mountbatten, taking the surname of his mother's British family.^ J Just before the wedding, he was created 
Duke of Edinburgh and granted the style of His Royal Highness} J 

The marriage was not without controversy: Philip had no financial standing, was foreign-born (though a British 
subject), and had sisters who had married German noblemen with Nazi links. J Marion Crawford wrote, "Some 
of the King's advisors did not think him good enough for her. He was a prince without a home or kingdom. Some 

of the papers played long and loud tunes on the string of Philip's foreign origin. " L J Elizabeth's mother was 
reported, in later biographies, to have opposed the union initially, even dubbing Philip "The Hun'V J In later 
life, however, she told biographer Tim Heald that Philip was "an English gentleman". J 

Elizabeth and Philip received 2500 wedding gifts from around the world, J but Britain had not yet completely 
rebounded from the devastation of the war. Elizabeth still required ration coupons to buy the material for her 

gown, designed by Norman Hartnell. J In post-war Britain, it was not acceptable for the Duke of Edinburgh's 

German relations to be invited to the wedding, including Philip's three surviving sisters. J Edward, the former 

king, was not invited either. J 

Elizabeth gave birth to her first child, Prince Charles, on 14 November 1948, less than one month after letters 
patent were issued by her father allowing her children to use the style and title of a royal prince or princess. They 

otherwise would not have been entitled to such a status as their father was no longer a royal prince. J A second 

child, Princess Anne, was born in 1950. ^ 

Following their wedding, the couple leased Windlesham Moor near Windsor Castle, until 4 July 1949, ^ when 
they took up residence at Clarence House in London. At various times between 1949 and 1951, the Duke of 
Edinburgh was stationed in the British Protectorate of Malta as a serving Royal Navy officer. He and Elizabeth 
lived intermittently, for several months at a time, in the Maltese hamlet of Gwardamangia, at the Villa 

Gwardamangia, the rented home of Philip's uncle, Lord Mountbatten. The children remained in Britain. J 

Reign 

Accession and coronation 

George VI's health declined during 1951, and Elizabeth was soon frequently standing in for him at public events. 
In October of that year, she toured Canada, and visited President Truman in Washington, D.C.; on the trip, her 
private secretary, Martin Charteris, carried a draft accession declaration for use if the King died while she was on 

tour. J In early 1952, Elizabeth and Philip set out for a tour of Australia and New Zealand by way of Kenya. 
On 6 February 1952, they had just returned to their Kenyan home, Sagana Lodge, after a night spent at Treetops 

Hotel, when word arrived of the death of Elizabeth's father. Philip broke the news to the new queen. J Martin 

Charteris asked her to choose a regnal name; she chose to remain Elizabeth, "of course". J She was proclaimed 

queen throughout her realms, and the royal party hastily returned to the United Kingdom. J She and the Duke 

of Edinburgh moved into Buckingham Palace. J 

With Elizabeth's accession it seemed likely that the royal house would bear her husband's name. Lord 
Mountbatten thought it would be the House of Mountbatten, as Elizabeth would typically have taken Philip's last 
name on marriage; however Elizabeth's grandmother Queen Mary and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill 
favoured the retention of the House of Windsor, and so Windsor it remained. The Duke complained, "I am the 
only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his own children. "^ J After the death of Queen Mary on 
24 March 1953 and the resignation of Churchill in 1955, the surname Mountbatten-Windsor was adopted in 

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Coronation portrait of Queen 
Elizabeth II and the Duke of 
Edinburgh, June 1953 



1960 for Philip and Elizabeth's male-line descendants who do not carry 
royal titles. [57] 

Amid preparations for the coronation, Princess Margaret informed her 
sister that she wished to marry Peter Townsend, a divorced commoner 16 
years older than Margaret with two sons from his previous marriage. The 
Queen asked them to wait for a year; in the words of Martin Charteris, 
"the Queen was naturally sympathetic towards the Princess, but I think 

she thought - she hoped - given time, the affair would peter out."^ J 
Senior politicians were against the match, and the Church of England did 
not permit re-marriage after divorce. If Margaret contracted a civil 

marriage, she would have to renounce her right of succession. J 
Eventually, she decided to abandon her plans with Townsend. J In 
1960, she married Antony Armstrong- Jones, who was created Earl of 
Snowdon the following year. They were divorced in 1978. She did not 
remarry. J 



Despite the death of Queen Mary ten weeks before, the coronation went 
ahead on 2 June 1953. Before she died, Mary had asked that the 
coronation not be delayed. * The ceremony in Westminster Abbey, 

except the anointing and communion, was televised for the first time, J 
and the coverage was instrumental in boosting the medium's popularity; the number of television licences in the 

United Kingdom doubled to 3 million, J and many of the more than 20 million British viewers watched 
television for the first time in the homes of their friends or neighbours. * In North America, just under 100 
million viewers watched recorded broadcasts. J Elizabeth's coronation gown was commissioned from Norman 
Hartnell and embroidered on her instructions with the floral emblems of Commonwealth countries. * English 
Tudor rose, Scots thistle, Welsh leek, Irish shamrock, Australian wattle, Canadian maple leaf, New Zealand silver 

fern, South African protea, lotus flowers for India and Ceylon, and Pakistan's wheat, cotton, and jute. 



[68] 



Continuing evolution of the Commonwealth 

Further information: Historical development of the Commonwealth realms 



Elizabeth witnessed, over her life, the ongoing transformation of the 
British Empire into the Commonwealth of Nations. By the time of 
Elizabeth's accession in 1952, her role as nominal head of multiple 
independent states was already established. J Spanning 1953-54, the 
Queen and her husband embarked on a six-month around-the-world tour. 
She became the first reigning monarch of Australia and New Zealand to 

visit those nations. J During the tour, crowds were immense; three- 
quarters of the population of Australia were estimated to have seen the 
Queen. J Throughout her reign, Elizabeth has undertaken state visits to 
foreign countries, and tours of Commonwealth ones. She is the most 
widely travelled head of state in history.^ J 

In 1956, French Prime Minister Guy Mollet and British Prime Minister 
Sir Anthony Eden discussed the possibility of France joining the 
Commonwealth. The proposal was never accepted, and the following 




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Queen Elizabeth with Prime Minister 
of Australia Robert Menzies during 
her first visit to Australia in 1954 



year France signed the Treaty of Rome, which established the European 

Economic Community, the precursor of the European Union. J In 
November 1956, Britain and France invaded Egypt in an ultimately 
unsuccessful attempt to capture the Suez Canal. Lord Mountbatten 
claimed the Queen was opposed to the invasion, though Eden denied it. 
Eden resigned two months later. J 

The absence of a formal mechanism within the Conservative Party for choosing a leader meant that, following 
Eden's resignation, it fell to the Queen to decide whom to commission to form a government. Eden 
recommended that she consult Lord Salisbury (the Lord President of the Council). Lord Salisbury and Lord 
Kilmuir (the Lord Chancellor) consulted the Cabinet, Winston Churchill, and the Chairman of the backbench 

1922 Committee, as a result of which the Queen appointed their recommended candidate: Harold Macmillan. J 

The Suez crisis and the choice of Eden's successor led in 1957 to the first major personal criticism of the Queen. 
In a magazine, which he owned and edited, J Lord Altrincham accused her of being "out of touch". ^ J 
Altrincham was denounced by public figures and physically attacked by a member of the public appalled at his 
comments. J Six years later in 1963, Macmillan resigned and advised the Queen to appoint the Earl of Home as 
prime minister, advice that she followed. J The Queen again came under criticism for appointing the Prime 
Minister on the advice of a small number of ministers, or a single minister. * In 1965, the Conservatives 
adopted a formal mechanism for choosing a leader, thus relieving her of involvement 



[80] 



In 1957, she made a state visit to the United States, where she addressed the United Nations General Assembly. 
On the same tour, she opened the 23rd Canadian Parliament, becoming the first monarch of Canada to open a 

parliamentary session. J Two years later, she revisited the United States as a representative of Canada. ^ J 
In 1961, she toured Cyprus, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Iran. J On a visit to Ghana the same year, she 
dismissed fears for her safety, even though her host President Kwame Nkrumah, who had replaced her as head 

of state, was a target for assassins. J Harold Macmillan wrote: "The Queen has been absolutely determined all 
through ... She is impatient of the attitude towards her to treat her as ... a film star ... She has indeed 'the heart 

and stomach of a man' ... She loves her duty and means to be a Queen. " L J 




Elizabeth (left) with US First Lady Pat 



Elizabeth's pregnancies with Princes Andrew and Edward in 1959 and 
1963, respectively, mark the only times she has not performed the State 
Opening of the British parliament during her reign. J In addition to 
performing traditional ceremonies, she also instituted new practices. Her 
first royal walkabout, meeting ordinary members of the public, took place 

during a tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1970. J 

The 1960s and 1970s saw an acceleration in the decolonisation of Africa 
and the Caribbean. Over 20 countries gained independence from Britain 
as part of a planned transition to self-government. In 1965, however, 
Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith declared unilateral independence in 
opposition to moves toward majority black rule. Although the Queen 
dismissed Smith in a formal declaration and the international community 
applied sanctions against Rhodesia, Smith's regime survived for over a 

decade. [87] 

In February 1974, British Prime Minister Edward Heath called a general 
election in the middle of the Queen's tour of the Austronesian Pacific 



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Nixon, 1970; President Nixon is Ri m an d she had to fly back to Britain, interrupting the tour. [88] The 

hidden from view, next to British inconclusive result of the election meant that Heath, whose Conservative 

Prime Minister Edward Heath, behind party had the largest share of the popular vote but no overall majority, 

Elizabeth could stay in office if he formed a coalition with the Liberals. Heath only 

resigned when discussions on forming a cooperative government 
foundered, after which the Queen asked the Leader of the Opposition, Labour's Harold Wilson, to form a 

government. J 

A year later, at the height of the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, Australian Prime Minister Gough Whitlam 
was dismissed from his post by Governor-General Sir John Kerr after the Opposition-controlled Senate rejected 
Whitlam's budget proposals. J As Whitlam had a majority in the House of Representatives, Speaker Gordon 
Scholes appealed to the Queen to reverse Kerr's decision. Elizabeth declined, stating that she would not interfere 
in decisions reserved by the constitution of Australia for the governor- general. J The crisis fuelled Australian 
republicanism. J 

Silver Jubilee 

In 1977, Elizabeth marked the Silver Jubilee of her accession. Parties and events took place throughout the 
Commonwealth, many coinciding with the Queen's associated national and Commonwealth tours. The 
celebrations re-affirmed the Queen's popularity, despite virtually coincident negative press coverage of Princess 
Margaret's separation from her husband. J In 1978, Elizabeth endured a state visit to the United Kingdom by 
Romania's communist dictator Nicolae Ceau§escu, and his wife Elena, J though privately she thought they had 
"blood on their hands". J The following year brought two blows: one was the unmasking of Anthony Blunt, 
former Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures, as a communist spy; the other was the assassination of her relative and 
in-law Lord Mountbatten by the Provisional Irish Republican Army. ^ 

According to Paul Martin, Sr., by the end of the 1970s the Queen was worried the Crown "had little meaning 
for" Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. J Tony Benn said that the Queen found Trudeau "rather 
disappointing". J Trudeau's supposed republicanism seemed to be confirmed by his antics, such as sliding down 
banisters at Buckingham Palace and pirouetting behind the Queen's back in 1977, and the removal of various 

Canadian royal symbols during his term of office. J In 1980, Canadian politicians sent to London to discuss the 
patriation of the Canadian constitution found the Queen "better informed on ... Canada's constitutional case than 

any of the British politicians or bureaucrats". J She was interested in the constitutional debate after the failure 
of Bill C-60, which would have affected her role as head of state. ^ Patriation removed the role of the British 
parliament in the Canadian constitution, but the monarchy was retained. Trudeau said in his memoirs: "The 
Queen favoured my attempt to reform the Constitution. I was always impressed not only by the grace she 

displayed in public at all times, but by the wisdom she showed in private conversation."^ J 

1980s 

During the 1981 Trooping the Colour ceremony, and only six weeks before the wedding of Charles, Prince of 
Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer, six shots were fired at the Queen from close range as she rode down The Mall 
on her horse, Burmese. Police later discovered that the shots were blanks. The 17-year-old assailant, Marcus 

Sarjeant, was sentenced to five years in prison and released after three. J The Queen's composure and skill in 
controlling her mount were widely praised. * The following year, the Queen awoke in her bedroom at 
Buckingham Palace to find an intruder, Michael Fagan, in the room with her. Remaining calm, and through two 
calls to the palace police switchboard, the Queen spoke to Fagan while he sat at the foot of her bed until 



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1 -^ 


-"54 * 




£L&. h £H~M4i 


m 


■ W?'^ 


2S.M1 








serf 


trme* 


WHt 


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Elizabeth riding Burmese at a 
Trooping the Colour ceremony 



assistance arrived seven minutes later. ^ J From April to September that 
year, the Queen remained anxious^ J but proud^ J of her son, Prince 
Andrew, who was serving with British forces during the Falklands War. 
Though she hosted President Ronald Reagan at Windsor Castle in 1982, 
and visited his Californian ranch in 1983, she was angered when his 
administration ordered the invasion of Grenada, one of her Caribbean 

realms, without her foreknowledge. J 

Intense media interest in the opinions and private lives of the royal family 
during the 1980s led to a series of sensational stories in the press, not all 

of which were entirely true. J As Kelvin MacKenzie, editor of The 
Sun, told his staff: "Give me a Sunday for Monday splash on the Royals. 

Don't worry if it's not true - so long as there's not too much of a fuss about it afterwards. "^ J Newspaper editor 
Donald Trelford wrote in The Observer of 21 September 1986: "The royal soap opera has now reached such a 
pitch of public interest that the boundary between fact and fiction has been lost sight of ... it is not just that some 
papers don't check their facts or accept denials: they don't care if the stories are true or not." It was reported, 
most notably in The Sunday Times of 20 July 1986, that Elizabeth was worried that British Prime Minister 
Margaret Thatcher's economic policies fostered social divisions, and was alarmed by high unemployment, a 
series of riots, the violence of a miners' strike, and Thatcher's refusal to apply sanctions against the apartheid 
regime in South Africa. The sources of the rumours included royal aide Michael Shea and Commonwealth 
Secretary-General Shridath Ramphal, but Shea claimed his remarks were taken out of context and embellished 
by speculation.^ J Thatcher reputedly said the Queen would vote for the Social Democratic Party — Thatcher's 
political opponents. J Thatcher's biographer John Campbell claimed "... the report was a piece of journalistic 
mischief-making". J Belying reports of acrimony between them, Thatcher later conveyed her personal 
admiration for the Queen, J and after Thatcher's replacement by John Major, Elizabeth gave two honours in 
her personal gift to Thatcher: appointment to the Order of Merit and the Order of the Garter.^ J 

In 1987, the elected Fijian government was deposed in a military coup. Elizabeth, as head of state, supported the 
attempts of the Governor-General, Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau, to assert executive power and negotiate a 
settlement. Coup leader Sitiveni Rabuka deposed Ganilau, abolished the monarchy, and declared Fiji a 
republic. J By the start of 1991, republican feeling in Britain had risen because of press estimates of the 
Queen's private wealth, which were contradicted by the palace, and reports of affairs and strained marriages 
among her extended family. * The involvement of the younger royals in the charity game show It's a Royal 
Knockout was ridiculed, J and the Queen was the target of satire. J 

1990s 

In 1991, in the wake of victory in the Gulf War, Elizabeth became the first British monarch to address a joint 
session of the United States Congress. J The following year, she attempted to save the failing marriage of her 
eldest son, Charles, by counselling him and his wife, Diana, Princess of Wales, to reconcile. J 

In a speech on 24 November 1992, to mark the 40th anniversary of her accession, the Queen called 1992 her 
annus horribilis, meaning horrible year} * In March, her second son Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and his 
wife Sarah, Duchess of York, separated. In April, her daughter Anne, Princess Royal, divorced her husband 
Captain Mark Phillips. J During a state visit to Germany in October, angry demonstrators in Dresden threw 
eggs at her, J and in November Windsor Castle suffered severe fire damage. The monarchy received increased 
criticism and public scrutiny.^ J In an unusually personal speech, Elizabeth said that any institution must expect 



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Prince Philip and Elizabeth II, October 
1992 



criticism, but suggested it be done with "a touch of humour, gentleness 
and understanding". J Two days later, Prime Minister John Major 
announced reforms of the royal finances that had been planned since the 
previous year, including the Queen paying income tax for the first time, 

starting in 1993, and a reduction in the civil list. J In December, 
Charles and Diana formally separated. J The year ended with a lawsuit 
as the Queen sued The Sun newspaper for breach of copyright when it 
published the text of her annual Christmas message two days before its 
broadcast. The newspaper was forced to pay her legal fees, and donated 
£200,000 to charity. [124] 

In the ensuing years, public revelations on the state of Charles and 
Diana's marriage continued. J Even though support for a British 
republic seemed higher than at any time in living memory, republicanism 
remained a minority viewpoint and Elizabeth herself had high approval 
ratings. J Criticism was focused on the institution of monarchy itself 
and the Queen's wider family rather than the Queen's own behaviour and actions. J In consultation with Prime 
Minister Major, Archbishop of Canterbury George Carey, her private secretary Robert Fellowes, and her 
husband, she wrote to Charles and Diana at the end of December 1995, saying that a divorce was desirable. J 
A year after the divorce, which took place in 1996, Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris on 31 August 1997. 
The Queen was on holiday with her son and grandchildren at Balmoral. Diana's two sons wanted to attend 

church, and so the Queen and Prince Philip took them that morning. J After that single public appearance, for 
five days the Queen and the Duke shielded their grandsons from the intense press interest by keeping them at 
Balmoral where they could grieve in private. J The royal family's seclusion caused public dismay. J 
Pressured by the hostile reaction, the Queen agreed to a live broadcast to the world, the day before Diana's 
funeral and returned to London to deliver it on 5 September.^ J In the broadcast, she expressed admiration for 
Diana, and her feelings "as a grandmother" for Princes William and Harry. J As a result, much of the public 
hostility evaporated. ^ 



Golden Jubilee and beyond 



In 2002, Elizabeth marked her Golden Jubilee as queen. Her sister and 
mother died in February and March, respectively, and the media 
speculated as to whether the Jubilee would be a success or a failure. J 
She again undertook an extensive tour of her realms, which began in 
Jamaica in February, where she called the farewell banquet "memorable" 
after a power cut plunged the King's House, the official residence of the 

Governor-General, into darkness. J As in 1977, there were street 
parties and commemorative events, and monuments were named to 
honour the occasion. A million people attended each day of the three-day 
main Jubilee celebration in London,^ ^ and the enthusiasm shown by 
the public for Elizabeth was greater than many journalists had 
predicted. [137] 

Though generally healthy throughout her life, in 2003 she had keyhole 
surgery on both knees, and in June 2005 she cancelled several 
engagements after contracting a bad cold. In October 2006, she missed 




Elizabeth II and George W. Bush share 
a toast during a state dinner at the 



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_n 




Elizabeth II (centre, in pink) during a 
walkabout in Queen's Park, Toronto, 6 
July 2010 



the opening of the new Emirates Stadium because of a strained back White House, 7 May 2007 

muscle that had been troubling her since the summer. J Two months 
later, she was seen in public with a bandage on her right hand, which led 
to press speculation of ill health.^ J She had been bitten by one of her 
corgis while she was separating two that were fighting. J 

In May 2007, The Daily Telegraph newspaper reported claims from 
unnamed sources that the Queen was "exasperated and frustrated" by the 
policies of British Prime Minister Tony Blair, that she had shown concern 
that the British Armed Forces were overstretched in Iraq and 
Afghanistan, and that she had raised concerns over rural and countryside 

issues with Blair repeatedly. J She was, however, said to admire Blair's 
efforts to achieve peace in Northern Ireland. ^ On 20 March 2008, at 
the Church of Ireland St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh, the Queen 
attended the first Maundy service held outside of England and 

Wales. J At the invitation of Irish President Mary McAleese, in May 2011 the Queen made the first state visit 
to the Republic of Ireland by a British monarch. J 

Elizabeth addressed the United Nations for a second time in 2010, again in her capacity as queen of all her 
realms and Head of the Commonwealth. J UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon introduced her as "an anchor 
for our age". J During her visit to New York, which followed a tour of Canada, she officially opened a 
memorial garden for the British victims of the 11 September attacks. J 

The Queen's visit to Australia in October 2011, her 16th visit since 1954, was called her "farewell tour" in the 
press because of her age. J Elizabeth plans to celebrate her Diamond Jubilee in 2012, marking 60 years as 
Queen. She is the longest-lived and second-longest-reigning monarch of the United Kingdom, and the second- 
longest-serving current head of state (after King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand). She does not intend to 
abdicate, J though the proportion of public duties performed by Prince Charles may increase as Elizabeth 
reduces her commitments. J 

She is scheduled to open the 2012 Summer Olympics on 27 July and the Paralympics on 29 August in London. 
Her father, George VI, opened the 1948 London Olympics, and her great-grandfather, Edward VII, opened the 
1908 London Olympics. Elizabeth also opened the 1976 Games in Canada, and Prince Philip opened the 
Melbourne Olympics in 1956. [150] 



Public perception and character 

Main article: Personality and image of Queen Elizabeth II 

Since Elizabeth rarely gives interviews, little is known of her personal feelings. As a constitutional monarch, she 
has not expressed her own political opinions in a public forum. She does have a deep sense of religious and civic 
duty, and takes her coronation oath seriously. J Aside from her official religious role as Supreme Governor of 
the established Church of England, she personally worships with that church and with the national Church of 

Scotland. J She has demonstrated support for inter- faith relations, and has met with leaders of other religions, 
and granted her personal patronage to the Council of Christians and Jews. J A personal note about her faith 
often features in her annual Royal Christmas Message broadcast to the Commonwealth, such as in 2000, when 
she spoke about the theological significance of the millennium marking the 2000th anniversary of the birth of 



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_n 



Jesus Christ: 



To many of us, our beliefs are of fundamental importance. For me the teachings of Christ and my 
own personal accountability before God provide a framework in which I try to lead my life. I, like so 

many of you, have drawn great comfort in difficult times from Christ's words and example. J 

Elizabeth is the patron of over 600 charities and other organisations. J 
Her main leisure interests include equestrianism and dogs, especially her 
Pembroke Welsh Corgis. J Her clothes consist mostly of solid-colour 
overcoats and decorative hats, which allow her to be seen easily in a 
crowdJ 157 ] 

In the 1950s, as a young woman at the start of her reign, Elizabeth was 

depicted as a glamorous "fairytale Queen". J After the trauma of the 
war, it was a time of hope, a period of progress and achievement 
heralding a "new Elizabethan age". J Lord Altrincham's accusation in 




Elizabeth II and Ronald Reagan riding 
at Windsor, 1982 



1957 that her speeches sounded like those of a "priggish schoolgirl" was 

an extremely rare criticism. J In the late 1960s, attempts to portray a more modern image of monarchy were 
made in the television documentary Royal Family, and by televising Prince Charles's investiture as Prince of 

Wales. [161] 

At her Silver Jubilee in 1977, the crowds and celebrations were genuinely enthusiastic, J but in the 1980s 
public criticism of the royal family increased, as the personal and working lives of Elizabeth's children came 
under media scrutiny. J Elizabeth's popularity sank to a low point in the 1990s. Under pressure from public 

opinion, she began to pay income tax for the first time, and Buckingham Palace was opened to the public. J 
Discontent with the monarchy reached its peak on the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, though the Queen's 

popularity rebounded after her live broadcast to the world five days after Diana's death. J 

In November 1999, a referendum in Australia on the future of the Australian monarchy favoured its retention in 
preference to an indirectly elected head of state. J Polls in Britain in 2006 and 2007 revealed strong support 
for Elizabeth, J and referendums in Tuvalu in 2008 and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 2009 both 
rejected proposals to become republics. J 

Finances 



Further information: Finances of the British Royal Family 

Elizabeth's personal fortune has been the subject of speculation for many 
years. Forbes magazine estimated her net worth at around 

US$450 million in 2010, [169] but official Buckingham Palace statements 
in 1993 called estimates of £100 million "grossly overstated". J Jock 
Colville, who was her former private secretary and a director of her bank, 
Coutts, estimated her wealth in 1971 at £2 million (the equivalent of 

about £21 million today [171] ). [172][173] The Royal Collection, which 
includes artworks and the Crown Jewels, is not owned by the Queen 
personally and is held in trust, J as are the occupied palaces in the 
United Kingdom such as Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle, J 




Sandringham House, Elizabeth's 
private residence in Sandringham, 
Norfolk 



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_n 



and the Duchy of Lancaster, a property portfolio valued at £383 million in 2011. J Sandringham House and 
Balmoral Castle are privately owned by the Queen. J The British Crown Estate — with holdings of £7.3 billion 
in 2011 *■ J — is held in trust for the nation, and cannot be sold or owned by Elizabeth in a private capacity. J 

Titles, styles, honours, and arms 



Titles and styles 

Main article: List of titles and honours of Queen Elizabeth II 

Elizabeth has held titles throughout her life, as a granddaughter of the 
monarch, as a daughter of the monarch, through her husband's titles, and 
eventually as Sovereign. In common parlance, she is The Queen or Her 
Majesty. Officially, she has a distinct title in each of her realms: Queen of 
Canada in Canada, Queen of Australia in Australia, etc. In the Channel 
Islands and Isle of Man, which are Crown dependencies rather than 
separate realms, she is known as Duke of Normandy and Lord of Mann 
respectively. Additional styles include Defender of the Faith and Duke of 
Lancaster. When in conversation with the Queen, the practice is to 

initially address her as Your Majesty and thereafter as Ma'am} J 

She has received honours and awards from around the world, and has held honorary military positions 
throughout the Commonwealth, both before and after her accession. 

Arms 




Personal Flag of Queen Elizabeth II 



See also: Flags of Elizabeth II 

From 21 April 1944, Elizabeth's arms consisted of a lozenge bearing the royal coat of arms of the United 
Kingdom, differenced with a label of three points argent, the centre point bearing a Tudor rose and the first and 

third a cross of St. George. J After her accession as Sovereign, she adopted the royal coat of arms 
undifferenced. The design of the shield is also used on the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom. Elizabeth has 

personal flags for use in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, and elsewhere. J 







Coat of arms of 

Princess Elizabeth 

(194^1947) 



Coat of arms of 

Princess Elizabeth, 

Duchess of Edinburgh 

(1947-1952) 



Coat of arms of 
Elizabeth II in the 
United Kingdom 
(except Scotland) 



Coat of arms of 
Elizabeth II in Scotland 



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_n 






Coat of arms of 

Elizabeth II in Canada 

(one of three versions 

used in her 



reign) 



[note 3] 



Issue 



See also: Succession to the British throne#Current line of succession 



Name 


Birth 


Marriage 


Children 


Grandchildren 


Prince Charles, 
Prince of Wales 


14 November 
1948 


29 July 1981 

Divorced 28 
August 1996 


Lady Diana 
Spencer 


Prince William, Duke 
of Cambridge 
Prince Harry of 
Wales 




9 April 2005 


Camilla Shand 










14 November 
1973 

Divorced 28 
April 1992 


Captain Mark 
Phillips 


Peter Phillips 


Savannah 
Phillips 


Princess Anne, id August 
Princess Royal 1950 


Zara Phillips 








12 December 
1992 


Sir Timothy 
Laurence 






Prince Andrew, 
Duke of York 


19 February 
1960 


23 July 1986 
Divorced 30 May 
1996 


Sarah Ferguson 


Princess Beatrice of 

York 

Princess Eugenie of 

York 




Prince Edward, 
Earl of Wessex 


10 March 
1964 


19 June 1999 


Sophie 
Rhys-Jones 


Lady Louise Windsor 
James, Viscount 
Severn 





Ancestry 

Main articles: Ancestry of Elizabeth II and Descent of Elizabeth II from William I 



See also 



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Elizabeth II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_n 

■ List of current heads of state and government 

■ List of the richest royals 

■ Royal intermarriage 

Notes 

■ A [note 1] See Queen's Official Birthday for an explanation of why her official birthday is not the same as her real 
one. 

■ A [note 2] Her godparents were: King George V and Queen Mary; Lord Strathmore; Prince Arthur, Duke of 
Connaught (her paternal great-granduncle); Princess Mary, Viscountess Lascelles (her paternal aunt); and Lady 
Elphinstone (her maternal aunt). J 

■ A [note 3] Canada has used three different versions of the arms during her reign. This version was used between 
1957 and 1994. [183] 

References 

1. A Bradford, p. 22; Brandreth, p. 103; Pimlott, pp. 2-3; Lacey, pp. 75-76; Roberts, p. 74 

2. A Hoey,p. 40 

3. A Brandreth, p. 103 

4. A Pimlott, p. 12 

5. A Lacey, p. 56; Nicolson, p. 433; Pimlott, pp. 14-16 

6. A Crawford, p. 26; Pimlott, p. 20; Shawcross, p. 21 

7. A Brandreth, p. 124; Lacey, pp. 62-63; Pimlott, pp. 24, 69 

8. A Brandreth, pp. 108-110; Lacey, pp. 159-161; Pimlott, pp. 20, 163 

9. A Brandreth, pp. 108-110 

10. A Brandreth, p. 105; Lacey, p. 81; Shawcross, pp. 21-22 

11. A Brandreth, pp. 105-106 

12. A Bond, p. 8; Lacey, p. 76; Pimlott, p. 3 

13. A Lacey, pp. 97-98 

14. A e.g. Assheton, Ralph (18 December 1936). "Succession to the Throne". The Times: 10. 

15. A Marr, pp. 78, 85; Pimlott, pp. 71-73 

16. A Brandreth, p. 124; Crawford, p. 85; Lacey, p. 112; Pimlott, p. 51; Shawcross, p. 25 

17. A a "Her Majesty The Queen: Education" (http://www.royal.gov.uk/HMTheQueen/Education/Overview.aspx) . 
Royal Household. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HMTheQueen/Education/Overview.aspx. Retrieved 31 May 2010. 

18. A Pimlott, p. 47 

19. A a b Pimlott, p. 54 

20. A a b Pimlott, p. 55 

21. A Crawford, pp. 104-114; Pimlott, pp. 56-57 

22. A Crawford, pp. 114-119; Pimlott, p. 57 

23. A "Biography of HM Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother: Activities as Queen" (http://www.royal.gov.uk 
/ffistoryoftheMonarchy/The%20House%20of%^ 

/ActivitiesasQueeaaspx) . Royal Household. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy 
/The%20House%20of%20Wmdsor%20from%201952/QueenElizabethTheQueenMother/ActivitiesasQueen.asr^ 
Retrieved 28 July 2009. 

24. A Crawford, pp. 137-141 

25. A a "Children's Hour: Princess Elizabeth" (http://www.bbc. co.uk/archive/princesselizabeth/6600.shtml?all=l& 
id=6600) . BBC. 13 October 1940. http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/princesselizabeth/6600.shtml?all=l&id=6600. 
Retrieved 22 July 2009. 

26. A "Early public life" (http://www.royal.gov.uk/HMTheQueen/Publiclife/EarlyPublicIife/Earlypubliclife.aspx) . 
Royal Household. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HMTheQueen/Publiclife/EarlyPublicLife/Earlypubliclife.aspx. Retrieved 
20 April 2010. 

27. A Pimlott, p. 71 



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House of Windsor 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable 
sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 201 o) 



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The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the discussion on the talk page. Please do not remove this 
message until the dispute is resolved. (September 201 0) 



The House of Windsor is the royal house of the Commonwealth realms. It was founded by King George V by royal 
proclamation on the 17 July 1917, when he changed the name of his family from the German Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (a 
branch of the House of Wettin) to the English Windsor, due to the anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom during 
World War I. Currently, the most prominent member of the House of Windsor is Queen Elizabeth II, the reigning monarch of 
the Commonwealth realms. 



House of Windsor 



Contents 

1 Foundation 

2 Descendants of Elizabeth II 

3 Members 

4 Titles 

4.1 Designation and details 

4.2 List of Commonwealth realms monarchs 

5 Timeline of Monarchs 

6 Further reading 

7 See also 

8 Notes 

9 References 

10 External links 



Foundation 



[edit] 




Edward VII, and, in turn, his son, George V were members of the House of Saxe- 
Coburg and Gotha, a German ducal family, by virtue of their descent from Albert, 
Prince Consort, husband of Queen Victoria. High anti-German sentiment amongst 
the people of the British Empire during World War I reached a peak in March 
1917, when the Gotha G.IV, a heavy aircraft capable of crossing the English 
Channel began bombing London directly. The aircraft became a household name, 
and the name Gotha was part of the name of the royal family, Saxe-Coburg- 
Gotha. These bombings were coupled with the abdication of King George's first 
cousin, Nicholas II, the Tsar of Russia on 15 March 1917, which raised the 
spectre of the eventual abolition of all the monarchies in Europe. The King and his 
family were finally convinced to abandon all titles held under the German Crown, 
and to change German titles and house names to anglicised versions. Hence, on 
17 July 1917, a royal proclamation issued by George V declared: 




Country 



Ancestral 
house 

Titles 

Founder 



^W Antigua and Barbuda 

£fl Australia 

^Z Bahamas 

|«| Barbados 

Fl Belize 

|*| Canada 

|^| Grenada 

(SiH Jamaica 

■H New Zealand 

^Q Papua New Guinea 

jjj Saint Kitts and Nevis 

a Saint Lucia 
I u I Saint Vincent and the 
Grenadines 
ESI Solomon Islands 
fifl Tuvalu 

H9 United Kingdom 

Wettin -> Saxe-Coburg and 
Gotha 

Various 

George V 



Now, therefore, We, out of Our Royal Will and Authority, do hereby declare and 

announce that as from the date of this Our Royal Proclamation Our House and Family shall be styled and known as the 
House and Family of Windsor, and that all the descendants in the male line of Our said Grandmother Queen Victoria who 
are subjects of these Realms, other than female descendants who may marry or may have married, shall bear the said 
Name of Windsor. .J 1 1 



Upon hearing that his cousin had changed the name of the British royal house to Windsor, German Emperor Wilhelm II remarked jokingly that he planned to see 
Shakespeare's play The Merry Wives of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. 

The name had a long association with British royalty, through the town of Windsor, Berkshire and Windsor Castle, a link reflected in the Round Tower of Windsor Castle 
being the basis of the badge of the House of Windsor. 

Also in 1917 Prince Louis of Battenberg adopted the surname Mountbatten, a partial translation into English. Prince Louis is the maternal grandfather of Prince Philip, 
Duke of Edinburgh. From 1917 to 1919, George V also stripped 15 of his German relations - most of whom belonged to the House of Hanover - of their British titles and 
styles of prince and princess. 



Descendants of Elizabeth II 



[edit] 



When Princess Elizabeth (as she then was) married Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, the standard practice would be to adopt the name of his royal house. Because 
he was a prince, Prince Philip did not have a surname but he was of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg, a branch of the House of Oldenburg, and 
that ruled or rules as Kings of Greece, Denmark and Norway. Not wishing to repeat the difficulties of three decades previous, before his marriage Prince Philip renounced 
his titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten, the literal translation of the German Battenberg that his maternal grandfather had adopted in 1917. The 
Mountbatten/Battenberg name refers to Battenberg, a small town in Hesse. 

On 9 April 1952, Queen Elizabeth II officially declared her "Will and Pleasure that I and My children shall be styled and known as the House and Family of Windsor, and 
that my descendants who marry and their descendants, shall bear the name of Windsor."^ On 8 February 1960, the Queen confirmed that she and her children would 
continue to be known as the House and Family of Windsor, as would any agnatic descendants who enjoy the style of Royal Highness, and the title of Prince or Princess. 



[2] 



Still, Elizabeth also decreed that her agnatic descendants who do not have that style and title would bear the surname Mountbatten-Windsor, 



[2] 



Any future monarch can change the dynastic name through a similar royal proclamation, as royal proclamations do not have statutory authority. [ 

Members 



[edit] 



The 1917 proclamation stated that the name of the Royal House and all British descendants of Victoria and Albert in the male line were to bear the name of Windsor, 
except for women who married into other families. 

By early 1919 the living male-line British descendants of Victoria subject to British rule were King George V, his five sons, his daughter Princess Mary, his unmarried 
sister Princess Victoria, his uncle Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, his cousin Prince Arthur of Connaught, his cousin once removed Prince Alastair of 
Connaught, and his unmarried cousin Princess Patricia of Connaught. Prince Alastair and PrinSQff @R^6ddi)ffi WlWMrr^ ISth3e2l J^fl2iafrr4JDl:4illoAfe/l 

Lascelles family, and Princess Patricia married Alexander Ramsay of Mar. Neither of the Prince Arthurs MiBlan ftiJij^ 



House of Windsor descend from the sons of George V. 

Two of George V's sons, Edward VIII (later Duke of Windsor) and Prince John, had no children, so the entire present day members of the House of Windsor are 
descendants of the other three sons, Prince Albert, Duke of York (later George VI), Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and Prince George, Duke of Kent. All descendants 
living and dead are shown in the table. 

As of January 201 1 , two of these descendants are dead: Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, and Prince William of Gloucester. Seven are Roman Catholic or are 
married to a Roman Catholic (labelled "CA" in the table), and are thus excluded from the succession. The remaining 43 are in the line of succession: 

• | Descendants of George V in male line 

• Q Descendants of Queen Elizabeth II and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, in male line 

• Q Other descendants of the House of Windsor 




10 



12 



Viscount Severn 



Lady Louise Windsor 



HRH The Princess Royal [fn 1 



Mr Peter Phillips 



Miss Savannah Phillips 



13 



Mrs Zara Phillips mbe 




HRH Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon 



Viscount Linley 




The Hon Charles Armstrong-Jones 
The Hon Margarita Armstrong-Jones 



17 December 2007 (age 4) 
8 November 2003 (age 8) 

15 August 1950 (age 61) 



15 November 1977 (age 34) 



29 December 2010 (age 1) 



15 May 1981 (age 30) 



21 August 1930 

9 February 2002 (aged 71 ) 

3 November 1961 (age 50) 




1 July 1999 (age 12) 
14 May 2002 (age 9) 



Lady Sarah Chatto 



1 May 1964 (age 47) 



Master Samuel Chatto 
Master Arthur Chatto 



28 July 1996 (age 15) 
5 February 1999 (age 13) 



HRH Prince William of Gloucester 



Descendants of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester 

18 December 1941 

28 August 1 972 (aged 30) 



HRH The Duke of Gloucester 

Earl of Ulster 
Lord Culloden 
Lady Cosima Windsor 




24 October 1974 (age 37) 



Gener 1 ltM! r 6^ Wv^^r b on Fly.com at 3/21/2012 3:45:41 AM 
2oyi^ ohttpj^fet).wikipedia.org/wiki/House of Windsor 









19 November 1977 (age 34) 


4 


25 


Miss Senna Lewis 


30 June 2010 (age 1) 






Lady Rose Gilman 


1 March 1980 (age 32) 


4 


27 


Miss Lyla Gilman 


1 July 2010 (age 1) 


Descendants of Prince George, Duke of Kent 



28 



HRH The Duke of Kent 



9 October 1 935 (age 76) 




Earl of St Andrews 
Lord Downpatrick 
Lady Marina Windsor 
Lady Amelia Windsor 
Lord Nicholas Windsor 
Master Albert Windsor 
Leopold Windsor 
Lady Helen Taylor 
Master Columbus Taylor 
Master Cassius Taylor 





26 May 1962 (age 49) 
2 December 1988 (age 23) 
30 September 1992 (age 19) 

24 August 1 995 (age 1 6) 

25 June 1970 (age 41) 

22 September 2007 (age 4) 
8 September 2009 (age 2) 
28 April 1964 (age 47) 
6 August 1 994 (age 1 7) 

26 December 1996 (age 15) 



Miss Eloise Taylor 



2 March 2003 (age 9) 



35 
36 



Miss Estella Taylor 



HRH Prince Michael of Kent 



Lord Frederick Windsor 
Lady Gabriella Windsor 




HRH Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy 



39 



Mr James Ogilvy 
Miss Flora Ogilvy 



21 December 2004 (age 7) 

4 July 1942 (age 69) 

6 April 1979 (age 32) 
23 April 1981 (age 30) 

25 December 1936 (age 75) 



29 February 1 964 (age 48) 
15 December 1994 (age 17) 



wL> t, 




40 



Master Alexander Ogilvy 



12 November 1996 (age 15) 



Mrs Marina Ogilvy 



31 July 1966 (age 45) 



42 



43 



Mr Christian Mowatt 
Miss Zenouska Mowatt 



4 June 1993 (age 18) 
26 May 1990 (age 21) 



Titles 



[edit] 



Designation and details 



[edit] 



At the creation of the House of Windsor, its head reigned over a unitary British Empire. Following the end of the First World War, however, geo-political shifts took place 
that saw the emergence of the Dominions as sovereign states, the first step being the issuance of the Balfour Declaration in 1926, followed by the Royal and 
Parliamentary Titles Act the next year, and the Statute of Westminster in 1931. From then on, the House of Windsor became the royal house of multiple countries, a 
number that shifted over the decades, as some Dominions became republics and Crown colonies became realms, republics or monarchies under a different sovereign. 
Since 1949, two monarchs of the House of Windsor, George VI and Elizabeth II, have also been Head of the Commonwealth of Nations, comprising most (but not all) parts 
of the former British Empire and some states that were never part of it. 

In the chart below, the countries are differentiated between light green (realms of the House of Windsor as dominions), medium green (present realms of the House of 
Windsor), and dark green (former realms of the House of Windsor). 




Generated by www.PDFonFly.com at 3/21/2012 3:45:41 AM 
URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House of Windsor 




rrrr 



1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 

List of Commonwealth realms monarchs [edit] 



Generated by www.PDFonFly.com at 3/21/2012 3:45:41 AM 
URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House of Windsor 



Portrait 




Name 



From 



Until 



Relationship with predecessor 



King Edward VII 



22 January 1901 



6 May 1910 



son of Queen Victoria and Albert, Prince 
Consort 




King George V 



6 May 1910 20 January 1 936 



son of Edward VII. Founder, House of 
Windsor. 




King Edward VIII 



20 January 1936 11 December 1936 son of George V; Abdicated 




King George VI 



11 December 1936 6 February 1952 



son of George V & brother of abdicated 
Edward VIII 




Queen Elizabeth I 



6 February 1952 



reigning 



daughter of George VI 



Timeline of Monarchs 



[edit] 



'■^jgagdvi 



i^oraBj 



IJ=I,1M.!, I .!J. I M 



Further reading 



[edit] 



• Longford, Elizabeth Harman (Countess of Longford). The Royal House of Windsor. Revised ed. Crown, 1984. 

• Roberts, Andrew. The House of Windsor. University of California Press, 2000. 

See also 



[edit] 



• British Royal Family 

• British prince 

• British princess 

• Canadian Royal Family 

• Australian Royal Family 

• New Zealand Royal Family 

• Mountbatten-Windsor 

• List of descendants of George V 

• Windsor, Berkshire 

• Windsor Castle 

• History of the British line of succession 

Notes 



[edit] 



1 . A Princess Anne is not 4th in line, as would be expected by her birth order, but 1 0th. This is a result of the rule of male-preference primogeniture currently practiced by the 
British monarchy. 



References 



[edit] 



1 . A London Gazette: no. 301 86. p. 71 1 9. 1 7 July 1 91 7. 

2. hSb0 Royal Styles and Titles - 1 960 Letters Patent rj? 

3. A The Royal Family name €?, Royal Household, retrieved 1 5 February 201 1 

External links 



[edit] 



Royal Family Name & from royal.gov.uk 

House of Windsor from royal.gov.uk r*? 

House of Windsor Tree J£ from royal.gov.uk [Lord Culloden & Albert+Leopold Windsor are missing] 



*Royal House* 
House of Windsor 

Cadet branch of the House of Wettin 



Preceded by 
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 



Ruling House of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth 
realms. 

1917-present 



Succeeded by 
Incumbent 



Royal houses of Europe 



Nordic countries 



Denmark 
Finland 



Early Danish Kings House of Pomerania Palatinate-Neumarkt Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg 

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Kamuu Bielbo Mecklenburg Oldenburg Vasa Pfalz-Zweibrucken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov , ._,. J .— — r, rr-. *r. , .. .„ , , .... . 

URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House of Windsor 



Romania 



Norway Fairhair House of Pomerania Palatinate-Neumarkt Oldenburg Bernadotte Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg 
Sweden Munso Stenkil Sverker Eric Bjelbo Mecklenburg House of Pomerania Palatinate-Neumarkt Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrucken Hesse-Kassel Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte 

United Kingdom 

England Mercia Wuffing Kent Sussex Essex Bernicia Deira Northumbria Uf imair Wessex Denmark Normandy Plantagenet Lancaster York Tudor Stuart Orange-Nassau 
Scotland Fergus Oengus Strathclyde Mann and the Isles Alpin Northumbria Bernicia Uf Imair Galloway Dunkeld Fairhair Balliol Bruce Stuart Orange-Nassau 
Wales Dinefwr Aberffraw Gwynedd Mathrafal Cunedda 

Ireland Ulaid Dal Cuinn/Connachta Laigin Uf Fidgenti Uf Liathain Eoganachta (including Mac Carthaigh) Dairine / Erainn (including Corcu Lofgde) Dal gCais Bruce Tudor Stuart Orange-Nassau 
Great Britain Stuart Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Windsor 

Eastern Europe 

Albania Angevin Arianiti Kastrioti Wied Osman Zogu 

Armenia Orontid Artaxiad Arsacid Bagratid Artsruni Rubenids Hethumids Lusignans Savoy Romanov 

Bosnia Kotromanic Osman Habsburg-Lorraine 

Bulgaria Dulo Cometopuli Asen Terter Shishman Osman Battenberg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 

Croatia Trpimirovic Domagojevic Svacic Arpad Angevin Osman Luxembourg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine Bonaparte Savoy (disputed) 

Georgia Mukhrani Bagrationi Romanov 

Greece Doukas Komnenos Angelos Laskaris Palaeologos Osman Wittelsbach Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg 

Moldavia Bogdan-Musat Movilesti Draculesti Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemiresti Romanov Racovita Mavrocordato Ypsilanti Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollem-Sigmaringen House of Basarab 

Montenegro Vojislavljevic Balsic Crnojevic Petrovic 

House of Basarab Bogdan-Musat Movilesti Draculesti Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemiresti Romanov Racovit a Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollem-Sigmaringen 

Romania/Royal Family 
Russia Rurikovich Borjigin Godunov Shuysky Vasa Romanov 

Serbia Vlastimirovic Vojislavljevic Vukanovic Nemanjic Lazarevic Brankovic Balsic Crnojevic Obrenovic Osman Karadordevic 
Turkey Seljuq Osman 
Ukraine Rurikovich Gediminids Giray Romanov Habsburg-Lorraine 

Western Europe 

Austria Babenberg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine 

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 

Premyslid Luxembourg Jagiellon Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine 

Merovingian Carolingian Capet Valois Bourbon Bonaparte Orleans 

Ascania Carolingian Conradines Ottonian Luitpolding Salian Hohenstaufen Welf Habsburg Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Nassau Luxembourg Wittelsbach Schwarzburg 
Brunswick-Luneburg House of Pomerania Hohenzollem Wurttemberg Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Mecklenburg Vasa 
Pfalz-Zweibrucken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov Bonaparte Wettin Schwarzburg Lippe 

Arpad Premyslid Wittelsbach Angevin Luxembourg Hunyadi Jagiellon Szapolyai Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine 

Laigin Sfl Conairi Ulaid Dairine Osraige Cruthin Dal nAraidi Connachta Uf Fiachrach Uf Briuin Uf Neill Sfl nAedo Slaine Clann Cholmain Eoganachta Chaisil Glendamnach Raithlind 
Uf Dunlainge Uf imair (Norse) Uf Ceinnselaig Dal gCais Briain Mac Carthaig O Conchobhair O Ruairc De Burgh (Norman) FitzGerald (Norman) Domhnaill 6 Neill 
Este Savoy Colonna Medici Borghese Sforza Borromeo Montefeltro Orsini Visconti Gonzaga Farnese Delia Rovere Acciaioli Grimaldi Pamphili Barberini Malatesta Gens lulia Torlonia 
Bonaparte Murat Bourbon-Parma Bourbon-Two Sicilies 
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 

Lithuania Mindaugas Gediminids Jagiellon Valois Bathory Vasa Wisniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczynski Poniatowski Romanov 
Luxembourg Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Bourbon-Parma 

Monaco Grimaldi 
Netherlands Bonaparte Orange-Nassau 

Poland Piast Premyslid Samborides Griffins Jagiellon Valois Bathory Vasa Wisniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczynski Poniatowski Romanov 
Portugal Vfmara Peres Borgonha Aviz and House of Aviz-Beja Habsburg Braganza and Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 
Spain Asturian Barcelona Jimenez Perez Burgundy Trastamara Habsburg Bourbon Bonaparte Bourbon Savoy Bourbon 



Belgium 

Bohemia 

France 

Germany 

Hungary 
Gaelic Ireland 

Italy 



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Antigua and Barbuda - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigua_and_Barbuda 



Antigua and Barbuda 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



Antigua and Barbuda (4 V^n'tiiga aend bar'bjuida/; 

Spanish for "ancient" and "bearded") is a twin-island nation 
lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. It 
consists of two major inhabited islands, Antigua and Barbuda, 
and a number of smaller islands (including Great Bird, Green, 
Guinea, Long, Maiden and York Islands and further south, the 
island of Redonda). The permanent population number 
approximately 81,800 (at the 2011 Census) and the capital 
and largest port and city is St. John's, on Antigua. 

Separated by a few nautical miles, Antigua and Barbuda are in 
the middle of the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles, 
roughly at 17 degrees north of the Equator. The country is 
nicknamed "Land of 365 Beaches" due to the many beaches 
surrounding the islands. Its governance, language, and culture 
have all been strongly influenced by the British Empire, of 
which the country was formerly a part. 



Contents 



1 History 

2 Politics 

■ 2.1 Administration 

■ 2.2 Military 

3 Geography 

■ 3.1 Islands 

4 Economy 

5 Demographics 

■ 5.1 Ethnicity 

■ 5.2 Religion 

■ 5.3 Languages 

6 Culture 

7 Media 

8 Sports 

9 Education 

10 Foreign relations 

1 1 See also 

12 References 

13 External links 



History 



Main article: History of Antigua and Barbuda 



Antigua and Barbuda 





Hag 



Coat of arms 



Motto: Each Endeavouring, All Achieving 



Anthem: Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee 
Royal anthem: God Save the Queen 




v!R* 






t 



Capital 

(and largest city) 



Official language(s) 
Local language 



Saint John's 

17°7'N61 51'W 

English 



Antiguan Creole 



Ethnic groups (2001) 



91% black 
4.4% mixed 
1.7% white 
2.9% others 



Demonym 



Antiguan, Barbudan 



Government 



- Head of State 

- Governor-General 

- Prime Minister 

- Opposition Leader 



Parliamentary democracy 
under a federal 
constitutional monarchy 

Elizabeth H 

Dame Louise Lake-Tack 
Baldwin Spencer 
Lester Bird 



Independence 

- from the United 
Kingdom 



November 1, 1981 



Area 

- Total 



440 km z (195th) 
170 sqmi 



loflO 



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Antigua and Barbuda - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigua_and_Barbuda 



Antigua was first settled by Archaic Age hunter-gatherer 
Amerindians, erroneously referred to as Siboney or Ciboney. 
Carbon-dating has established that the earliest settlements 
started around 3100 BC. They were succeeded by the 
Ceramic Age pre-Columbian Arawak-speaking Saladoid 
people who migrated from the lower Orinoco River. 

The Arawaks introduced agriculture, raising, among other 
crops, the famous Antigua Black Pineapple (Moris cultivar of 
Ananas comosus), corn, sweet potatoes (white with firmer 
flesh than the bright orange "sweet potato" used in the United 
States), chiles, guava, tobacco and cotton. 

The indigenous West Indians made excellent sea-going vessels 
which they used to sail the Atlantic and the Caribbean. As a 
result, Caribs and Arawaks were able to colonize much of 
South America and the Caribbean Islands. Their descendants 
still live there, notably in Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia. 

Most Arawaks left Antigua around 1100 AD; those who 
remained were later raided by the Caribs. According to the 
Catholic Encyclopedia, the Caribs' superior weapons and 
seafaring prowess allowed them to defeat most of the West 
Indian Arawak nations, enslaving some and possibly 
cannibalizing others. 

The Catholic Encyclopedia does make it clear that the 

European invaders had some difficulty differentiating 

between the native peoples they encountered. As a result, the 

number and types of ethnic/tribal groups in existence at that time may have been much more varied and 

numerous than just the two mentioned in this article. 

European and African diseases, malnutrition and slavery eventually killed most of the Caribbean's native 
population, although no researcher has conclusively proven any of these causes as the real reason for these 

deaths. J Smallpox was probably the greatest killer.^ J In fact, some historians believe that the psychological 
stress of slavery may also have played a part in the massive number of deaths amongst enslaved natives. Others 
believe that the reportedly abundant, but starchy, low-protein diet may have contributed to severe malnutrition 



- Water (%) 


negligible 


Population 

- 2011 census 

- Density 


81,799 

186/km 2 
481/sqmi 


GDP (PPP) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2011 estimate 
$1,485 billion [1] 
$17,082 [1] 


GDP (nominal) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2010 estimate 
$1,105 billion [1] 
$12,848 [1] 


HDI(2007) 


A 0.868 (high) (47th) 


Currency 


East Caribbean dollar 
(xcd) 


Time zone 


AST (UTC-4) 


Drives on the 


left 


ISO 3166 code 


AG 


Internet TLD 


•ag 


Calling code 


+1-268 


1 God Save The Queen is the official national anthem but it is 
generally used only on regal and vice-regal occasions. 



of the Amerindians, who were used to a diet fortified with protein from the sea. 



[2] 



The island of Antigua, originally called " Wa'ladli" by Arawaks, is today called " Wadadli" by locals. It is possible 
that Caribs called it "Wa'omoni" . Christopher Columbus, while sailing by in 1493, may have named it Santa 
Maria la Antigua after an icon in the Spanish Seville Cathedral. The Spaniards did not colonize Antigua because 
it lacked fresh water but not aggressive Caribs. 

The English settled on Antigua in 1632; Sir Christopher Codrington settled on Barbuda in 1684. Slavery, 
established to run sugar plantations around 1684, was abolished in 1834. The British ruled from 1632 to 1981, 
with a brief French interlude in 1666. 

The islands became an independent state within the Commonwealth Realm system on November 1, 1981, with 
Elizabeth II as the first Queen of Antigua and Barbuda. The Right Honourable Vere Cornwall Bird became the 
first Prime Minister. 



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigua_and_Barbuda 



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Barbuda 






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JOHN'S 


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Town 


Map 


of Antigua 


and Barbuda. 





Politics 

Mam article: Politics of Antigua and Barbuda 

The politics of Antigua and Barbuda take place within a framework 
of a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic monarchy, in 
which the Head of State is the Monarch who appoints the Governor 
General as vice-regal representative. Elizabeth II is the present 
Queen of Antigua and Barbuda, having served in that position since 
the islands' independence from the United Kingdom in 1981. The 
Queen is currently represented by Governor General Dame Louise 
Lake-Tack (1944-) who became the first woman to hold this 
position. A Council of Ministers is appointed by the Governor 
General on the advice of the Prime Minister, currently Winston 
Baldwin Spencer (1948-). The Prime Minister is the Head of 
Government. 



Executive power is exercised by the government while legislative 

power is vested in both the government and the two Chambers of 

Parliament. The bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 

members appointed by members of the government and the 

opposition party, and approved by the Governor-General), and the House of Representatives (17 members 

elected by first past the post (check this entry) to serve five-year terms). The Speaker of the House is author and 

former St. John's University professor (New York) D. Gisele Isaac (check), while the President of the Senate is 

educator Hazlyn Francis-Mason. 

The last elections held were on March 12, 2009, during which the Antigua Labour Party won seven seats, the 
United Progressive Party nine and the Barbuda People's Movement one. 

Since 1949, the party system had been dominated by the populist Antigua Labour Party. However, the Antigua 
and Barbuda legislative election of 2004 saw the defeat of the longest-serving elected government in the 
Caribbean. Prime Minister Lester Bryant Bird, who had succeeded his father Vere Cornwall Bird, and Deputy 
Robin Yearwood had been in office since 1994. 

The elder Bird was Prime Minister from 1981 to 1994 and Chief Minister of Antigua from 1960 to 1981, except 
for the 1971-1976 period when the Progressive Labour Movement (PLM) defeated his party. Vere Cornwall 
Bird, the nation's first Prime Minister, is credited with having brought Antigua and Barbuda and the Caribbean 
into a new era of independence. 

The Judicial Branch is the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme 
Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High Court of Justice). In addition, Antigua is a member 
of the Caribbean Court of Justice. The Supreme Court of Appeal was the British Judicial Committee of the Privy 
Council up until 2001, when the nations of the Caribbean Community voted to abolish the right of appeal to the 
Privy Council in favor of a Caribbean Court of Justice. Some debate between member countries repeatedly 
delayed the court's date of inauguration. As of March 2005 (check the status of this action), only Barbados was 
set to replace appeals to the Privy Council with appeals the Caribbean Court of Justice, which by then had come 
into operation. 

Administration 



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Antigua and Barbuda - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigua_and_Barbuda 



Main article: Parishes and dependencies of Antigua and Barbuda 
Antigua and Barbuda is divided into six parishes and two dependencies: 

■ Parishes 

1 . Saint George 

2. Saint John 

3. Saint Mary 

4. Saint Paul 

5. Saint Peter 

6. Saint Philip 

■ Dependencies 

1. Barbuda 

2. Redonda 

Note: Though Barbuda and Redonda are called dependencies, they are integral parts of the state, making them 
essentially administrative divisions. Dependency is simply a title. 

Military 

The Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defence Force has 285 members; within it, 200 12-to- 18-year-old youngsters 
make up the Antigua and Barbuda Cadet Corps. 




Geography 

Main article: Geography of Antigua and Barbuda 
Islands 



Antigua - largest island 
Barbuda 
Bird Island 
Bishop Island 
Blake Island 
Cinnamon Island 
Codrington Island 
Crump Island 
Dulcina Island 
Exchange Island 



Five Islands 
Great Bird Island 
Green Island 
Guiana Island 
Hale Gate Island 
Hawes Island 
Henry Island 
Johnson Island 
Kid Island 
Laviscounts Island 



Lobster Island 
Long Island 
Maid Island 
Moor Island 
Nanny Island 
Pelican Island 
Prickly Pear Island 
Rabbit Island 
Rat Island 
Red Head Island 



Redonda 
Sandy Island 
Smith Island 
The Sisters 
Vernon Island 
Wicked Will Island 
York Island 



Economy 

Main article: Economy of Antigua and Barbuda 

Tourism dominates the economy, accounting for more than half of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Antigua 
is famous for its many luxury resorts. Weak tourist activity since early 2000 has slowed the economy, however, 
and squeezed the government into a tight fiscal corner. 



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigua_and_Barbuda 



Investment banking and financial services also make up an important 
part of the economy. Major world banks with offices in Antigua 
include the Bank of America (Bank of Antigua), Barclays, the Royal 
Bank of Canada (RBC) and Scotia Bank. Financial-services 
corporations with offices in Antigua include Price WaterhouseCoopers. 
The US Securities and Exchange Commission has accused the 
Antigua-based Stanford International Bank, owned by Texas 
billionaire Allen Stanford, of orchestrating a huge fraud which may 
have bilked investors of some $8 billion.^ ^ (check status 20100312) 




Downtown St. John's 



The twin-island nation's agricultural production is focused on its 

domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of 

higher wages in tourism and construction work. 

Manufacturing is made up of enclave-type assembly for export, the major products being bedding, handicrafts 
and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on 
income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the United States, from which about one-third of all 
tourists come. 

Following the opening of the American University of Antigua College of Medicine by investor and attorney Neil 
Simon in 2003, a new source of revenue was established. The university employs many local Antiguans and the 
approximate 1000 students consume a large amount of the goods and services. 



Demographics 



Main article: Demographics of Antigua and Barbuda 
Ethnicity 

Antigua has a population of 85,632, mostly made up of 
people of West African, British, and Portuguese descent. The 
ethnic distribution consists of 91% Black or Mulatto, 4.4% 
mixed race, 1.7% White, and 2.9% other (primarily East 
Indian and Asian). Most Whites are of Irish or British 
descent. Christian Levantine Arabs, and a small number of 
Asians and Sephardic Jews make up the remainder of the 
population. 




Population of Antigua and Barbuda, Data of FAO, 
year 2005. Number of inhabitants in thousands. 



Behind the late 20th-century revival and redefinition of the 

role of Afro- Antiguans and Barbudans in the society's 

cultural life is a history of racial/ethnic tensions which systematically excluded non- Whites. Within the colonial 

framework established by the British soon after their initial settlement of Antigua in 1623, five distinct and 

carefully ranked racial/ethnic groups emerged. 

At the top of this social structure were the British rulers. Amongst them were divisions between British 
Antiguans and non-creolized Britons, with the latter coming out on top. In short, this was a racial/ethnic 
hierarchy which gave maximum recognition to people and cultural practices of Anglican origin. 

Immediately below the British were the mulattos, a mixed-race group of Afro-European origin. Mulattos, lighter 
in shade than most Africans, developed a complex system based on skin shade to distinguish themselves from the 



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Antigua and Barbuda - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigua_and_Barbuda 



latter and to legitimate their claims to higher status. In many ways, they paralleled the British White Supremacy 
ideology. 

In the middle of this social stratification were the Portuguese, 2,500 of whom migrated as workers from Madeira 
(a Portuguese archipelago in the North Atlantic, to the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula) between 1847 and 
1852 because of a severe famine there. Many established small businesses and joined the ranks of the mulatto 
class. The British never really considered the Portuguese as Whites and did not allow them into their ranks. 
Amongst Antiguans and Barbudans of Portuguese descent, status differences were based on the varying degrees 
of assimilation into the dominant group's Anglicized practices. 

Next to the bottom were Middle Easterners who began migrating to Antigua and Barbuda around the turn of the 
20th century. Starting as itinerant traders, they soon worked their way into the social mix. Although Middle 
Easterners came from a variety of areas, as a group they are usually referred to as Syrians. 

Afro- Antiguans and Afro-Barbudans were at the bottom. Forced into slavery, Africans started arriving in 
Antigua and Barbuda in large numbers during the 1670s. Very quickly, they grew into the largest racial/ethnic 
group. Their entry into the local social structure was marked by a profound racialization: They ceased being 
Yoruba, Igbo, or Akan and became Negroes or Bhicks. [citation needed] 

In the 20th century, the colonial social structure gradually started to be phased out with the introduction of 
universal education and better economic opportunities. This process allowed Blacks to rise to the highest 
echelons of society and government. 

In the last decade, Spanish-speaking immigrants from the Dominican Republic and Afro-Caribbean immigrants 
from Guyana and Dominica were added to this ethnic mosaic. They have entered at the social structure's bottom; 
it is still too early to predict their patterns of assimilation and social mobility. 

Today, an increasingly large percentage of the population lives abroad, most notably in the United Kingdom 
(Antiguan Britons), United States and Canada. A minority of Antiguan residents are immigrants from other 
countries, particularly from Dominica, Guyana and Jamaica, and, increasing, from the Dominican Republic, St. 
Vincent and the Grenadines and Nigeria. An estimated 4,500 American citizens also make their home in Antigua 
and Barbuda, making their numbers one of the largest American populations in the English-speaking Eastern 
Caribbean. [5] 

Religion 




St. John's Cathedral 



Seventy-four percent L J of Antiguans are Christians, with the Anglican 
denomination (about 44%) being the largest. Other Christian 

denominations present are Baptists, J Presbyterians^ ^ J and Catholics. 

Non-Christian religions practiced in the islands include the Rastafari 
Movement, Islam, Judaism and the Baha'i Faith. 



~, Languages 



English is the official language, but many of the locals speak Antiguan 
Creole. The Barbudan accent is slightly different from the Antiguan. 



In the years before Antigua and Barbuda's independence, Standard English was widely spoken in preference to 
Antiguan Creole, but afterwards Antiguans began treating Antiguan Creole as a respectable aspect of their 



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culture. Generally, the upper and middle classes shun Antiguan Creole. The educational system dissuades the use 
of Antiguan Creole and instruction is done in Standard (British) English. 

Many of the words used in the Antiguan dialect are derived from British as well as African languages. This can 
be easily seen in phrases such as: "Me nah go" meaning "I am not going". Another example is: "Ent it?" meaning 
"Ain't it?" which is itself dialectical and means "Isn't it?". Common island proverbs can often be traced to Africa. 

Culture 

See also: Antigua and Barbuda cuisine and Music of Antigua and Barbuda 

The culture is predominantly British: For example, cricket is the national sport and Antigua has produced several 
famous cricket players including Sir Vivian Richards, Anderson "Andy" Roberts, and Richard "Richie" 
Richardson. Other popular sports include football, boat racing and surfing (the Antigua Sailing Week attracts 
locals and visitors from all over the world). 

American popular culture and fashion also have a heavy influence. Most of the country's media is made up of 
major United States networks. Many Antiguans prefer to make a special shopping trip to San Juan, Puerto Rico. 

Family and religion play an important roles in the lives of Antiguans. Most attend religious services on Sunday, 

although there is a growing number of Seventh-day Adventists who observe the Sabbath on Saturday. 

[citation needed] 

The national Carnival held each August commemorates the abolition of slavery in the British West Indies, 
although on some islands, Carnival may celebrate the coming of Lent. Its festive pageants, shows, contests and 
other activities are a major tourist attraction. 

Calypso and soca music are important in Antigua and Barbuda. ltatwn nee e J 

Corn and sweet potatoes play an important role in Antiguan cuisine. For example, a popular Antiguan dish, 
Dukuna (DOO-koo-NAH) is a sweet, steamed dumpling made from grated sweet potatoes, flour and spices. One 
of the Antiguan staple foods, fungi (FOON-ji), is a cooked paste made of cornmeal and water. 

Media 

Up until April 2010 there were two daily newspapers: Daily Observer and which also published newspapers on 
other Caribbean islands. Antigua Sun has ceased operation in April. It has been in circulation for 13 years. 
Besides most American television networks, the local channel ABS TV 10 is available (it is the only station 
which shows exclusively local programs). There are also several local and regional radio stations, such as 
V2C-AM 620, ZDK-AM 1100, VYBZ-FM 92.9, and ZDK-FM 97.1. 

Sports 

See also: Cricket in the West Indies 

Like many Commonwealth countries, cricket is the most popular sport. The Antigua and Barbuda national 
cricket team represented the country at the 1998 Commonwealth Games, but Antiguan cricketers otherwise play 
for the Leeward Islands cricket team in domestic matches and the West Indies cricket team internationally. The 
2007 Cricket World Cup was hosted in the West Indies from March 11 to April 28, 2007. Antigua hosted eight 
matches at the Sir Vivian Richards Stadium, which was completed on February 11, 2007 and can hold up to 

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20,000 people. Antigua is a Host of Stanford Twenty 20 - Twenty 20 
Cricket, a version started by Allen Stanford in 2006 as a regional cricket 
game with almost all Caribbean islands taking part. Antiguan Viv 
Richards scored the fastest Test Century and Brian Lara twice scored the 
World Test Record at the Antigua Recreation Ground. 

Association football is also a very popular sport. Antigua has a national 
football team which has entered World Cup qualification for the 1974 
tournament and for the 1986 one and onwards. A professional team has 
also been formed, Antigua Barracuda FC, which is slated to join the USL 
First Division in 2011. 




Antigua Recreation Ground 



Athletics are popular. Talented athletes are trained from a young age, and Antigua and Barbuda has produced a 
few fairly adept athletes. Janill Williams, a young athlete with much promise comes from Gray's Farm, Antigua. 
Sonia Williams and Heather Samuel represented Antigua and Barbuda at the Olympic Games. Other prominent 
rising stars include Brendan Christian (100 m, 200 m), Daniel Bailey (100 m, 200 m) and James Grayman (high 
jump). 

Antigua can boast of some excellent tennis players, most notably Brian Philip #1 and Roberto Esposito #2 on the 
island for under- 18 tournaments, who both are also involved in under- 18 ITF tournaments. Their coach's (Eli 
Armstrong) daughter Keishora Armstrong, who will be turning 13 later this year, is the under- 1 8 's champion on 
the girls' circuit. 

Education 

The people of Antigua & Barbuda enjoy a more-than-90% literacy rate. In 1998, Antigua and Barbuda adopted a 
national mandate to become the pre-eminent provider of medical services in the Caribbean. As part of this 
mission, Antigua and Barbuda is building the most technologically advanced hospital in the Caribbean, the Mt. 
St. John Medical Centre. The island of Antigua currently has two medical schools, the American University of 

Antigua (AUA), [10] founded in 2004, and The University of Health Sciences Antigua (UHSA), [11] founded in 
1982. 

There is also a government owned state college in Antigua as well as the Antigua and Barbuda Institute of 
Information Technology (ABIIT)and the Antigua and Barbuda Hospitality Training Institute (ABHTI). The 
University of the West Indies has a branch in Antigua for locals to continue University studies. 

Antigua has two international primary/secondary schools Including (Alphabetically) CCSET International which 
offers the Ontario Secondary School Diploma and Island Academy which offers the International Baccalaureate. 
There are also may other private schools but these institutions tend to follow the same local curriculum (CXCs) 
as government schools. Both international schools are relatively inexperienced with offering international 
degrees. CCSET international has existed for several years but only began offering an International Degree in 
2007. While CCSET's graduating classes have consistently been awarded the OSSD this is somewhat 
controversial because CCSET students do not receive their diploma from CCSET directly as it is not able to 
grant OSSD credits instead they receive this diploma from one of CCSET's (constantly changing) partner schools 
based in Ontario. In contrast Island Academy has offered international degrees for much longer than CCSET but 
has been inconsistent with their program they have switched from offering the OSSD to the IB, back to the 
OSSD and finally back to the IB again in February 2009. Sense 2009 island Academy has not granted any IB 
diplomas to students. 



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Antigua and Barbuda - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigua_and_Barbuda 



Foreign relations 



Main article: Foreign relations of Antigua and Barbuda 

Antigua and Barbuda is a member of the United Nations, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, the 
Commonwealth of Nations, the Caribbean Community, the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, the 
Organization of American States, the World Trade Organization and the Eastern Caribbean's Regional Security 
System. 

Antigua and Barbuda is also a member of the International Criminal Court (with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement 
of Protection for the US military as covered under Article 98). 

See also 

■ Outline of Antigua and Barbuda 

■ Bibliography of Antigua and Barbuda 

■ Index of Antigua and Barbuda-related articles 

■ Commonwealth of Nations 

■ Leeward Islands 

■ List of Antiguans and Barbudans 



References 



1. A a b c d "Antigua and Barbuda" (http://www.imf.org 
/external/pubs/ft/weo/20 1 1/0 1/weodata 
/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2011&scsm=l&ssd=l& 
sort=country &ds=. &br= 1 &c=3 1 1 & 
s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPP 
C%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=38&pr.y=13) . 
International Monetary Fund, http://www.imf.org 
/external/pubs/ft/weo/20 1 1/0 1/weodata 
/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2011&scsm=l&ssd=l& 
sort=country &ds=. &br= 1 &c=3 1 1 & 
s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPP 
C%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=38&pr.y=13. Retrieved 
2011-04-12. 

2. A a b Rogozinski, Jan (September 2000). A Brief 
History of the Caribbean. Penguin Putnam, Inc.. 

3. A Austin Alchon, Suzanne (2003). A pest in the land: 
new world epidemics in a global perspective 
(http://books.google.com 

/books ?id=YiHHnV08ebkC&pg=PA62& 
dq#v=onepage&q=&f=false) . University of New 
Mexico Press, pp. 62-63. ISBN 0826328717. 
http://books. google.com/books ?id=YiHHnV08ebkC& 
pg=PA62&dq#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 

4. A Krauss, Clifford; Creswell, Julie; Savage, Charlie 
(February 21, 2009). "Fraud Case Shakes a 
Billionaire's Caribbean Realm" 
(http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/21/business 

/2 lstanford.html) . The New York Times. 



6. 



9. 



10. 



11. 



http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/21/business 

/2 lstanford.html. Retrieved April 14, 2010. 

A "Background Note: Antigua and Barbuda" 

(http://www.state.gOv/r/pa/ei/bgn/2336.htm) . 

http ://www. state . go v/r/pa/ei/bgn/23 3 6 . htm. Retrieved 

2007-08-23. 

A "Antigua and Barbuda: International Religious 

Freedom Report 2006" (http://www.state.gOv/g/drl 

/rls/irf/2006/7 1445.htm) . 2006-09-15. 

http://www.state.gOv/g/drl/rls/irf/2006/71445.htm. 

Retrieved 2007-08-23. 

A http ://www. bwanet. org/def ault. aspx?pid= 1118 

A http://www.fpcjackson.org/resources 

/church_history 

/Southern%20Presbyterian%20History 

/no.%201%20The%20Beginnings.htm 

A http://books.google.com 

/books ?id=VGF3wbzzy9QC&pg=PA68&lpg=PA68& 

dq=presbyterians+barbodos&source=bl& 

ots=2P30se4LM9& 

sig=S 1 C WqW014_s wzcNAv6fcrzb6rAM&hl=en& 

ei=mKuKSvOxAYjosQPk4MHWDQ& 

sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result& 

resnum=l#v=onepage&q=&f=false 

A "American University of Antigua, College of 

Medicine" (http://www.auamed.org/) . 

http://www.auamed.org/. Retrieved 2007-08-23. 

A "University of Health Sciences Antigua" 



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History of Antigua and Barbuda - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda 

History of Antigua and Barbuda 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

The history of Antigua and Barbuda can be separated into three distinct eras. In the first, the islands were 
inhabited by three successive Amerindian societies. The islands were neglected by the first wave of European 
colonisation, but were settled by England in 1632. Under British control, the islands witnessed an influx of both 
Britons and African slaves. In 1981, the islands were granted independence as the modern state of Antigua and 
Barbuda. 



Contents 


■ 1 Pre-Columbian settlements 


■ 2 European colonization 


■ 3 Political development 


■ 4 Independent Antigua and Barbuda 


■ 5 See also 


■ 6 References 



Pre-Columbian settlements 

Antigua was first settled by pre- agricultural Amerindians known as "Archaic People", (although they are 
commonly, but erroneously known in Antigua as Siboney, a preceramic Cuban people). The earliest settlements 
on the island date to 2900 BC. They were succeeded by ceramic-using agriculturalist Saladoid people who 
migrated up the island chain from Venezuela. They were later replaced by Arawakan speakers around 1200 AD, 

and around 1500 by Island Caribs. J 

The Arawaks were the first well-documented group of Antiguans. They paddled to the island by canoe (piragua) 
from Venezuela, ejected by the Caribs — another people indigenous to the area. Arawaks introduced agriculture 
to Antigua and Barbuda, raising, among other crops, the famous Antiguan "Black" pineapple. They also 
cultivated various other foods including: 

■ corn 

■ sweet potatoes (White with firmer flesh than the bright orange "sweet potato" used in the United States.) 

■ chiles 

■ guava 

■ tobacco 

■ cotton 

Some of the vegetables listed, such as corn and sweet potatoes, still play an important role in Antiguan cuisine. 

For example, a popular Antiguan dish, Ducuna (DOO-koo-NAH) is a sweet, steamed dumpling made from grated 
sweet potatoes, flour and spices. In addition, one of the Antiguan staple foods, fungee (FOON-ji), is a cooked 
paste made of cornmeal and water. 

The bulk of the Arawaks left Antigua about 1100 A.D. Those who remained were subsequently raided by the 
Caribs. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the Carib's superior weapons and seafaring prowess allowed 



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them to defeat most Arawak nations in the West Indies — enslaving some, and cannibalizing others. 

The Catholic Encyclopedia does make it clear that the European invaders had some difficulty identifying and 
differentiating between the various native peoples they encountered. As a result, the number and types of 
ethnic/tribal/national groups in existence at the time may be much more varied and numerous than the two 
mentioned in this Article. 

According to A Brief History of the Caribbean (Jan Rogozinski, Penguin Putnam, Inc September 2000 ), 
European and African diseases, malnutrition and slavery eventually destroyed the vast majority of the 
Caribbean's native population. No researcher has conclusively proven any of these causes as the real reason for 
the destruction of West Indian natives. In fact, some historians believe that the psychological stress of slavery 
may also have played a part in the massive number of native deaths while in servitude. Others believe that the 
reportedly abundant, but starchy, low-protein diet may have contributed to severe malnutrition of the "Indians" 
who were used to a diet fortified with protein from sea-life. 

The Indigenous West Indians made excellent sea vessels that they used to sail the Atlantic and Caribbean. As a 
result, Caribs and Arawaks populated much of South American and the Caribbean Islands. Relatives of the 
Antiguan Arawaks and Caribs still live in various countries in South America, notably Brazil, Venezuela and 
Colombia. The smaller remaining native populations in the West Indies maintain a pride in their heritage. 

European colonization 

Christopher Columbus landed on the islands in 1493, naming the larger one Santa Maria de la Antigua. 
However, early attempts by Europeans to settle the islands failed due to the Caribs' excellent defenses. 
[citation nee e j g n gi an( j succeeded in colonising the islands in 1632, with Thomas Warner as the first governor. 
Settlers raised tobacco, indigo, ginger, and sugarcane as cash crops. Sir Christopher Codrington established the 
first large sugar estate in Antigua in 1674, and leased Barbuda to raise provisions for his plantations. Barbuda's 
only town is named after him. In the fifty years after Codrington established his initial plantation, the sugar 
industry became so profitable that many farmers replaced other crops with sugar, making it the economic 
backbone of the islands. Codrington and others brought slaves from Africa's west coast to work the plantations 
under brutal conditions. 

During the 18th century, Antigua was used as the headquarters of the British Royal Navy Caribbean fleet. 
English Dockyard, as it came to be called, a sheltered and well-protected deepwater port, was the main base and 
facilities there were greatly expanded during the later 18th century. Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson commanded 
the British fleet for much of this time, and made himself unpopular with local merchants by enforcing the 
Navigation Act, a British ruling that only British-registered ships could trade with British colonies. As the United 
States were no longer British colonies, the act posed a problem for merchants, who depended on trade with the 
fledgling country. 



Political development 



With all others in the British Empire, Antiguan slaves were emancipated in 1834, but remained economically 
dependent upon the plantation owners. Economic opportunities for the new freedmen were limited by a lack of 
surplus farming land, no access to credit, and an economy built on agriculture rather than manufacturing. Poor 
labour conditions persisted until 1939 when a member of a royal commission urged the formation of a trade 
union movement. 

The Antigua Trades and Labour Union, formed shortly afterward, became the political vehicle for Vere Cornwall 



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Bird who became the union's president in 1943. The Antigua Labour Party (ALP), formed by Bird and other 
trade unionists, first ran candidates in the 1946 elections and became the majority party in 1951 beginning a long 
history of electoral victories. 

Voted out of office in the 1971 general elections that swept the progressive labour movement into power, Bird 
and the ALP returned to office in 1976. 



Independent Antigua and Barbuda 



The islands achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1981, becoming the nation of Antigua and 
Barbuda. It remains part of the Commonwealth of Nations, and remains a constitutional monarchy, with Queen 
Elizabeth II as Queen of Antigua and Barbuda. 

In 1997, Prime Minister Lester Bird announced that a group of ecologically sensitive islands just off Antigua's 
northeastern coast, previously proposed for national park status, were being turned over to Malaysian 
developers. The Guiana Island Development Project deal, calling for a 1000-room hotel, an 18-hole golf course 
and a world-class casino, sparked widespread criticism by environmentalists, minority members in parliament, 
and the press. The issue came to a head when a local resident shot the PM's brother. Today, the proposed 
development is mired in lawsuits and politics. 

The ALP won renewed mandates in the general elections in 1984 and 1989. In the 1989 elections, the ruling 
ALP won all but two of the 17 seats. During elections in March 1994, power passed from Vere Bird to his son, 
Lester Bird, but remained within the ALP which won 11 of the 17 parliamentary seats. The United Progressive 
Party won the 2004 elections and Baldwin Spencer became Prime Minister, removing from power the longest- 
serving elected government in the Caribbean. 

See also 

■ Antigua and Barbuda 

■ Antigua Carnival 

■ British colonization of the Americas 

■ French colonization of the Americas 

■ History of the Americas 

■ History of the British West Indies 

■ History of North America 

■ History of the Caribbean 

■ Politics of Antigua and Barbuda 

■ List of Prime Ministers of Antigua and Barbuda 

■ Spanish colonization of the Americas 

References 

■ <i This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World 
Factbook. 

■ t : This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States 
Department of State (Background Notes). 

■ Rulers.org — Antigua and Barbuda (http://www.rulers.0rg/rula2.html#antigua_and_barbuda) list of rulers 
for Antigua and Barbuda 



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Monarchy of Antigua and Barbuda - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda 



Monarchy of Antigua and Barbuda 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



Antigua and Barbuda is a constitutional monarchy and a 
Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its 
reigning monarch since November 1, 1981. As such she is 
Antigua and Barbuda's Sovereign and head of state and 
officially called Queen of Antigua and Barbuda. 



Most of the Queen's powers in Antigua and Barbuda are 
exercised by the Governor General, presently Louise 
Lake-Tack, though the Monarch does hold several powers 
that are hers alone. 

The Queen is the only member of the Antiguan and 
Barbudian Royal Family with any constitutional role; she, 
her husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, their son 
The Prince of Wales, and other members of the Royal 
Family, including the Queen's other children and cousins, 
undertake various public ceremonial functions within 
Antigua and Barbuda and abroad. 



Queen of Antigua and Barbuda 

MONARCHY 




Incumbent: 
Elizabeth H 



Contents 


■ 1 Origins 


■ 2 International and domestic aspects 


■ 2.1 Development of shared monarchy 


■ 2.2 Title 


■ 2.3 Finance 


■ 2.4 Succession 


■ 3 Constitutional role 


■ 3.1 Constitutional duties 


■ 4 Legal role 


■ 5 History 


■ 6 See also 


■ 6.1 Other realms 


■ 6.2 Other 


■ 7 External links 


■ 8 Footnotes 



Style: 

Heir apparent: 

First monarch: 

Formation: 



Her Majesty 
Charles, Prince of Wales 
Elizabeth II 
November 1, 1981 



Origins 

The current Antiguan and Barbudian monarchy can trace its ancestral lineage back to the Anglo-Saxon and 
Merovingian periods, and ultimately back to the kings of the Angles, the early Scottish kings, and the Frankish 
kingdom of Clovis I. Parts of the territories that today comprise Antigua and Barbuda were claimed under King 
Charles I in 1632. The country was proclaimed fully independent, via constitutional patriation, by Queen 



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Elizabeth II in 1981. 

International and domestic aspects 

Sixteen states within the 54-member Commonwealth of Nations are known as Commonwealth realms and 
Antigua and Barbuda is one of these. Despite sharing the same person as their respective national monarch, each 
of the Commonwealth realms is sovereign and independent of the others. * 

See also: Commonwealth realm: Constitutional implications 
Development of shared monarchy 

The Balfour Declaration of 1926 provided the Dominions the right to be considered equal to Britain, rather than 
subordinate; an agreement that had the result of, in theory, a shared Crown that operates independently in each 
realm rather than a unitary British Crown under which all the Dominions were secondary. The Monarchy thus 
ceased to be an exclusively British institution, although it has often been called "British" since this time (in both 
legal and common language) for reasons historical, legal, and of convenience. The Royal and Parliamentary 
Titles Act, 1927 was the first indication of this shift in law, further elaborated in the Statute of Westminster, 
1931. 

Under the Statute of Westminster, Antigua and Barbuda has a common monarchy with Britain and the other 
Commonwealth realms, and though laws governing the line of succession to the Antiguan and Barbudian throne 
lie within the control of the Antiguan and Barbudian Parliament, Antigua and Barbuda cannot change the rules 
of succession without the unanimous consent of the other realms, unless explicitly leaving the shared monarchy 
relationship by means of a constitutional amendment. This situation applies symmetrically in all the other realms, 
including the UK. 

On all matters of the Antiguan and Barbudian State, the Monarch is advised solely by Antiguan and Barbudian 
ministers. Effective with the patriation of Antigua and Barbuda's Constitution, no British or other realm 
government can advise the Monarch on any matters pertinent to Antigua and Barbuda. 

Title 

Main article: List of titles and honours of Queen Elizabeth II 

In Antigua and Barbuda, the Queen's official title is: 

■ Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Antigua and Barbuda and of Her other Realms and 
Territories, Head of the Commonwealth. 

This style communicates Antigua and Barbuda's status as an independent monarchy, highlighting the Monarch's 
role specifically as Queen of Antigua and Barbuda, as well as the shared aspect of the Crown throughout the 
realms, by mentioning Antigua and Barbuda separately the other Commonwealth realms. Typically, the 
Sovereign is styled "Queen of Antigua and Barbuda," and is addressed as such when in Antigua and Barbuda, or 
performing duties on behalf of Antigua and Barbuda abroad. 

Finance 

Antiguans and Barbudians do not pay any money to the Queen, either for personal income or to support the 
royal residences outside of Antigua and Barbuda. Only when the Queen is in Antigua and Barbuda, or acting 

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda 



abroad as Queen of Antigua and Barbuda, does the Antiguan and Barbudian government support her in the 
performance of her duties. This rule applies equally to other members of the Royal Family. 

Usually the Queen's Antiguan and Barbudian government pays only for the costs associated with the Governor 
General in his or her exercising of the powers of the Crown on behalf of the Queen, including travel, security, 
residences, offices, ceremonial occasions, etc. 

Succession 




Charles, Prince of Wales, is the 
heir apparent to the Antiguan 
and Barbudian Throne 

information. 



The heir apparent is Elizabeth ITs eldest son, Charles. The Governor General is 
expected to proclaim him King of Antigua and Barbuda upon his accession to 
the Throne upon the demise of the Crown. 

Succession to the throne is by male-preference primogeniture, and governed by 
the provisions of the Act of Settlement, as well as the English Bill of Rights. 
These documents, though originally passed by the Parliament of England, are 
now part of Antiguan and Barbudian constitutional law, under control of the 
Antiguan and Barbudian parliament only. As such, the rules for succession are 
not fixed, but may be changed by a constitutional amendment. 

This legislation restricts the succession to the natural (i.e. non-adopted), 
legitimate descendants of Sophia, Electress of Hanover (1630-1714), a 
granddaughter of James I, and lays out the rules that the Monarch cannot be a 
Roman Catholic, nor married to one, and must be in communion with the 
Church of England upon ascending the throne. As Antigua and Barbuda's laws 
governing succession are currently identical to those of the United Kingdom (by 
the Statute of Westminster) see Succession to the British Throne for more 



Upon a "demise in the Crown" (the death of a Sovereign) his or her heir immediately and automatically 
succeeds, without any need for confirmation or further ceremony. (Hence arises the phrase "The King is dead. 
Long live the King!") Nevertheless, it is customary for the accession of the Sovereign to be publicly proclaimed. 
After an appropriate period of mourning has passed, the Sovereign is also crowned in Westminster Abbey, 
normally by the Archbishop of Canterbury. A coronation is not necessary for a Sovereign to rule; for example, 
Edward VIII was never crowned, yet was undoubtedly king during his short reign. 

After an individual ascends the Throne, he or she continues to reign until death. Monarchs are not allowed to 
unilaterally abdicate; no Antiguan and Barbudian monarch has abdicated. 

Constitutional role 

Antigua and Barbuda's constitution is made up of a variety of statutes and conventions that are either British or 
Antiguan and Barbudian in origin, which gives Antigua and Barbuda a similar parliamentary system of 
government as the other Commonwealth realms. All powers of state are constitutionally reposed in the Monarch, 
who is represented in the country by the Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda — appointed by the 
Monarch upon the advice of the Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda; most of the Queen's domestic duties 
are performed by these vice-regal representative. 

Constitutional duties 



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The role of the Queen and the Governor General is both legal and practical; the Crown is regarded as a 
corporation, in which several parts share the authority of the whole, with the Queen as the person at the centre 
of the constitutional construct. 

The vast powers that belong to the Crown are collectively known as the Royal Prerogative, which includes many 
powers such as the ability to make treaties or send ambassadors, as well as certain duties such as to defend the 
realm and to maintain the Queen's peace. Parliamentary approval is not required for the exercise of the Royal 
Prerogative; moreover, the Consent of the Crown must be obtained before either House may even debate a bill 
affecting the Sovereign's prerogatives or interests. It is important to note that the Royal Prerogative belongs to 

the Crown, and not to any of the ministers, though it may sometimes appear that way. a wn nee e Although 
the Royal Prerogative is extensive, it is not unlimited. For example, the Monarch does not have the prerogative 
to impose and collect new taxes; such an action requires the authorization of an Act of Parliament. 

The Crown is responsible for appointing a Prime Minister. In accordance with unwritten constitutional 
conventions, the Monarch or Governor General must appoint the individual most likely to maintain the support 
of the House of Commons: usually, the leader of the party which has a majority in that House. If no party has a 
majority, two or more groups may form a coalition, whose agreed leader is then appointed Prime Minister. In a 
Parliament in which no party or coalition holds a majority, the Crown is required by convention to appoint the 
individual most likely to command the support of the House of Commons, usually, but not necessarily, the leader 
of the largest party. Situations can arise in which the Governor General's judgement about the most suitable 
leader to be Prime Minister has to be brought into play. The Queen is informed by the Governor General of the 
acceptance of the resignation of a prime minister and the swearing-in of a new prime minister and members of 
the Ministry. 

It is a duty of the Crown to also appointment and dismiss ministers, members of various executive agencies, 
other officials. The appointment of Senators and the Speaker of the Senate also falls under the Royal 
Prerogative. Effectively, however, the appointees are chosen by the Prime Minister, or, for less important offices, 
by other ministers. 

In addition, it is the Crown's prerogative to declare war, make peace, and direct the actions of the military, 
although the Prime Minister holds de facto decision-making power over the armed forces. The Royal Prerogative 
also extends to foreign affairs: the Sovereign or Governor General may negotiate and ratify treaties, alliances, 
and international agreements; no parliamentary approval is required. However, a treaty cannot alter the domestic 
laws of the Antigua and Barbuda; an Act of Parliament is necessary in such cases. The Governor General, on 
behalf of the Queen, also accredits Antiguan and Barbudian High Commissioners and ambassadors, and receives 
diplomats from foreign states. In addition, all Antiguan and Barbudian passports are issued in the Monarch's 
name. In Antigua and Barbuda major public inquiries are called Royal Commissions, and are created by the 
Cabinet on behalf of the Monarch through a Royal Warrant. 

The Sovereign is one of the three components of Parliament; the others are the Senate and the House of 
Representatives. The Governor General is also responsible for summoning the House of Commons, though it 
remains the Monarch's prerogative to prorogue, and dissolve Parliament. The new parliamentary session is 
marked by the State Opening of Parliament, during which either the Sovereign of the Governor General reads the 
Speech from the Throne in the Senate Chamber, outlining the Government's legislative agenda. Prorogation 
usually occurs about one year after a session begins, and formally concludes the session. Dissolution, the timing 
of which is affected by a variety of factors, ends a parliamentary term (which lasts a maximum of five years), 
and is followed by general elections for all seats in the House of Commons. The Monarch or Governor General 
may theoretically refuse a dissolution. 

Because the Antiguan and Barbudian Monarchy is a constitutional one, the powers that are constitutionally the 
Monarch's are exercised almost wholly upon the advice of his or her Prime Minister and the Ministers of the 

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Crown in Cabinet, who are, in turn, accountable to the democratically elected House of Commons, and through 
it, to the people. It has been said since the death of Queen Anne in 1714, the last monarch to head the British 
cabinet, that the monarch "reigns" but does not "rule". This means that the Monarch's role, and thereby the 
Vice-regent's role, is almost entirely symbolic and cultural, acting as a symbol of the legal authority under which 
all governments and agencies operate. 

Legal role 

All laws in Antigua and Barbuda are enacted with the sovereign's, or the vice-regal's signature. The granting of a 
signature to a bill is known as Royal Assent; it and proclamation are required for all acts of Parliament, usually 
granted or withheld by the Governor General, with the Public Seal of Antigua and Barbuda. The Vice-regal may 
reserve a bill for the Monarch's pleasure, that is to say, allow the Monarch to make a personal decision on the 
bill. The Monarch has the power to disallow a bill (within a time limit specified by the Constitution). 

The Sovereign is deemed the "fount of justice," and is responsible for rendering justice for all subjects. The 
Sovereign does not personally rule injudicial cases; instead, judicial functions are performed in his or her name. 
The common law holds that the Sovereign "can do no wrong"; the monarch cannot be prosecuted in his or her 
own courts for criminal offences. Civil lawsuits against the Crown in its public capacity (that is, lawsuits against 
the government) are permitted; however, lawsuits against the Monarch personally are not cognizable. In 
international cases, as a sovereign and under established principles of international law, the Queen of Antigua 
and Barbuda is not subject to suit in foreign courts without her express consent. ltatwn nee e J The Sovereign, 
and by extension the Governor General, also exercises the "prerogative of mercy," and may pardon offences 
against the Crown. Pardons may be awarded before, during, or after a trial. 

In Antigua and Barbuda the legal personality of the State is referred to as "Her Majesty the Queen in Right of 
Antigua and Barbuda." For example, if a lawsuit is filed against the government, the respondent is formally 
described as Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Antigua and Barbuda. The monarch as an individual takes no 
more role in such an affair than in any other business of government. 

The Oath of Allegiance is required by law to be sworn by new members of the Royal Antigua and Barbuda 
Defence Force, police officers, and parliamentarians; it is an oath to the Monarch as Sovereign of Antigua and 
Barbuda, and to his/her heirs and successors according to law. The Oath of Allegiance is as follows: 

/, , do swear (or solemnly affirm) that I will faithfully bear true allegiance to Her Majesty 

Queen Elizabeth the Second, Her Heirs and Successors, according to law. So help me God. (To be 
omitted in affirmation). 

Further information: The Crown 

History 

Elizabeth II, Queen of Antigua and Barbuda, and her husband, the royal consort the Duke of Edinburgh, 
included the Antigua and Barbuda in their Caribbean tour of 1966, and in the Silver Jubilee tour of October, 
1977. The Queen visited again in 1985. ^ 

The Earl of Wessex opened Antigua and Barbuda's new parliament building on the country's twenty fifth 
anniversary of independence, October 30, 2006, reading a message from his mother, the Queen. HRH The Duke 

of York visited Antigua and Barbuda in January 2001. J 



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Australia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia 



Australia 



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

Australia (4 /.?lstrei]J9/), officially the Commonwealth of 

Australia, ^ is a country in the Southern Hemisphere 
comprising the mainland of the Australian continent as well as 
the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands in the 

Indian and Pacific Oceans. J It is the world's sixth-largest 
country by total area. Neighbouring countries include 
Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the north; 
the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Caledonia to the 
north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. 

For at least 40,000 years^ J before European settlement in 
the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous 
Australians, J who belonged to one or more of roughly 250 

language groups. ^ J After discovery by Dutch explorers in 
1606, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 
1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of 
New South Wales from 26 January 1788. The population grew 
steadily in subsequent decades; the continent was explored 
and an additional five self-governing Crown Colonies were 
established. 

On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the 
Commonwealth of Australia. Since Federation, Australia has 
maintained a stable liberal democratic political system which 
functions as a federal parliamentary democracy and 
constitutional monarchy. The federation comprises six states 
and several territories. The population of 22.7 million is 
heavily concentrated in the Eastern states and is highly 
urbanised. 

A highly developed country, Australia is the world's 
13th-largest economy and has the world's fifth-highest per 
capita income. Australia's military expenditure is the world's 
13th-largest. With the second-highest human development 
index globally, Australia ranks highly in many international 
comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, 
health, education, economic freedom, and the protection of 

civil liberties and political rights. J Australia is a member of 
the G20, OECD, WTO, APEC, UN, Commonwealth of 
Nations, ANZUS, and the Pacific Islands Forum. 



Contents 



Commonwealth of Australia 





Coat of arms 



Anthem: "Advance Australia Fair" L ' 





Capital 
Largest city 



Canberra 
Sydney 



Official language(s) None 



[N2] 



National language 
Demonym 



English (defacto) [N2] 



Australian, Aussie 



Government 

- Monarch 

- Governor-General 

- Prime Minister 



Federal parliamentary 
constitutional monarchy 

Elizabeth H 
Quentin Bryce 
Julia Gillard 



Legislature 

- Upper house 

- Lower house 



Parliament 

Senate 

House of Representatives 



Independence 

- Constitution 

- Statute of 
Westminster 

- Statute of 
Westminster 
Adoption Act 



from the United Kingdom 

I January 1901 

II December 1931 

9 October 1942 (with 
effect from 3 September 
1939) 



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1 Etymology 

2 History 

3 Government 

4 States and territories 

5 Foreign relations and military 

6 Geography and climate 

7 Environment 

8 Economy 

9 Demography 

■ 9.1 Language 

■ 9.2 Religion 

■ 9.3 Education 

■ 9.4 Health 

10 Culture 

■ 10.1 Arts 

■ 10.2 Media 

■ 10.3 Cuisine 

■ 10.4 Sport 

1 1 See also 

12 Notes 

13 References 

14 Bibliography 

15 External links 



Etymology 

Pronounced [a'stjaeilja, —lis] in Australian English, [17] the 
name Australia is derived from the Latin australis, meaning 
"southern". The country has been referred to colloquially as 
Oz since the early 20th century. J Aussie is a common 
colloquial term for "Australian". In neighbouring New 
Zealand the term "Aussie" is sometimes applied as a noun to 
the nation as well as its residents. J 



- Australia Act 


3 March 1986 


Area 

- Total 


7,617,930 km 2 (6th) 
2,941,299 sq mi 


Population 

- 2012 estimate 

- 2006 census 

- Density 


22,864,003 [5] (52nd) 

19,855,288 [6] 

2.8/km 2 (233rd) 
7.3/sqmi 


GDP (PPP) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2011 estimate 

$918,978 billion [7] (18th) 

$40,836 [7] (12th) 


GDP (nominal) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2011 estimate 

$1,507 trillion [7] (13th) 

$66,984 [7] (5th) 


Gini (2006) 


30.5 [8] ( m) 


HDI(2011) 


▲ 

0.929 [9] (very high) (2nd) 


Currency 


Australian dollar (aud) 


Time zone 

- Summer (DST) 


various L J 
(UTC+8to+10.5) 

various^ 3] (UTC+8 to 
+ 11.5) 


Drives on the 


left 


ISO 3166 code 


AU 


Internet TLD 


.au 


Calling code 


+61 



Legends of Terra Australis Incognita — an "unknown land of the South" — date back to Roman times and were 
commonplace in medieval geography, although not based on any documented knowledge of the continent. 
Following European discovery, names for the Australian landmass were often references to the famed Terra 
Australis. 

The earliest recorded use of the word Australia in English was in 1625 in "A note of Australia del Espiritu Santo, 
written by Sir Richard Hakluyt", published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus, a corruption of the 
original Spanish name "Tierra Austral del Espiritu Santo" (Southern Land of the Holy Spirit)^ J for an island in 
Vanuatu. J The Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia (Jakarta) in 1638, to 
refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. J Australia was later used in a 1693 translation of Les 
Aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la Decouverte et le Voyage de la Terre Australe, a 1676 French novel by 
Gabriel de Foigny, under the pen-name Jacques Sadeur. ^ J Referring to the entire South Pacific region, 



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Alexander Dalrymple used it in An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific 
Ocean in 1771. By the end of the 18th century, the name was being used to refer specifically to Australia, with 
the botanists George Shaw and Sir James Smith writing of "the vast island, or rather continent, of Australia, 
Australasia or New Holland" in their 1793 Zoology and Botany of New Holland} J and James Wilson including 
it on a 1799 chart. 



[28] 



The name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who pushed for it to be formally adopted 
as early as 1804. When preparing his manuscript and charts for his 1814 A Voyage to Terra Australis, he was 
persuaded by his patron, Sir Joseph Banks, to use the term Terra Australis as this was the name most familiar to 
the public. Flinders did so, but allowed himself the footnote: 

"Had I permitted myself any innovation on the original term, it would have been to convert it to 
Australia; as being more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great 

portions of the earth. " ^ J 

This is the only occurrence of the word Australia in that text; but in Appendix III, Robert Brown's General 
remarks, geographical and systematical, on the botany of Terra Australis, Brown makes use of the adjectival 
form Australian throughout, J — the first known use of that fonrJ J Despite popular conception, the book was 
not instrumental in the adoption of the name: the name came gradually to be accepted over the following ten 

years. [32] 

The first time that the name Australia appears to have been officially used was in a despatch to Lord Bathurst of 
4 April 1817 in which Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledges the receipt of Capt. Flinders' charts of 

Australia. J On 12 December 1817 Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally 

adopted. J In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia} J 

The first map on which the word Australia occurs was published in St Petersburg in 1824. It is in Krusenstern's 
"Atlas de l'Ocean Pacifique". [36] 

History 



Main article: History of Australia 

Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to 
have begun between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago P 1 ^ 
possibly with the migration of people by land bridges and 
short sea-crossings from what is now South-East Asia. These 
first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern 
Indigenous Australians. At the time of European settlement 
in the late 18th century, most Indigenous Australians were 
hunter-gatherers, with a complex oral culture and spiritual 
values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the 
Dreamtime. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically 
Melanesian, were originally horticulturalists and hunter- 
gatherers P ^ 

Following sporadic visits by fishermen from the Malay 

Archipelago, J the first recorded European sighting of the 
Australian mainland and the first recorded European landfall 




• „ ...ygf- 

Exploration by Europeans till 1812 



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on the Australian continent were attributed to the Dutch 
navigator Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape 
York Peninsula on an unknown date in early 1606, and made 
landfall on 26 February at the Pennefather River on the 
western shore of Cape York, near the modern town of 
Weipa. ^ The Dutch charted the whole of the western and 
northern coastlines of "New Holland" during the 17th 
century, but made no attempt at settlement. J William 



1 606 Willem Janszoon 

1606 Luis Vaez de Torres 

1616 Dirk Hartog 

1619 Frederick de Houtman 

1644 Abel Tasman 

1696 Willem de Vlamingh 

1699 William Dampier 

1770 James Cook 

1797-1799 George Bass 

1801-1803 Matthew Flinders 



Dampier, an English explorer and privateer landed on the 

north-west coast of Australia in 1688 and again in 1699 on a 

return trip. In 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped 

the east coast of Australia, which he named New South 

Wales and claimed for Great Britain. J Cook's discoveries 

prepared the way for establishment of a new penal colony. 

Captain Arthur Phillip led the First Fleet into Port Jackson on 26 January 1788. J This date became Australia's 

national day, Australia Day. (The British Crown Colony of New South Wales was not formally promulgated until 

7 February 1788, but 26 January has entered the popular consciousness as the effective date of its foundation.) 

Van Diemen's Land, now known as Tasmania, was settled in 1803 and became a separate colony in 1825. J The 

United Kingdom formally claimed the western part of Australia in 1828. J 

Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales: South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, and 
Queensland in 1859. ■* The Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South 
Australia. J South Australia was founded as a "free province" — it was never a penal colony. J Victoria and 
Western Australia were also founded "free", but later accepted transported convicts. ^ J A campaign by the 
settlers of New South Wales led to the end of convict transportation to that colony; the last convict ship arrived 
in 1848. [50] 

The indigenous population, estimated at 750,000 to 1,000,000 at 

the time of European settlement, J declined steeply for 150 

years following settlement, mainly due to infectious disease. J 

The "Stolen Generations" (removal of Aboriginal children from 

their families), which historians such as Henry Reynolds have 

argued could be considered genocide, J may have contributed 

to the decline in the Indigenous population. J Such interpretations of Aboriginal history are disputed by 
conservative commentators such as former Prime Minister John Howard as exaggerated or fabricated for 

political or ideological reasons. J This debate is known within Australia as the History wars. J The Federal 
government gained the power to make laws with respect to Aborigines following the 1967 referendum.^ J 
Traditional ownership of land — aboriginal title — was not recognised until 1992, when the High Court case Mabo 
v Queensland (No 2) overturned the notion of Australia as terra nullius ("land belonging to no one") before 
European occupation. J 

A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, J and the Eureka Rebellion against mining licence fees in 
1854 was an early expression of civil disobedience. J Between 1855 and 1890, the six colonies individually 
gained responsible government, managing most of their own affairs while remaining part of the British 
Empire. J The Colonial Office in London retained control of some matters, notably foreign affairs, J 
defence, J and international shipping. 



--t, aiffir wik*i 



Port Arthur, Tasmania was Australia's largest 
gaol for transported convicts. 



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The Last Post is played at an ANZAC 
Day ceremony in Port Melbourne, 
Victoria. Similar ceremonies are held 
in most suburbs and towns. 



On 1 January 1901 federation of the colonies was achieved after a 
decade of planning, consultation, and voting. J The Commonwealth of 
Australia was established and it became a dominion of the British Empire 
in 1907. The Federal Capital Territory (later renamed the Australian 
Capital Territory) was formed in 1911 as the location for the future 
federal capital of Canberra. Melbourne was the temporary seat of 

government from 1901 to 1927 while Canberra was constructed. J The 
Northern Territory was transferred from the control of the South 

Australian government to the federal parliament in 1911. J In 1914, 
Australia joined Britain in fighting World War I, with support from both 

the outgoing Liberal Party and the incoming Labor Party. J Australians 

took part in many of the major battles fought on the Western Front. J 
Of about 416,000 who served, about 60,000 were killed and another 

152,000 were wounded. J Many Australians regard the defeat of the 
Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs) at Gallipoli as the 

birth of the nation — its first major military action. ^ J The Kokoda Track campaign is regarded by many as an 

analogous nation-defining event during World War II. ^ ^ 

Britain's Statute of Westminster 1931 formally ended most of the 

constitutional links between Australia and the UK. Australia adopted it in 

1942, [73] but it was backdated to 1939 to confirm the validity of 

legislation passed by the Australian Parliament during World War 

n [74] [75] The shock of the ^^ defeat in Asia in 1942 and the threat of 

Japanese invasion caused Australia to turn to the United States as a new 
ally and protector. J Since 1951, Australia has been a formal military 
ally of the US, under the ANZUS treaty. [77] After World War II Australia 
encouraged immigration from Europe. Since the 1970s and following the 
abolition of the White Australia policy, immigration from Asia and 

elsewhere was also promoted. J As a result, Australia's demography, 
culture, and self-image were transformed. J The final constitutional ties 
between Australia and the UK were severed with the passing of the Australia Act 1986, ending any British role 
in the government of the Australian States, and closing the option of judicial appeals to the Privy Council in 
London. J In a 1999 referendum, 55 per cent of Australian voters and a majority in every Australian state 
rejected a proposal to become a republic with a president appointed by a two-thirds vote in both Houses of the 
Australian Parliament. Since the election of the Whitlam Government in 1972,^ ^ there has been an increasing 
focus in foreign policy on ties with other Pacific Rim nations, while maintaining close ties with Australia's 
traditional allies and trading partners. J 

Government 

Main articles: Government of Australia, Politics of Australia, and Monarchy of Australia 

Australia is a constitutional monarchy with a federal division of powers. It uses a parliamentary system of 
government with Queen Elizabeth II at its apex as the Queen of Australia, a role that is distinct from her position 
as monarch of the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen resides in the United Kingdom, and she is 
represented by her viceroys in Australia (the Governor-General at the federal level and by the Governors at the 
state level), who by convention act on the advice of her ministers. Supreme executive authority is vested by the 




Australia's national flag comprises the 
Union Jack, the Commonwealth Star, 
and the Southern Cross. 



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Parliament House, Canberra was 
opened in 1988, replacing the 
provisional Parliament House building 
opened in 1927. 




Constitution of Australia in the sovereign, but the power to exercise it is 
conferred by the Constitution specifically to the Governor-General. 

^ ^ J The most notable exercise of the Governor-General's reserve 
powers outside a Prime Minister's request was the dismissal of the 

Whitlam Government in the constitutional crisis of 1975. J 
The federal government is separated into three branches: 

■ The legislature: the bicameral Parliament, defined in section 1 of 
the constitution as comprising the Queen (represented by the 
Governor-General), the Senate, and the House of Representatives; 

■ The executive: the Federal Executive Council, in practice the 
Governor-General as advised by the Prime Minister and Ministers 

ofState; [86] 

■ The judiciary: the High Court of Australia and other federal courts, 
whose judges are appointed by the Governor-General on advice of 
the Council. 

In the Senate (the upper house), there are 76 senators: twelve each from 
the states and two each from the mainland territories (the Australian 
Capital Territory and the Northern Territory). J The House of 
Representatives (the lower house) has 150 members elected from single- 
member electoral divisions, commonly known as "electorates" or "seats", 

rooi 

allocated to states on the basis of population, 1 J with each original state 
guaranteed a minimum of five seats. * Elections for both chambers are 
normally held every three years, simultaneously; senators have 
overlapping six-year terms except for those from the territories, whose 
terms are not fixed but are tied to the electoral cycle for the lower house; 
thus only 40 of the 76 places in the Senate are put to each election unless 

the cycle is interrupted by a double dissolution. J 

Australia's electoral system uses preferential voting for all lower house 
elections with the exception of Tasmania and the ACT, which, along with 
the Senate and most state upper houses, combine it with proportional 
representation in a system known as the single transferable vote. Voting is 
compulsory for all enrolled citizens 18 years and over in every 
jurisdiction, J as is enrolment (with the exception of South 

Australia). J The party with majority support in the House of 

Representatives forms the government and its leader becomes Prime 

Minister. In cases where no party has majority support, the Governor-General has the power to appoint the 

Prime Minister, and if necessary dismiss one that has lost the confidence of Parliament. J 

There are two major political groups that usually form government, federally and in the states: the Australian 
Labor Party, and the Coalition which is a formal grouping of the Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National 
Party. ^ J Independent members and several minor parties — including the Greens and the Australian 
Democrats — have achieved representation in Australian parliaments, mostly in upper houses. 

Following a partyroom leadership challenge, Julia Gillard became the first female Prime Minister in June 
2010. J The most recent federal election was held on 21 August 2010 and resulted in the first hung parliament 



Government House, Canberra, also 
known as "Yarralumla", is the official 
residence of the Governor-General. 




Julia Gillard, Prime Minister of 
Australia since 2010 



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in over 50 years. Gillard was able to form a minority Labor government with the support of independents. 

States and territories 



Main article: States and territories of Australia 

Australia has six states — New South Wales, Queensland, 
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Western 
Australia — and two major mainland territories — the 
Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory 
(ACT). In most respects these two territories function as 
states, but the Commonwealth Parliament can override 
any legislation of their parliaments. By contrast, federal 
legislation overrides state legislation only in areas that 
are set out in Section 51 of the Australian Constitution; 
state parliaments retain all residual legislative powers, 
including those over schools, state police, the state 
judiciary, roads, public transport, and local government, 
since these do not fall under the provisions listed in 
Section 5 1. [96] 



INDONESIA i 
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INDIAN 
OCEAN 






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ALiaTAALUL 



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WO mi 



pV^i San -4lU 

'( ^TASMANIA 

v *HQbart 



A clickable map of Australia's states and mainland 
territories 



Each state and major mainland territory has its own 

parliament — unicameral in the Northern Territory, the 

ACT, and Queensland, and bicameral in the other states. 

The states are sovereign entities, although subject to 

certain powers of the Commonwealth as defined by the 

Constitution. The lower houses are known as the 

Legislative Assembly (the House of Assembly in South 

Australia and Tasmania); the upper houses are known as the Legislative Council. The head of the government in 

each state is the Premier, and in each territory the Chief Minister. The Queen is represented in each state by a 

Governor; and in the Northern Territory, the Administrator. J In the Commonwealth, the Queen's 
representative is the Governor-General. J 

The federal parliament directly administers the following territories. * 

■ Ashmore and Cartier Islands 

■ Australian Antarctic Territory 

■ Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands 

■ Coral Sea Islands 

■ Heard Island and McDonald Islands 

■ Jervis Bay Territory, a naval base and sea port for the national capital in land that was formerly part of 
New South Wales 

Norfolk Island is also technically an external territory; however, under the Norfolk Island Act 1979 it has been 
granted more autonomy and is governed locally by its own legislative assembly. The Queen is represented by an 
Administrator, currently Owen Walsh. J 



Foreign relations and military 



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Main articles: Foreign relations of Australia and Australian Defence Force 

Over recent decades, Australia's foreign relations have been driven by a close association with the United States 
through the ANZUS pact, and by a desire to develop relationships with Asia and the Pacific, particularly through 
ASEAN and the Pacific Islands Forum. In 2005 Australia secured an inaugural seat at the East Asia Summit 
following its accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, and in 2011 attended the Sixth 
East Asia Summit in Indonesia. Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, in which the 
Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings provide the main forum for co-operation. J 

Australia has pursued the cause of international trade liberalisation. 
[101][102][103] It led the f ormat i on f the ca^ns Group anc j Asia-Pacific 

Economic Cooperation. ^ J Australia is a member of the 
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the 

World Trade Organization, ^ J and has pursued several major 

bilateral free trade agreements, most recently the Australia - United 

States Free Trade Agreement^ J and Closer Economic Relations with 

New Zealand, J with another free trade agreement being negotiated 
Australian Army soldiers conducting a VL n , • . u A . r ^u- t- t, a a . A 

J b with China — the Australia - China Free Trade Agreement — and 

foot patrol during a joint training T rilOl ^ , T ^ . ~~.. mnm?l . ,._.,_ _ , 

F . , * J . 01 f Japan, LiiUJ South Korea in 2011, LmjLiiZJ Australia-Chile Free Trade 

exercise with US forces in Shoalwater . a ™- a ^t A *. ^ t r^ii^ ^ i A 11 

Agreement, ASEAN - Australia - New Zealand Free Trade Area, and the 

Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership. 




Bay (2007). 



Along with New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Malaysia and Singapore, Australia is party to the Five Power 
Defence Arrangements, a regional defence agreement. A founding member country of the United Nations, 
Australia is strongly committed to multilateralism^ J and maintains an international aid program under which 
some 60 countries receive assistance. The 2005-06 budget provides A$2.5 billion for development 
assistance, J as a percentage of GDP, this contribution is less than that recommended in the UN Millennium 
Development Goals. Australia ranks seventh overall in the Center for Global Development's 2008 Commitment 
to Development Index. ^ ^ 

Australia's armed forces — the Australian Defence Force (ADF) — comprise the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), 
the Australian Army and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), in total numbering 80,561 personnel (including 

55,068 regulars and 25,493 reservists). J The titular role of Commander-in-Chief is vested in the Governor- 
General, who appoints a Chief of the Defence Force from one of the armed services on the advice of the 
government. J Day-to-day force operations are under the command of the Chief, while broader administration 
and the formulation of defence policy is undertaken by the Minister and Department of Defence. 

In the 2010-11 budget, defence spending was A$25.7 billion,^ J representing the 13th largest defence 

budget. J Australia has been involved in UN and regional peacekeeping, disaster relief and armed conflict; it 
currently has deployed approximately 3,330 defence force personnel in varying capacities to 12 overseas 
operations in areas including East Timor, Solomon Islands and Afghanistan. J 

Geography and climate 

Main articles: Geography of Australia, Climate of Australia, and Geology of Australia 
Australia's landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mir is on the Indo-Australian Plate. 



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Surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans, J it is separated from 
Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas, with the Coral Sea lying off the 
Queensland coast, and the Tasman Sea lying between Australia and New 
Zealand. The world's smallest continent^ J and sixth largest country by 
total area, J Australia — owing to its size and isolation — is often 
dubbed the "island continent", J and is sometimes considered the 
world's largest island. [125] Australia has 34,218 kilometres (21,262 mi) of 
coastline (excluding all offshore islands), J and claims an extensive 
Exclusive Economic Zone of 8,148,250 square kilometres (3,146,060 
sq mi). This exclusive economic zone does not include the Australian 

Antarctic Territory. J Excluding Macquarie Island, Australia lies 
between latitudes 9° and 44°S, and longitudes 112° and 154°E. 



Australia 




Climatic zones in Australia, based on 
the Koppen climate classification. 



The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef, * lies a short 

distance off the north-east coast and extends for over 2,000 kilometres (1,240 mi). Mount Augustus, claimed to 
be the world's largest monolith,^ J is located in Western Australia. At 2,228 metres (7,310 ft), Mount 
Kosciuszko on the Great Dividing Range is the highest mountain on the Australian mainland. Even taller are 
Mawson Peak (at 2,745 metres or 9,006 feet), on the remote Australian territory of Heard Island, and, in the 
Australian Antarctic Territory, Mount McClintock and Mount Menzies, at 3,492 metres (11,457 ft) and 3,355 

metres (11,007 ft) respectively. [130] 

Australia's size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with subtropical rain 
forests in the north-east, mountain ranges in the south-east, south-west 

and east areas, and a dry desert in its centre. J It is the flattest 
continent/ 132 ^ with the oldest and least fertile soils; t 133 ^ 134 ! desert or 
semi-arid land commonly known as the outback makes up by far the 
largest portion of land. J The driest inhabited continent, only its 

south-east and south-west corners have a temperate climate. J The 
population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, is among the 

lowest in the world, J although a large proportion of the population 
Everlastings on Mount Hotham, r 1 3©i 

, . T - . lives along the temperate south-eastern coastline. J 

located in Victoria ° x 




Eastern Australia is marked by the Great Dividing Range that runs 
parallel to the coast of Queensland, New South Wales, and much of Victoria — although the name is not strictly 
accurate, as in parts the range consists of low hills and the highlands are typically no more than 1,600 metres 
(5,249 ft) in height. * The coastal uplands and a belt of Brigalow grasslands lie between the coast and the 

mountains, while inland of the dividing range are large areas of grassland. ^ J These include the western 
plains of New South Wales, and the Einasleigh Uplands, Barkly Tableland, and Mulga Lands of inland 

Queensland. The northern point of the east coast is the tropical rainforested Cape York Peninsula. ^ J 
[143][144] 

The landscapes of the northern part of the country — the Top End and the Gulf Country behind the Gulf of 

Carpentaria, with their tropical climate — consist of woodland, grassland, and desert. ^ ^ J At the 
north-west corner of the continent are the sandstone cliffs and gorges of The Kimberley, and below that the 
Pilbara. South and inland of these lie more areas of grassland: the Ord Victoria Plain and the Western Australian 
Mulga shrublands. ^ ^ * At the heart of the country are the uplands of central Australia; prominent 
features of the centre and south include the inland Simpson, Tirari and Sturt Stony, Gibson, Great Sandy, Tanami, 



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and Great Victoria deserts, with the famous Nullarbor Plain on the 
southern coastJ 151 " 152 " 153 " 154 ] 

The climate of Australia is significantly influenced by ocean currents, 
including the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Niiio-Southern Oscillation, 
which is correlated with periodic drought, and the seasonal tropical low 

pressure system that produces cyclones in northern Australia. ^ J 
These factors induce rainfall to vary markedly from year to year. Much 
of the northern part of the country has a tropical predominantly summer 
rainfall (monsoon) climate. J The southwest corner of the country has 
a Mediterranean climate. J Much of the southeast (including 
Tasmania) is temperate. J 







QP |\ 








ML 






J 


^^a ~" ^Hl W. &t 












Hl' 


m 


Topographic 


map 


of Australia 



Environment 

Main article: Environment of Australia 

Although most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, it includes a diverse range of habitats from alpine heaths to 
tropical rainforests, and is recognised as a megadiverse country. Because of the continent's great age, extremely 
variable weather patterns, and long-term geographic isolation, much of Australia's biota is unique and diverse. 
About 85 per cent of flowering plants, 84 per cent of mammals, more than 45 per cent of birds, and 89 per cent 

of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic. J Australia has the greatest number of reptiles of any country, 
with 755 species. [160] 

Australian forests are mostly made up of evergreen species, particularly 
eucalyptus trees in the less arid regions, wattles replace them in drier 
regions and deserts as the most dominant species. J Among 
well-known Australian fauna are the monotremes (the platypus and 
echidna); a host of marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, and 
wombat, and birds such as the emu and the kookaburra. J Australia is 
home to many dangerous animals including some of the most venomous 
snakes in the world. J The dingo was introduced by Austronesian 

people who traded with Indigenous Australians around 3000 BCE. J 
Many plant and animal species became extinct soon after first human 

settlement, J including the Australian megafauna; others have 
The koala and the eucalyptus form an disappeared since European settlement, among them the thylacine. 

• ■ a ♦ r ■ [165][166] 

iconic Australian pair 




Many of Australia's ecoregions, and the species within those regions, are 
threatened by human activities and introduced plant and animal species. J The federal Environment 
Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 is the legal framework for the protection of threatened 
species. * Numerous protected areas have been created under the National Strategy for the Conservation of 
Australia's Biological Diversity to protect and preserve unique ecosystems, ^ J 65 wetlands are listed under 
the Ramsar Convention,^ J and 16 natural World Heritage Sites have been established. J Australia was 
ranked 51st of 163 countries in the world on the 2010 Environmental Performance Index. J 

Climate change has become an increasing concern in Australia in recent years, and protection of the 



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environment is a major political issue. ^ * In 2007, the Rudd Government signed the instrument of 
ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. Nevertheless, Australia's carbon dioxide emissions per capita are among the 

highest in the world, lower than those of only a few other industrialised nations. J Rainfall in Australia has 

ri77i 
slightly increased over the past century, both nationwide and for two quadrants of the nation, 1 J According to 

the Bureau of Meteorology's 2011 Australian Climate Statement, Australia had lower than average temperatures 

in 2011 as a consequence of a La Nina weather pattern, however, "the country's 10-year average continues to 

demonstrate the rising trend in temperatures, with 2002-2011 likely to rank in the top two warmest 10-year 

periods on record for Australia, at 0.52 °C above the long-term average". J Water restrictions are frequently in 

place in many regions and cities of Australia in response to chronic shortages due to urban population increases 

and localised drought. ^ J Throughout much of the continent, major flooding regularly follows extended 

periods of drought, flushing out inland river systems, overflowing dams and inundating large inland flood plains, 

as occurred throughout Eastern Australia in 2010, 2011 and 2012 after the 2000s Australian drought. 

Economy 



Main article: Economy of Australia 

See also: Economic history of Australia and Median household income in Australia and New Zealand 




The Super Pit gold mine in Kalgoorlie, 



Australia's largest open cut mine. 



[181] 



Australia has a market economy with high GDP per capita and a low rate 
of poverty. The Australian dollar is the currency for the nation, including 
Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as 
the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, and Tuvalu. 
After the 2006 merger of the Australian Stock Exchange and the Sydney 
Futures Exchange, the Australian Securities Exchange is now the ninth 
largest in the world. ^ 

Ranked third in the Index of Economic Freedom (2010), * Australia is 

the world's thirteenth largest economy and has the fifth highest per capita 

GDP at $66,984; significantly higher than that of the United States, 

United Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Japan, and New Zealand. 

The country was ranked second in the United Nations 2011 Human 

Development Index and first in Legatum's 2008 Prosperity Index. J All of Australia's major cities fare well in 

global comparative livability surveys, J Melbourne reached first place on The Economist's 2011 World's Most 

Livable Cities list, followed by Sydney, Perth, and Adelaide in sixth, eighth, and ninth place respectively. J 

Total government debt in Australia is about $190 billion. J Australia has among the highest house prices and 

some of the highest household debt levels in the world. * 

An emphasis on exporting commodities rather than 
manufactured goods has underpinned a significant increase 
in Australia's terms of trade since the start of the 21st 
century, due to rising commodity prices. Australia has a 
balance of payments that is more than 7 per cent of GDP 
negative, and has had persistently large current account 

deficits for more than 50 years. J Australia has grown at 
an average annual rate of 3.6 per cent for over 15 years, in 
comparison to the OECD annual average of 2.5 per 
cent. J There are differing opinions based on evidence as 




Destination and value of Australian exports in 



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2006 [189] to whether or not Australia had been one of the few OECD 

nations to avoid experiencing a recession during the late 

2000s global financial downturn. [191][191][192] Six of 
Australia's major trading partners had been in recession which in turn affected Australia, and economic growth 
was hampered significantly over recent years. ^ J 

The Hawke Government floated the Australian dollar in 1983 and partially deregulated the financial system. J 
The Howard Government followed with a partial deregulation of the labour market and the further privatisation 

of state-owned businesses, most notably in the telecommunications industry. J The indirect tax system was 

substantially changed in July 2000 with the introduction of a 10 per cent Goods and Services Tax (GSTV ^ In 

Australia's tax system, personal and company income tax are the main sources of government revenue. J 

In July 2011, there were 11,450,500 people employed, with an unemployment rate of 5.1 per cent. J Youth 
unemployment (15-24) rose from 8.7 per cent to 9.7 per cent over 2008-2009. ^ Over the past decade, 
inflation has typically been 2-3 per cent and the base interest rate 5-6 per cent. The service sector of the 
economy, including tourism, education, and financial services, accounts for about 70 per cent of GDP.^ J Rich 
in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, particularly wheat and wool, minerals 
such as iron-ore and gold, and energy in the forms of liquified natural gas and coal. Although agriculture and 
natural resources account for only 3 per cent and 5 per cent of GDP respectively, they contribute substantially to 
export performance. Australia's largest export markets are Japan, China, the US, South Korea, and New 

Zealand. J Australia is the world's fourth largest exporter of wine, in an industry contributing $5.5 billion per 

[2031 
annum to the nation's economy. J 



Demography 

Main articles: Demographics of Australia and Immigration to Australia 

For almost two centuries the majority of settlers, and later immigrants, 
came from the British Isles. As a result the people of Australia are mainly 
a mixture of British and Irish ethnic origin. In the 2006 Australian census, 
the most commonly nominated ancestry was Australian (37.13 per 

cent), ^ followed by English (32 per cent), Irish (9 per cent), Scottish 
(8 per cent), Italian (4 per cent), German (4 per cent), Chinese (3 per 
cent), and Greek (2 per cent). [206] 

[207] 




Nearly three quarters of Australians 
live in metropolitan cities and coastal 
areas. The beach is an integral part of 
the Australian identity. J 



Australia's population has quadrupled since the end of World War I, 
much of the increase from immigration. Following World War II and 
through to 2000, almost 5.9 million of the total population settled in the 
country as new immigrants, meaning that nearly two out of every seven 

Australians were born overseas. J Most immigrants are skilled, J 

but the immigration quota includes categories for family members and refugees. J By 2050, Australia's 

population is currently projected to reach around 42 million.^ J 

In 2001, 23.1 per cent of Australians were born overseas; the five largest immigrant groups were those from the 

United Kingdom, New Zealand, Italy, Vietnam, and China. ^ J Following the abolition of the White 
Australia policy in 1973, numerous government initiatives have been established to encourage and promote 
racial harmony based on a policy of multiculturalism.^ * In 2005-06, more than 131,000 people emigrated to 



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The Barossa Valley is a 
wine-producing region in South 
Australia. Fewer than 15 per cent of 
Australians live in rural areas. 



Australia, mainly from Asia and Oceania. J The migration target for 2010-11 is 168,700, compared to 67,900 
in 1998-99. [214] 

The Indigenous population — mainland Aborigines and Torres Strait 
Islanders — was counted at 410,003 (2.2 per cent of the total population) 
in 2001, a significant increase from 115,953 in the 1976 census. * A 
large number of Indigenous people are not identified in the Census due to 
undercount and cases where their Indigenous status is not recorded on 
the form; after adjusting for these factors, the ABS estimated the true 
figure for 2001 to be around 460,140 (2.4 per cent of the total 
population). J 

Indigenous Australians experience higher than average rates of 

T2171 
imprisonment and unemployment, 1 J lower levels of education, and life 

expectancies for males and females that are 11-17 years lower than those 

of non-indigenous Australians. ^ ^ J Some remote Indigenous 

communities have been described as having "failed state"-like conditions. 

[220] [221] [222] [223] [224] 

In common with many other developed countries, Australia is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older 
population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2004, the average age of the civilian 

population was 38.8 years. J A large number of Australians (759,849 for the period 2002-03)^ J live outside 
their home country. 

Language 

Main article: Australian English 

Although Australia has no official language, English is so entrenched that it has become the de facto national 
language. J Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon. General 
Australian serves as the standard dialect. Spelling is similar to that of British English with a number of 

exceptions. J According to the 2006 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for close to 79 
per cent of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are Italian (1.6 per cent), Greek 
(1.3 per cent) and Cantonese (1.2 per cent), J a considerable proportion of first- and second-generation 
migrants are bilingual. A 2010-2011 study by the Australia Early Development Index found that the most 
common language spoken by children after English was Arabic, followed by Vietnamese, Greek, Chinese, and 

HindiJ 230 ] ~ 

Between 200 and 300 Indigenous Australian languages are thought to have existed at the time of first European 
contact, of which only about 70 have survived. Many of these are exclusively spoken by older people; only 18 
Indigenous languages are still spoken by all age groups. J At the time of the 2006 Census, 52,000 Indigenous 
Australians, representing 12 per cent of the Indigenous population, reported that they spoke an Indigenous 
language at home. J Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 
5,500 deaf people. [233] 

Religion 

Main article: Religion in Australia 



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WR Thomas, A South Australian 
Corroboree, 1864, Art Gallery of 
South Australia. Aboriginal 
Australians developed the animist 
religion of the Dreamtime. 



Australia has no state religion, and section 116 of the Australian 
Constitution prohibits the federal government from making any law to 
establish any religion, impose any religious observance, or prohibit the 
free exercise of any religion. * In the 2006 census, 64 per cent of 
Australians were counted as Christian, including 26 per cent as Roman 
Catholic and 19 per cent as Anglican. About 19 per cent of the 
population stated "no religion" (which includes humanism, atheism, 
agnosticism and rationalism), which was the fastest-growing group from 
2001 to 2006, and a further 12 per cent did not answer (the question is 
optional) or did not give a response adequate for interpretation. The 
largest non-Christian religion in Australia is Buddhism (2.1 per cent), 
followed by Islam (1.7 per cent), Hinduism (0.8 per cent) and Judaism 
(0.5 per cent). Overall, fewer than 6 per cent of Australians identify with 
non-Christian religions. * 

Prior to European settlement in Australia, the animist beliefs of Australia's indigenous people had been practised 
for millennia. In the case of mainland Aboriginal Australians, their spirituality is known as The Dreamtime and it 
places a heavy emphasis on belonging to the land. The collection of stories that it contains shaped Aboriginal law 
and customs. Aboriginal art, story and dance continue to draw on these spiritual traditions. In the case of the 
Torres Strait Islanders who inhabit the islands between Australia and New Guinea, spirituality and customs 
reflected their Melanesian origins and dependence on the sea. The 1996 Australian census counted more than 

7000 respondents as followers of a traditional Aboriginal religion. J 

Since the arrival of the First Fleet of British ships in 1788, Christianity 
has grown to be the major religion. Consequently, the Christian festivals 
of Christmas and Easter are public holidays, the skylines of Australian 
cities and towns are marked by church and cathedral spires, and the 
Christian churches have played an integral role in the development of 
education, health and welfare services in Australia. The Catholic 
education system operates as the largest non-government educator, 
accounting for about 21% of all secondary enrolments at the close of the 
2000s (decade), with Catholic Health Australia similarly being the largest 
non-government provider. Christian welfare organisations also play a 
prominent role within national life, with organisations like the Salvation 
Army, St Vincent de Paul Society and Anglicare enjoying widespread 
support. Such contributions are recognised on Australia's currency, with 
the presence of Christian pastors like Aboriginal writer David Unaipon 
($50); founder of the Royal Flying Doctor Service, John Flynn ($20); and 
Catherine Helen Spence ($5) who was Australia's first female candidate 
for political office. Other significant Australian religious figures have 
included St. Mary McKillop, who became the first Australian to be 
recognised as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church in 2010 and Church 
of Christ pastor Sir Douglas Nicholls, who, like Martin Luther King in the 
United States, led a movement against racial inequality in Australia and 
was also the first indigenous Australian to be appointed as a State 
Governor. 




St Mary's Catholic Cathedral, Sydney, 
built to a design by William Wardell. 
About a quarter of Australians are 
Roman Catholic. 



For much of Australian history the Church of England (now known as the Anglican Church of Australia) was the 
largest religious affiliation, however multicultural immigration has contributed to a decline in its relative position, 
with the Roman Catholic Church benefiting from the opening of post-war Australia to multicultural immigration 



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and becoming the largest group. Similarly, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism and Judaism have all been expanding in 
the post war decades. Weekly attendance at church services in 2001 was about 1.5 million^ J (about 7.8 per 
cent of the population) . ^ J 

An international survey, made by the private, not-for profit German think-tank, the Bertelsmann Foundation, 
found that "Australia is one of the least religious nations in the western world, coming in 17th out of 21 
[countries] surveyed" and that "Nearly three out of four Australians say they are either not at all religious or that 
religion does not play a central role in their lives. "^ J A survey of 1,718 Australians by the Christian Research 
Association at the end of 2009 suggested that the number of people attending religious services per month in 
Australia has dropped from 23 per cent in 1993 to 16 per cent in 2009, and while 60 per cent of 15 to 

29-year-old respondents in 1993 identified with Christian denominations, 33 per cent did in 2009. J 
Education 

Main article: Education in Australia 

School attendance is compulsory throughout Australia. Education is the responsibility of the individual states and 
territories^ J so the rules vary between states, but in general children are required to attend school from the age 
of about 5 up until about 16. ^ J In at least some states (eg, WA)^ J children aged 16-17 are required to 
either attend school or participate in vocational training, such as an apprenticeship. 

Australia has an adult literacy rate that is assumed to be 99 per cent. In the Programme for International Student 
Assessment, Australia regularly scores among the top five of thirty major developed countries (member countries 
of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Catholic education accounts for the largest 
non-government sector. 

Australia has 37 government-funded universities and two private universities, as well as a number of other 
specialist institutions that provide approved courses at the higher education level. J The University of Sydney 
is Australia's oldest university, having been founded in 1850, followed by the University of Melbourne three 
years later. Other notable universities include those of the Group of Eight leading tertiary institutions, including 
the University of Adelaide (which boasts an association with five Nobel Laureates), the Australian National 
University located in the national capital of Canberra, Monash University and the University of New South 
Wales. 

The OECD places Australia among the most expensive nations to attend university. J There is a state-based 
system of vocational training, known as TAFE, and many trades conduct apprenticeships for training new 

tradespeople. J Approximately 58 per cent of Australians aged from 25 to 64 have vocational or tertiary 

qualifications, J and the tertiary graduation rate of 49 per cent is the highest among OECD countries. The 

ratio of international to local students in tertiary education in Australia is the highest in the OECD countries. J 

Health 

See also: Health care in Australia 

Life expectancy in Australia in 2006 was 78.7 years for males and 83.5 years for females. J Australia has the 
highest rates of skin cancer in the world, J while cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death 
and disease. J Australia has one of the highest proportions of overweight citizens among developed 
nations. [252] 



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Total expenditure on health (including private sector spending) is around 9.8 per cent of GDP.^ J Australia 
introduced universal health care in 1975. J Known as Medicare it is now nominally funded by an income tax 
surcharge known as the Medicare levy, currently set at 1.5 per cent. J The states manage hospitals and 
attached outpatient services, while the Commonwealth funds the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (reducing the 
costs of medicines) and general practice. J 

Culture 



Main article: Culture of Australia 




The Royal Exhibition Building in 
Melbourne was the first building in 
Australia to be listed as a UNESCO 
World Heritage Site in 2004 [256] 



Since 1788, the basis of Australian culture has been strongly influenced 

by Anglo-Celtic Western culture. ^ J Distinctive cultural features 
have also arisen from Australia's natural environment and Indigenous 
cultures. ^ ^ Since the mid-20th century, American popular culture 
has strongly influenced Australia, particularly through television and 

cinema. * Other cultural influences come from neighbouring Asian 
countries, and through large-scale immigration from non-English- 
speaking nations. [261][262] 



Arts 



Main articles: Visual arts of Australia, Theatre of Australia, and Dance 
in Australia 



Australian visual arts are thought to have begun with the cave and bark paintings 
of its Indigenous peoples. The traditions of Indigenous Australians are largely 

transmitted orally, through ceremony and the telling of Dreamtime stories. J 
From the time of European settlement, a theme in Australian art has been the 

natural landscape, J seen for example in the works of Albert Namatjira, J 

Arthur Streeton and others associated with the Heidelberg School, ^ and 

Arthur Boyd. [265] 






The country's landscape remains a source of inspiration for Australian modernist 
artists; it has been depicted in acclaimed works by the likes of Sidney Nolan, J 
Fred Williams, [267] Sydney Long, [268] and Clifton Pugh. [269] Australian artists 
influenced by modern American and European art include cubist Grace 

Crowley, J surrealist James Gleeson, J and pop artist Martin Sharp. J 
Contemporary Indigenous Australian art is the only art movement of 
international significance to emerge from Australia^ ^ J and "the last great 
art movement of the 20th century", J its exponents have included Emily 

Kngwarreye. ^ J Art critic Robert Hughes has written several influential 
books about Australian history and art, and was described as the "world's most 
famous art critic" by The New York Times} J The National Gallery of Australia 

and state galleries maintain Australian and overseas collections. J Australia 

has one of the world's highest attendances of art galleries and museums per head of population — far more than 

Britain or America. J 




Sunlight Sweet by Australian 
landscape artist Arthur 
Streeton. 



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Many of Australia's performing arts companies receive funding through the federal government's Australia 
Council. J There is a symphony orchestra in each state, J and a national opera company, Opera 
Australia, J well-known for its famous soprano Joan Sutherland. J At the turn of the 19th to 20th century, 
Nellie Melba was one of the world's leading opera singers. J Ballet and dance are represented by The 
Australian Ballet and various state companies. Each state has a publicly funded theatre company. ^ ^ J 

Australian literature has also been influenced by the landscape; the works 
of writers such as Banjo Paterson, Henry Lawson, and Dorothea 

Mackellar captured the experience of the Australian bush. J The 
character of the nation's colonial past, as represented in early literature, is 

popular with modern Australians. J In 1973, Patrick White was 
awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, J the first Australian to have 
achieved this. J Australian winners of the Man Booker Prize have 
included Peter Carey and Thomas Keneally, J David Williamson, 
David Malouf, and J. M. Coetzee, who recently became an Australian 
citizen, are also renowned writers, J and Les Murray is regarded as 
"one of the leading poets of his generation". J 




Performance of Aboriginal song and 
dance in the Australian National 
Maritime Museum in Sydney 



Media 



Main articles: Television in Australia, Cinema of Australia, Media of Australia, Australian literature, and 
Music of Australia 

The Australian cinema industry began with the 1906 release of The Story of the Kelly Gang, which is regarded 
as being the world's first feature-length film, J but both Australian feature film production and the distribution 
of British-made features declined dramatically after World War I as American studios and distributors 

monopolised the industry, J and by the 1930s around 95 per cent of the feature films screened in Australia 
were produced in Hollywood. By the late 1950s feature film production in Australia had effectively ceased and 

there were no all-Australian feature films made in the decade between 1959 and 1969. J 

Thanks to initiatives by the Gorton and Whitlam federal governments, the New Wave of Australian cinema of 
the 1970s brought provocative and successful films, some exploring the nation's colonial past, such as Picnic at 

Hanging Rock and Breaker Morant} J while the so-called "Ocker" genre produced several highly successful 
urban-based comedy features including The Adventures of Barry McKenzie and Alvin Purple} ^ ^ J 
Later hits included Mad Max and Gallipoli. ^ J More recent successes included Shine and Rabbit-Proof 
Fence} ^ J Notable Australian actors include Judith Anderson, J Errol Flynn, J Nicole Kidman, Hugh 
Jackman, Heath Ledger, Geoffrey Rush, and Cate Blanchett — current joint director of the Sydney Theatre 
Company^ 308 " 309 ] 

Australia has two public broadcasters (the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and the multicultural Special 
Broadcasting Service), three commercial television networks, several pay-TV services, J and numerous 
public, non-profit television and radio stations. Each major city has at least one daily newspaper, J and there 
are two national daily newspapers, The Australian and The Australian Financial Review} J In 2010, 
Reporters Without Borders placed Australia 18th on a list of 178 countries ranked by press freedom, behind New 
Zealand (8th) but ahead of the United Kingdom (19th) and United States (20th). [311] This relatively low ranking 
is primarily because of the limited diversity of commercial media ownership in Australia, J most print media 



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are under the control of News Corporation and Fairfax Media. J 

Cuisine 

Main article: Australian cuisine 

The food of Indigenous Australians was largely influenced by the area in which they lived. Most tribal groups 
subsisted on a simple hunter-gatherer diet, hunting native game and fish and collecting native plants and fruit. 

The general term for native Australian flora and fauna used as a source of food is bush tucker. ^ J The first 

settlers introduced British food to the continent^ J which much of what is now considered typical Australian 

food is based on the Sunday roast has become an enduring tradition for many Australians. J Since the 
beginning of the 20th century, food in Australia has increasingly been influenced by immigrants to the nation, 
particularly from Southern European and Asian cultures. ^ J Australian wine is produced in 60 distinct 
production areas totaling approximately 160,000 hectares, mainly in the southern, cooler parts of the country. 
The wine regions in each of these states produce different wine varieties and styles that take advantage of local 
climates and soil types. The predominant varieties are Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Merlot, 
Semillon, Pinot noir, Riesling, and Sauvignon blanc. [318][319][320][203][321][322] In 1995, an Australian red wine, 
Penfolds Grange, won the Wine Spectator award for Wine of the Year, the first time a wine from outside France 
or California achieved this distinction.^ J 

Sport 




Cricket has been an important part of 
Australia's sporting culture since the 
19th century. [324] 



Main article: Sport in Australia 

Around 24 per cent Australians over the age of 15 regularly participate in 

organised sporting activities in Australia. J Australia has strong 

international teams in cricket, field hockey, netball, rugby league, and 

rugby union, having been Olympic or world champions at least twice in 

each sport in the last 25 years for both men and women where applicable. 
[325][326][327][328][329][330][331][332] ^^ {$ ^ powerful ^ ^ 

cycling, rowing, and swimming, having consistently been in the top-five 

T3331 
medal- winners at Olympic or World Championship level since 2000. J 

^ ^ J Swimming is the strongest of these sports; Australia is the 

second-most prolific medal winner in the sport in Olympic history. 

[336][337][338] 

Some of Australia's most internationally well-known and successful sportspeople are swimmers Dawn Fraser, 
Murray Rose, Shane Gould, and Ian Thorpe; sprinters Shirley Strickland, Betty Cuthbert, and Cathy 
Freeman;^ J tennis players Rod Laver, Roy Emerson, Ken Rose wall, Evonne Goolagong, and Margaret Court; 
cricketers Donald Bradman and Shane Warne; three-time Formula One world champion Jack Brabham; 
five-time motorcycle grand prix world champion Mick Doohan; golfers Greg Norman and Karrie Webb, J 

cyclist Hubert Opperman; and prodigious billiards player Walter Lindrum. J Nationally, other popular sports 
include Australian rules football, horse racing, squash, surfing, soccer, and motor racing. The annual Melbourne 
Cup horse race and the Sydney to Hobart yacht race attract intense interest. 

Australia has participated in every summer Olympics of the modern era, J and every Commonwealth 
Games. * Australia hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne and the 2000 Summer Olympics in 
Sydney, J and has ranked among the top six medal-takers since 2000. J Australia has also hosted the 1938, 



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1962, 1982, 2006 Commonwealth Games and will host the 2018 Commonwealth Games. [346] Other major 
international events held in Australia include the Australian Open tennis grand slam tournament, international 
cricket matches, and the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Sydney hosted the 2003 Rugby World Cup and the 
annual Australia-New Zealand Bledisloe Cup is keenly watched. The highest-rating television programs include 
sports telecasts such as the summer Olympics, FIFA World Cup, Rugby League State of Origin, and the grand 
finals of the National Rugby League and Australian Football League. ^ Skiing in Australia began in the 1860s 
and snow sports take place in the Australian Alps and parts of Tasmania. 

See also 

■ Outline of Australia 

■ Index of Australia-related articles 

Notes 

1. A Australia also has a royal anthem, "God Save the Queen (or King)", which is played in the presence of a member 
of the Royal family when they are in Australia. In all other appropriate contexts, the national anthem of Australia, 
"Advance Australia Fair", is played. J 

2. A a English does not have de jure status. ] 

3. A a There are minor variations from these three time zones, see Time in Australia. 

4. A a Australia describes the body of water south of its mainland as the Southern Ocean, rather than the Indian Ocean 
as defined by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO). In 2000, a vote of IHO member nations defined the 
term "Southern Ocean" as applying only to the waters between Antarctica and 60 degrees south latitude. ] 

5. A The Oxford English Dictionary records a first occurrence in 1908, in the form Oss. Oz is often taken as an oblique 
reference to the fictional Land of Oz in the film The Wizard of Oz (1939), based on L. Frank Baum's novel The 
Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900). J Australians' "image of Australia as a 'Land of Oz' is not new, and dedication to 
it runs deep". ] The spelling Oz is likely to have been influenced by the 1939 film, though the pronunciation was 
probably always with a /z/, as it is also for Aussie, sometimes spelt Ozzie. ] The Baz Luhrmann film Australia 
(2008) makes repeated reference to The Wizard of Oz, which appeared just before the wartime action of Australia. 
Some critics have even speculated that Baum was inspired by Australia, in naming the Land of Oz: "In Ozma of Oz 
(1907) Dorothy gets back to Oz as the result of a storm at sea while she and Uncle Henry are traveling by ship to 
Australia. So, like Australia, Oz is somewhere to the west of California. like Australia, Oz is an island continent. 
Like Australia, Oz has inhabited regions bordering on a great desert. One might almost imagine that Baum intended 
Oz to be Australia, or perhaps a magical land in the center of the great Australian desert."^ J 

References 

1. A It's an Honour - Symbols - Australian National Anthem (http://www.itsanhonour.gov.au/symbols/anthem.cfm) and 
DFAT - "The Australian National Anthem" (http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/nat_anthem.html) ; "National Symbols" 
(http://web. archive, org/web/200706 11101 90 l/http://www. aph. gov. au/library/handbook/40thparl 
/national+symbols.pdf) . Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia (29th ed.). 2002 (updated 
2005). http://web. archive. org/web/200706 11101 90 l/http://www. aph. gov. au/library/handbook/40thparl 
/national+symbols.pdf. Retrieved 7 June 2007. 

2. A a "Pluralist Nations: Pluralist Language Policies?" (http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural 
/confer/04/speechl 8b.htm) . 7995 Global Cultural Diversity Conference Proceedings, Sydney. Department of 
Immigration and Citizenship, http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/confer/04/speechl8b.htm. 
Retrieved 11 January 2009. "English has no de jure status but it is so entrenched as the common language that it is 
de facto the official language as well as the national language." 

3. A The Macquarie Dictionary 

4. A Collins English Dictionary. Bishopbriggs, Glasgow: HarperCollins. 2009. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-00-786171-2. 

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Brunei 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

Brunei 4 'Vbr^nai/, officially the Nation of Brunei, the 

Abode of Peace L J (Malay: Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi: 
^luJt jta (j^jjt I j^J), is a sovereign state located on the north 
coast of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia. Apart from its 
coastline with the South China Sea, it is completely surrounded 
by the state of Sarawak, Malaysia, and it is separated into two 
parts by Limbang, which is part of Sarawak. It is the only 
sovereign state completely on the island of Borneo, with the 
remainder of the island belonging to Malaysia and Indonesia. 
Brunei's population was 401,890 in July 2011. [9] 

The official national history claims that Brunei can trace its 
beginnings to the 7th century, when it was a subject state of the 
Srivijayan empire under the name P'o-li. It later became a vassal 
state of Majapahit empire before converting to Islam in the 15th 
century. At the peak of its empire, the sultanate had control that 
extended over the coastal regions of modern-day Sarawak and 
Sabah, the Sulu archipelago, and the islands off the northwest tip 
of Borneo. The thalassocracy was visited by Ferdinand 
Magellan in 1521 and fought the Castille War in 1578 against 
Spain. Its empire began to decline with the forced ceding of 
Sarawak to James Brooke and the ceding of Sabah to the British 
North Borneo Chartered Company. After the loss of Limbang, 
Brunei finally became a British protectorate in 1888, receiving a 
resident in 1906. In the years after the Japanese wartime 
occupation during World War II, it formalised a constitution and 

fought an armed rebellion. J Brunei regained its independence 
from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984. Economic growth 
during the 1970s and 1990s, averaging 56% from 1999 to 2008, 
has transformed Brunei Darussalam into a newly industrialised 
country. 

Brunei has the second highest Human Development Index 
among the South East Asia nations after Singapore, and is 
classified as a developed country. ^ According to the 
International Monetary Fund (IMF), Brunei is ranked 5th in the 
world by gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power 
parity. Forbes also ranks Brunei as the fifth richest nation out of 
182 nations due to its extensive petroleum and natural gas 
fields. [12] 



Contents 

■ 1 Etymology 



State of Brunei, the Abode of Peace 
Negara Brunei Darussalam 





Flag 



Crest 



Motto: "cS^W j jn^l l jjajU!" "Sentiasa membuat 

kebajikan dengan petunjuk Allah" 

"Always in service with God's guidance" (translation) 



Anthem: Allah Peliharakan Sultan 

God Bless the Sultan 




Location of Brunei (red) 



Capital 

(and largest city) 



Bandar Seri Begawan 

4°53.417'N114 56.533'E 



Official language(s) 



Bahasa Melayu (Malay) 

[1][2] 



Recognised 
national languages 



Melayu Brunei 
(Kedayan) 



Official scripts 



Malay alphabet, 

T31 
Jawi alphabet 1 J 



Demonym 



Bruneian 



Government 

- Sultan 

- Crown Prince 

- Prime Minister 



Unitary Islamic 
absolute monarchy 

Hassanal Bolkiah 
Al-Muhtadee Billah 
Hassanal Bolkiah 



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2 History 

■ 2.1 Early History 

■ 2.1.1 War with Spain and decline 

■ 2.2 British Intervention 

■ 2.3 Discovery of Oil 

■ 2.4 Japanese Occupation 

■ 2.5 Post World War II 

■ 2.6 Writing of the Constitution 

■ 2.7 The National Development Plans 

■ 2.7.1 The First National Development Plan 

■ 2.7.2 The Second National Development 
Plan 

3 Politics and government 

4 Foreign relations 

5 Subdivisions 

6 Geography 

7 Economy 

8 Demographics 

9 Culture 

■ 9.1 Titles [91] 

10 Media 

11 Defence 

12 Infrastructure 

13 See also 

14 Notes and references 

15 Bibliography 

16 External links 



Etymology 

According to legend, Brunei was founded by Awang Alak 
Betatar. His move from Garang, a place in the Temburong 

District^ J to the Brunei river estuary led to the discovery of 
Brunei. According to legend, upon landing he exclaimed "Baru 
nahl" (loosely translating as "that's it!" or "there"), from which 
the name Brunei was derived. J 

It was renamed Barunai in the 14th century, possibly influenced 

by the Sanskrit word varun (cT^T), meaning either "ocean" or 

mythological "regent of ocean." The word Borneo is of the same origin. In the country's full name Negara Brunei 

Darussalam, Darussalam (Arabic: f^& J±) means "Abode of Peace", while Negara means "country" in Malay. 



Legislature 


Legislative Council 


Formation 

- Sultanate 

- British protectorate 

- Independence 


14th century 

1888 

1 January 1984 


Area 

- Total 

- Water (%) 


5,765 km 2 (172 nd ) 
2,226 sq mi 
8.6 


Population 

- 2011 estimate 

- 2001 census 

- Density 


401,890 [4] (174 th ) 
332,844 

67.3/km 2 (134 th ) 
174.4/sqmi 


GDP (PPP) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2011 estimate 

$21,237 

billion [5] (122 nd ) 
$49,719 [5] (5 th ) 


GDP (nominal) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2011 estimate 
$16,313 

billion [5] (166 th ) 
$38,192 [5] (26 th ) 


HDI(2011) 


A0.838 [6] (very 
high) (33 rd ) 


Currency 


Brunei dollar (bnd) 


Time zone 


(UTC+8 [7] ) 


Drives on the 


left 


ISO 3166 code 


BN 


Internet TLD 


W 7] 


Calling code 


+673 1 


l Also 080 from East Malaysia 



History 



Main article: History of Brunei 



Early History 



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In the absence of any other evidence scholars have created an early history of Brunei that is mainly based on 
flexible interpretations of Chinese texts. This early part reads: Chinese records from the sixth century mention a 
state called P'o-li on the northwest coast of Borneo. J In the seventh century, Chinese and Arab accounts state a 
place called Vijayapura, which was thought to be founded by members of the royal family of Funan. J They were 
believed to have landed on the northwest coast of Borneo with some of their followers. They then captured P'o-li 
and renamed the territory 'Vijayapura' (meaning 'victory'). In 977, Chinese records started to use Po-ni instead of 
Vijayapura to refer to Brunei. J In 1225 a Chinese official named Chua Ju-Kua reported that Brunei has 100 
warships to protect its trade and that there was a lot of gold in the kingdom.^ ^ Another report in 1280 described 
Po-ni as controlling large parts of Borneo Island (modern day Sabah and Sarawak, Sulu and some parts of the 
Philippines. In the fourteenth century, Po-ni became a vassal state of Majapahit, and had to pay an annual payment 
of 40 katis of camphor. Po-ni was attacked and looted of its treasure and gold by the Sulus in 1369. A fleet from 
Majapahit succeeded in driving away the Sulus but Po-ni became much weaker after the attack.^ ^ A Chinese 
report of 1371 described Po-ni as poor and totally controlled by Majapahit. J 

The power of the Sultanate of Brunei was at its peak between the 15th and 17th centuries, with its power extending 
from northern Borneo to the southern Philippines. ^ 

By the 16th century, Islam was firmly rooted in Brunei, and the country had built one of its biggest mosques. In 
1578, Alonso Beltran, a Spanish traveler described it as being five stories tall and built on the water. L J 

War with Spain and decline 

European influence gradually brought an end to this regional power, as Brunei entered a period of decline 
compounded by internal strife over royal succession. Piracy was also detrimental to the kingdom. J Spain declared 
it war in 1578, attacking and capturing Brunei's capital at the time, Kota Batu. This was achieved as a result in part 
of the assistance rendered to them by two Bruneian noblemen, Pengiran Seri Lela and Pengiran Seri Ratna. The 
former had travelled to Manila to offer Brunei as a tributary of Spain for help to recover the throne usurped by his 
brother, Saiful Rijal. J The Spanish agreed that if they succeeded in conquering Brunei, Pengiran Seri Lela would 
indeed become the Sultan, while Pengiran Seri Ratna would be the new Bendahara. In March 1578, the Spanish 
fleet, led by De Sande himself, acting as Capitan-General, started their journey towards Brunei. The expedition 
consisted of 400 Spaniards, 1,500 Filipino natives and 300 Borneans. J The campaign was one of many, which 
also included action in Mindanao and SukJ ^ ^ 

The Spanish succeeded in invading the capital on 16 April 1578, with the help of Pengiran Seri Lela and Pengiran 
Seri Ratna. The Sultan Saiful Rijal and Paduka Seri Begawan Sultan Abdul Kahar were forced to flee to Meragang 
then to Jerudong. In Jerudong, they made plans to chase the conquering army away from Brunei. The Spanish 

suffered heavy losses due to a cholera or dysentery outbreak. L JL J They were so weakened by the illness that 
they decided to abandon Brunei to return to Manila on 26 June 1578, after just 72 days. Before doing so, they 
burned the mosque, a high structure with a five-tier roof. J 

Pengiran Seri Lela died in August-September 1578, probably from the same illness that had afflicted his Spanish 
allies, although there was suspicion he could have been poisoned by the ruling Sultan. Seri Lela's daughter left with 

the Spanish and went on to marry a Christian Tagalog, named Agustin de Legazpi de Tondo. J 

The local Brunei accounts^ ^ differ greatly from the generally accepted view of events. The Castilian War 
entering the national conscience as a heroic episode, with the Spaniards being driven out by Bendahara Sakam, 
supposedly a brother of the ruling Sultan, and a thousand native warriors. This version, nevertheless, is disputed by 
most historians and considered a folk-hero recollection, probably created decades or centuries after. J 



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Notwithstanding the retreat, Brunei lost a number of territories to Spain, including the island of Luzon. L J 
A civil war was fought from 1660 to 1673. 

British Intervention 

The decline of the Bruneian Empire culminated in the 19th century, when Brunei lost much of its territory to the 
White Rajahs of Sarawak, resulting in its current small landmass and separation into two parts. J The Treaty of 
Protection which was negotiated by Sir Hugh Low was signed into effect on 17 September 1888. This enables 
Britain control over Brunei's external affairs. This treaty was signed after Sultan Hashim, the Sultan at that time, 
appealed to the British to stop partitioning and annexing Brunei, as what James Brooke was doing since 1846. J 
One of the terms in the agreement included that the Sultan "could not cede or lease any territory to foreign powers 
without British consent." When James Brooke later annexed the Pandaruan district, however the British did not 
take any action against him as they regarded James Brooke as not being a foreigner. 

The British also attacked Brunei on July 1846 due to disagreement of on who was the rightful Sultan. J Brunei 
was a British protectorate from 1888 to 1984. * British Residents were introduced in Brunei under the 
Supplementary Protectorate Agreement in 1906.^ ^ The Residents were to advise the Sultan on all matters of 
administration. However, the Resident assumed more executive control than the Sultan. The Residential system 
ended in 1959. [36] 

Discovery of Oil 

Oil was discovered in 1929 after several fruitless attempts. * Two men, F.F. Marriot and T.G. Cochrane smelled 
oil near the Seria river in late 1926. * They informed a geophysicist which then conducted a survey there. In 
1927, gas seepages were reported in the area. Seria Well Number One (S-l) was drilled on 12 July 1928. Oil was 
struck at 297 meters on 5 April 1929. Seria Well Number 2 was drilled on 19 August 1929 and is still producing oil 
to this date. J Oil production increased considerably in the 1930s. In 1940, oil production was at more than six 
million barrels. ^ The British Malayan Petroleum Company (now Brunei Shell Petroleum Company) was formed 
on 22 July 1922. [40] 

The first offshore well was drilled in 1957. J 

Japanese Occupation 

Brunei was occupied by Japan from 1941 to 1945 during World War II. The Japanese landed 10,000 men at Kuala 
Belait on 16 December 1941. The British in Brunei were easily defeated due to their unpreparedness and the fact 
that they were outnumbered. After capturing Kuala Belait, the Japanese army moved on to Brunei Town (now 
Bandar Seri Begawan) and captured it on 22 December 1941, capturing the police headquarters there. Brunei was 
liberated on 10 June 1945 under Operation Oboe Six. [42][43] 

Post World War H 

After World War II, a new government was formed in Brunei under the British Military Administration (BMA). It 
consisted mainly of Australian officers and servicemen. * The administration of Brunei was handed over to the 
Civil Administration on 6 July 1945. The Brunei State Council was also revived that year. J The BMA was also 
tasked to revive the Bruneian economy, which was extensively damaged by the Japanese during their occupation. 
They were also tasked with putting out the fires started on the wells of Seria, which was started by the Japanese 



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prior to their defeat. J Before 1941, the Governor of the Straits Settlements based in Singapore was responsible 
for the duties of British High Commissioner for Brunei, Sarawak, and North Borneo (now Sabah). J The first 
British High Commissioner for Brunei was the Governor of Sarawak, Sir Charles Ardon Clarke. The Barisan 
Pemuda ("Youth Movement") (abbreviated as B ARIP) was the first political party to be formed in Brunei. It was 
formed on 12 April 1946. The aims of the party were to "preserve the sovereignty of the Sultan and the country, 
and to defend the rights of the Malays."^ J BARIP also contributed to the formation of the country's National 
Anthem. The party was dissolved in 1948 due to inactivity. 

In 1959, a new constitution was written declaring Brunei a self-governing state, while its foreign affairs, security, 
and defense remained the responsibility of the United Kingdom. J There was a small rebellion against the 
monarchy in 1962, which was suppressed with help from the United Kingdom. This event became known as the 
Brunei Revolt and was partly responsible for the failure to create the North Borneo Federation. The rebellion 
partially affected Brunei's decision to opt out of the Malaysian Federation. L J 

Brunei gained its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984. * The official National Day, which 
celebrates the country's independence, however, is held on 23 February due to tradition. 

Writing of the Constitution 

In July 1953, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III formed a seven-member committee named Tujuh Serangkai to find out 
the citizens' views regarding a written constitution for Brunei. In May 1954, a meeting attended by the Sultan, the 
Resident and the High Commissioner was held to discuss the findings of the committee. In March 1959 Sultan 
Omar Ali Saifuddien III led a delegation to London to discuss the proposed Constitution. ^ The British delegation 
was led by Sir Alan Lennox-Boyd who was the Secretary of State for the Colonies. The British Government later 
accepted the draft constitution. On 29 September 1959, the Constitution Agreement was signed in Bandar Seri 
Begawan. The agreement was signed by Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III and Sir Robert Scott, the Commissioner- 
General for Southeast Asia. Some of the points of the constitution were. * 

■ The Sultan was made the Supreme Head of State. 

■ Brunei was responsible for its internal administration. 

■ The British Government was now responsible for foreign and defence affairs only. 

■ The post of Resident was abolished and replaced by a British High Commissioner. 

Five councils were also set up:^ * 

■ The Executive Council 

■ The Legislative Council of Brunei 

■ The Privy Council 

■ The Council Of Succession 

■ The State Religious Council 

The National Development Plans 

A series of National Development Plans were initiated by the 28th Sultan of Brunei, Omar Ali Saifuddien III. 
The First National Development Plan 

The First National Development plan was introduced in 1953. ^ A total sum of B$100 million was approved by 

the Brunei State Council for the plan. E.R. Bevington from the Colonial Office in Fiji. J A $14 million Gas Plant 
was built under the plan. In 1954, survey and exploration work were undertaken by the Brunei Shell Petroluem on 

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both offshore and onshore fields. By 1956, production reached 114,700 bpd. Developments on education were also 
made. In 1952, a written policy on education was made. J By 1958, expenditure on education totaled at $4 
million. L J Communications were also improved with new roads built and and reconstruction works at Berakas 
Airport being completed at 1954. J 

The Second National Development Plan 

The second National Development Plan was launched in 1962. J A major oil and gas field was discovered in 
1963, with this discovery, Liquefied Natural Gas became important. Developments in the oil and gas sector has 
continued actively and oil production has steadily increased since then.^ ^ The plan also saw an increase of 
production of meat and eggs. The fishing industry increased its output by 25% throughout the course of the plan. 
The Muara Deepwater Port was also constructed under the plan. Power requirements were met and studies were 
made to provide electricity to rural areas. J Efforts were made to eradicate malaria, with the help of the World 
Health Organisation, under the plan. Efforts were successful, bringing the down the cases of malaria from 300 
cases in 1953 to only 66 cases in 1959. J The death rate was also brought down from 20 per thousand in 1947 to 
11.3 per thousand in 1953. J This has been attributed to public sanitation and improvement of drainage and the 
provision of piped pure water to the population.^ ^ 



Politics and government 

Main article: Politics of Brunei 
Brunei has a constitutional sultanate. It has a legal system based on English 



common law, although Islamic shariah law supersedes this in some cases 



[4] 



The political system in the country is governed by the constitution and the 
tradition of the Malay Islamic Monarchy, the concept of "Melayu Islam 
Beraja" (MIB). The three components of MIB cover Malay culture, Islamic 
religion and the political framework under the monarchy. J 

Under Brunei's 1959 constitution, His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan 
Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah is the head of state with full 
executive authority, including emergency powers which are renewed every 
two years, since 1962. The Sultan's role is enshrined in the national ideology 
known as Melayu Islam Beraja (MIB), or Malay Muslim Monarchy. The 
country has been under hypothetical martial law since the Brunei Revolt of 
1962. J Hassanal Bolkiah is also the state's Prime Minister, Finance Minister 
and Defence Minister. * The Royal family retains a venerated status within 
the country. J The country also has its own parliament. 




Hassanal Bolkiah, Sultan of 
Brunei. 



Foreign relations 

Main article: Foreign relations of Brunei 

With its traditional ties with the United Kingdom, it became the 49th member of the Commonwealth immediately 
on the day of its independence on 1 January 1984. ^ As its first initiatives toward improved regional relations, 
Brunei joined ASEAN on 7 January 1984, becoming the sixth member. ^ It later joined the United Nations at the 
39th Session of the United Nations General Assembly and became a full member on 21 September 1984 as a means 



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to achieve recognition of its sovereignty and full independence from the world community. * As it is an Islamic 
country, Brunei Darussalam became a full member of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (now the 
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation) in January 1984 at the Fourth Islamic Summit held in Morocco. * 

After its accession to the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC) in 1989, Brunei hosted the APEC 
Economic Leaders' Meeting in November 2000 and the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in July 2002 J ^ As for 
other economic ties, Brunei Darussalam became an original member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) since 
it came into force in 1 January 1995, J and is a major player in BIMP-EAGA which was formed during the 
Inaugural Ministers' Meeting in Davao, Philippines on 24 March 1994. * 

Brunei is recognized by every nation in the world. It shares a close relationship particularly with the Philippines 
and other nations such as Singapore. In April 2009, Brunei and the Philippines signed a Memorandum of 
Understanding (MOU) that seeks to strengthen the bilateral cooperation of the two countries in the fields of 
agriculture and farm-related trade and investments. J 

Brunei is one of many nations to lay claim to some of the disputed Spratly Islands. * The status of Limbang as 
part of Sarawak was disputed by Brunei since the area was first annexed in 1890. J The issue was reportedly 
settled in 2009, with Brunei agreeing to accept the border in exchange for Malaysia giving up claims to oil fields in 
Bruneian waters. * The government, however, denies this and says that their claim on Limbang was never 
dropped^ 67 " 68 ] 

Subdivisions 



Main articles: Districts of Brunei and 
Mukims of Brunei 

Brunei is divided into four districts (daerah)'} * 

■ Belait 

■ Brunei and Muara 

■ Temburong 

■ Tutong 

The district of Temburong is physically separated 
from the rest of Brunei by part of Sarawak State 
(Malaysia). The districts are subdivided into 38 
mukims} J 



2nJnei-AAuar£ 



Belait 




Rank Mukim Population Town/Suburb/Town 


District 


1 


Sengkurong 


62,400 


Jerudong and Bandar 
Seri Begawan 


Brunei-Muara 


2 


Gadong A 
& Gadong 
B 


59,610 


Bandar Seri Begawan 


Brunei-Muara 


3 


Berakas A 


57,500 


Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara 


4 


Kuala 
Belait 


35,500 


Kuala Belait 


Belait 




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Rank 


Mukim Population 


Town/Suburb/Town 


District 


5 


Seria 


32,900 


Seria Town (Pekan 
Seria) 


Belait 


6 


Berakas B 


23,400 


Bandar Seri Begawan 


Brunei-Muara 


7 


Sungai 
Liang 


18,100 


None 


Belait 


8 


Pengkalan 
Batu 


approx. 
15,000 


None 


Brunei-Muara 


9 


Kilanas 


approx. 
14,000 


Bandar Seri Begawan 


Brunei-Muara 


10 


Kota Batu 


12,600 


Bandar Seri Begawan 


Brunei-Muara 


11 


Pekan 
Tutong 


12,100 


Pekan Tutong 


Tutong 
Brunei-Muara 


12 


Mentiri 


10,872 


None 


13 


Serasa 


approx. 
10,000 


Muara Town (Pekan 
Muara) 


Brunei-Muara 


14 


Kianggeh 


8,540 


Bandar Seri Begawan 


Brunei-Muara 


15 


Burong 
Pinggai 
Ayer 


approx. 8,200 


Bandar Seri Begawan 


Brunei-Muara 


16 


Keriam 


8,000 


None 


Tutong 


17 


Lumapas 


7,458 


Bandar Seri Begawan 


Brunei-Muara 


18 


Kiudang 


7,000 


None 


Tutong 


19 


Saba 


approx. 6,600 


Bandar Seri Begawan 


Brunei-Muara 


20 


T>r , approx. 6,000 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara 
Kedayan rr & 



Geography 



Main article: Geography of Brunei 



Brunei is a southeast Asian country consisting of two unconnected parts with the total 
area of 5,765 square kilometres (2,226 sq mi). It has 161 kilometres (100 mi) of 
coastline next to the South China sea, and it shares a 381 km (237 mi) border with 
Malaysia. It has 500 square kilometres (193 sq mi) of territorial waters, and an 200 nm 
exclusive economic zone. J 

77% of the population lives in the eastern part of Brunei, while only about 10,000 live 
in the mountainous south eastern part (the district of Temburong). The total population 
of Brunei Darussalam is approximately 408,000 (July 2010) of which around 150,000 
live in the capital Bandar Seri Begawan. L J Other major towns are the port town of 
Muara, the oil producing town of Seria and its neighboring town, Kuala Belait. In the 
Belait district, the Panaga area is home to large numbers of expatriates due to Royal 
Dutch Shell and British Army housing and recreational facilities located there. J 




The topographic map of 
Brunei 



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Most of Brunei is within the Borneo lowland rain forests ecoregion that covers most of the island but there are 
areas of mountain rain forests inland. J 

The climate of Brunei is tropical equatorial. * The average annual temperature is 26.1 °C (79.0 °F), with the 
April-May average of 24.7 °C (76.5 °F) and the October-December average of 23.8 °C (74.8 °F). [73] 



Month 


Jan 


Feb 


Mar 


Apr 


May 


Jun 


Jul 


Aug 


Sep 


Oct 


Nov 


Dec 


Year 


Mean Maximum (°C) 


25.8 


24.8 


27.2 


27.1 


27.5 


27.1 


28.4 


28.3 


28.0 


26.5 


24.4 


24.0 


28.3 


Mean Minimum (°C) 


22.1 


22.0 


22.5 


23.9 


23.9 


24.7 


24.1 


24.3 


25.3 


23.1 


22.2 


23.6 


26.2 


Average Rainfall (mm) 


277.7 


138.3 


113.0 


200.3 


239.0 


214.2 


228.8 


215.8 


257.7 


319.9 


329.4 


343.5 


2873.9 



Economy 

Main article: Economy of Brunei 

This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, 
welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for about 90% of its GDP.^ ^ 
About 167,000 barrels of oil are produced everyday, making Brunei the fourth largest producer of oil in South-east 
Asia.^ * It also produces approximately 895 million cubic feet of liquified natural gas per day, making Brunei the 
ninth-largest exporter of the substance in the world. J Substantial income from overseas investment supplements 
income from domestic production. Most of these investments are made by the Brunei Investment Agency, an arm 
of the Ministry of Finance. J The government provides for all medical services^ J and subsidizes rice L J and 
housing. * The national airline, Royal Brunei, is trying to make Brunei a modest hub for international travel 
between Europe and Australia/New Zealand. Central to this strategy is the position that the airline maintains at 
London Heathrow Airport. It holds a daily slot at the highly capacity-controlled airport, which it serves from 
Bandar Seri Begawan via Dubai. The airline also has services to major Asian destinations including Shanghai, 
Bangkok, Singapore and Manilla. ltatwn nee e J Brunei is increasingly importing from other countries. * 

Brunei's leaders are very concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine 
internal social cohesion although it became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum. Stated plans for the future include upgrading the labour force, 
reducing unemployment, which currently stands at 6%, strengthening the banking and tourism sectors, and, in 
general, further widening the economic base. J 

To achieve its target for food self-sufficiency, Brunei renamed its Brunei Darussalam Rice 1 to Laila Rice during 
the launch of the "Padi Planting Towards Achieving Self-Sufficiency of Rice Production in Brunei Darussalam" 
ceremony at the Wasan padi fields in April 2009. J In August 2009, the Royal Family reaped the first few Laila 
padi stalks, after years of multiple attempts to boost local rice production, a goal which was envisioned about half a 
century ago. J In July 2009 Brunei launched its national halal branding scheme, Brunei Halal, with an aim to 
export to foreign markets. J 

Demographics 

Main article: Demographics of Brunei 

The population of Brunei in July 2011 was 401,890 of which 76% live in urban areas. The average life expectancy 
is 76.17 years. In 2004, 66.3% of the population were Malay, 11.2% are Chinese, 3.4% are Indigenous, with 



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Brunei - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http : //en. wikipedi a. org/ wiki/Brunei 



smaller groups making up the rest. 



[4] 



The official language of Brunei is Malay. There are 
calls to expand the use of the language in Brunei. * 
The principal spoken language is Melayu Brunei 
(Brunei Malay, AKA Kedayan). Brunei is rather 
divergent from standard Malay and the rest of the 
Malay dialects, being about 80% cognate with standard 
Malay, and is mostly mutually unintelligible with hv ^ 
English and Chinese are also widely spoken^ ^ J and 
there is a relatively large expatriate community. J 
Bahasa Rojak, often spoken by the media and the 
public, is known as a "mixed language" and considered 

detrimental to normal Malay. J Other languages 
spoken include Kedayan, Tutong, Murut, Dusun and 
Iban^ 83 ] 







4Tifek* 


1^f,tr%i fc^feilEE i, 1 1 Nli i lull i 1 1 1 1 1 J 


. !_"_. _ ■-..... 


. . ..._ i yliS iSi *'* "?■••! !'iriffilBfflj wffifflh 


4AiS»i » (22M>»u PI*! — ■ !■■■■■ 


Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque at night. 



[4] 



Islam is the official religion of Brunei, 1 J and two-thirds of the population adheres to Islam. Other faiths practiced 
are Buddhism (13%, mainly by the Chinese) and Christianity (10%). ^ Freethinkers, mostly Chinese, form about 
7% of the population. Although most of them practice some form of religion with elements of Buddhism, 
Confucianism and Taoism, they prefer to present themselves as having professed no religion officially, hence 
regarded as atheists in official censuses. Followers of indigenous religions are about 2% of the population.^ ^ 



Culture 



Main article: Culture of Brunei 

The culture of Brunei is predominantly Malay (reflecting its ethnicity), with heavy influences from Islam, but is 
seen as more conservative than Malaysia. J 

Brunei's culture is mainly derived from the Old Malay World, which encompassed the Malay Archipelago and from 
this stemmed what is known as the Malay Civilisation. Based on historical facts, various cultural elements and 
foreign civilisations had a hand in influencing the culture of this country. Thus, the influence of culture can be 
traced to four dominating periods of animism, Hinduism, Islam and the West. However, it was Islam that managed 
to wind its roots deeply into the culture of Brunei hence it became a way of life and adopted as the state's ideology 
and philosophy. J 

As a Sharia country, the sale and public consumption of alcohol is banned. J Non-Muslims are allowed to bring in 
a limited amount of alcohol from their point of embarkation overseas for their own private consumption. ^ 



Titles 



[91] 



Royalty: [92] 



Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan* is the official title of the Sultan of 

Brunei. The present Sultan's official name (with full title) is "Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Seri 

Baginda Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Muizzaddin Waddaulah, Sultan dan Yang Di-Pertuan Negara Brunei 

Darussalam" 

With the style of: - His Majesty. 



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Brunei - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brunei 

■ Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Seri Baginda Raja Isteri, i.e. Raja Isteri, with the style of: - 
Her Majesty. 

■ Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Pengiran Isteri, i.e. Princess with the style of:- Her Royal Highness. 

■ Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Paduka Seri Duli Pengiran Muda Mahkota, i.e. Crown Prince with the style 
of:- His Royal Highness. 

■ Yang Teramat Mulia Paduka Seri Duli Pengiran Muda, i.e. Prince (younger sons and grandsons of the 
Sultan, in the male line) with the style of:- His Royal Highness. 

■ Pengiran Anak Istri: a title used for the senior and royal wives of a Pengiran Muda. 

■ Yang Teramat Mulia Paduka Seri Duli Pengiran Anak Puteri, i.e. Princess (Daughters and 
granddaughters of the Sultan, in the male line) with the style of:- Her Royal Highness. 

■ Paduka Seri Pengiran Anak Puteri: style used for the daughters of a Sultan born of Royal wives. 

■ Yang Amat Mulia Duli Pengiran Anak, (Grandsons & Granddaughters of the Sultan, being the sons of 
daughters/being the daughters of daughters) 

■ Yang Amat Mulia (Y.A.M.): the style used for the daughter of a Sultan by a senior wife, the children of a 
Sultan by his junior wives, the children of the Pangiran Shahbandar, Maharaja Laila, Paduka Tuan, Maharaja 
Adinda, Cheteria Besar, Cheteria Pengalasan and Cheteria Damit. 

■ Yang Teramat Mulia (Y.T.M.): the style used for the children of a Sultan by a Royal wife, the children of 
the Sri Paduka Duli Pangiran Bendahara, the di-Gadong, the Pemancha and the Temenggong. 

WAZIRs: [93] 

■ Vizier (or Wazir): the highest noble officials, ranking immediately after the Sultan. 

■ Duli Pengiran Perdana Wazir Sahibul Himmah Wal-Waqar: Chief Vizier - the highest Vizier title, usually 
held by a senior member of the Royal family. 

■ Duli Pengiran Bendahara Paduka Seri Maharaja Permaisuara: the full style for one of the high Vizier 
title, usually held by a senior member of the Royal family. 

■ Pengiran DiGadong Sahibul Mai: the full style for one of the senior Vizier titles, frequently held by 
members of the Royal family. 

■ Duli Pengiran di-Gadong Sahib ul-Mal ul-Mulk ul-Adli: the full style for one of the senior Vizier titles, 
frequently held by members of the Royal family. 

■ Duli Pengiran Pemancha Sahib ul-Rai f wa ul-Mushuarat: the full style for one of the senior Vizier titles, 
frequently held by members of the Royal family. 

■ Duli Pengiran Shahbandar Sahib ul-Bandar Bait ul-Karib: the full style for one of the Vizier titles of the 
second rank, frequently held by members of the Royal family. 

OTHERS (Title by inheritance) 

■ Pengiran: title of married male descendants in the male line of a Sultan or great nobleman, or for any female 

descendant in the male line who has married a man of that rank. J 

■ Awangku - hereditary title for the unmarried male children of a Pengiran. They may later claim the title 
Pengiran since they are also related to the Brunei Sultanate. This, however can only be done after he gets the 
approval of the elders and is considered as matured enough to carry the title, or after which he has married. 

■ Dayangku - hereditary title for the unmarried female children of a Pengiran (retained after marriage if the 
husband is a commoner). 



SALUTATIONS 



[95] 



■ Awang: style of address originally used for lesser nobles but now used for addressing men in Brunei and it is 
equivalent to Mr.. 

■ Dayang: style of address originally used for lesser nobles but now used for addressing women in Brunei and 
it is equivalent to Miss. 

■ Haji (or Hajah for female) can be used by people who have completed the pilgrimage of Hajj to Mecca. 

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Brunei - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brunei 

This title is abbreviated as "Hj." or "Hjh." (before the name for males/females). 

■ Dato : part of the title for non-nobles, now also used for certain higher classes of the Orders of Chivalry, 
equivalent to Knight Commander. 

■ Dato Paduka: the most common title awarded in Brunei, of which it is a class of the Darjah Seri Paduka 
Mahkota Brunei Yang Amat Mulia (The Most Honourable Order of Seri Paduka Mahkota Brunei). Other 
versions of Dato Paduka includes Dato Seri Paduka, Dato Paduka Seri, Dato Laila Utama, Dato Paduka Seri 
Laila Jasa and others. These title awards are granted by His Majesty the Sultan of Brunei, and the titles are 

non-hereditary. J 

■ Datin: The wife of a Dato Paduka, except when the recipient is a female, whereby she would be addressed 
as Datin Paduka. 

■ Menteri (or Mantri): Minister, ranking below vizier (Wazir). 

■ Pehin: a non-noble official of high rank. 

■ Orang Kaya: literally "rich man", part of a title for non-nobles. 

■ Tuan/Puan Yang Terutama (T.Y.T.): His/Her Excellency (is the style of a state Governor - a title for 
serving Ambassadors). 

Media 

Media in Brunei are extremely pro-government. The country has been given "Not Free" status by Freedom House; 
press criticism of the government and monarchy is rare. J Nonetheless, the press is not overtly hostile toward 
alternative viewpoints and is not restricted to publishing only articles regarding the government. The government 
allowed a printing and publishing company, Brunei Press PLC, to form in 1953. It continues to print the leading 
English daily Borneo Bulletin. This paper began as a weekly community paper, became the country's daily paper in 
1990, and "remains the foremost source of information on local and foreign affairs. " L J Apart from The Borneo 
Bulletin, there is also the Media Permata, the local Malay newspaper which is circulated daily. The Brunei Times 
is another English independent newspaper published in Brunei Darussalam. J 

The Brunei government owns and operates six television channels with the introduction of digital TV using DVB-T 
(RTB 1, RTB 2, RTB 3 (HD), RTB 4, RTB 5 and RTB New Media (Game portal) and five radio stations (National 
FM, Pilihan FM, Nur Islam FM, Harmony FM and Pelangi FM). A private company has made cable television 

available (Astro-Kristal) as well as one private radio station, Kristal FM. J It also has an online campus radio 

station, UBD FM that streams from the its first university, Universiti Brunei Darussalam'^ J 

Defence 

Main article: Royal Brunei Armed Forces 

Brunei maintains three infantry battalions stationed around the country.^ ^ The Brunei navy has several 

"Ijtihad" -class patrol boats purchased from a German manufacturer . The United Kingdom also maintains a base in 

Seria, the center of the oil industry in Brunei. A Gurkha battalion consisting of 1500 personnel is stationed there. ^ ^ 

United Kingdom military personnel are stationed there under a defence agreement signed between the two 

T91 
countries. 1 J 

Infrastructure 

Further information: Transport in Brunei 
The major population centres in the country are linked by a network of 2,800 kilometres of road. The 135 km 

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http : //en. wikipedi a. org/ wiki/Brunei 



highway from Muara Town to Kuala Belait is being upgraded to a dual carriageway. J 

Brunei is accessible by air, sea and land transport. Brunei International Airport is the main entry point to the 
country. Royal Brunei Airlines^ * is the national carrier. There is another airfield, the Anduki Airfield, located in 
Seria. The ferry terminal at Muara services regular connections to Labuan (Malaysia). Speedboats provide 
passenger and goods transportation to the Temburong district. J The main highway running across Brunei is the 
Tutong-Muara Highway. The country's road network is well developed. Brunei has one main sea port located at 



Muara 



[9] 



With one private car for every 2.09 persons, Brunei Darussalam has one of the highest car ownership rates in the 
world. This has been attributed to the absence of a comprehensive transport system, low import tax and low 
unleaded petrol price of B$0.53 per litre. * 

Healthcare in Brunei is charged at B$l per consultation for citizens. * A health center run by Brunei Shell 
Petroleum is located in Panaga. For medical assistance not available in the country, citizens are sent overseas at the 
government's expense. * 

The largest hospital in Brunei is Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital (RIPAS) hospital, which has 538 
beds, J is situated in the country's capital Bandar Seri Begawan. There are two private medical centres, 
Gleneagles JPMC Sdn Bhd . * and Jerudong Park Medical Centre. The Health Promotion Centre opened in 
November 2008 and serves to educate the public on the importance of having a healthy lifestyle.^ ^ 

There is currently no medical school in Brunei, and Bruneians wishing to study to become doctors must attend 
university overseas. However, the Institute of Medicines had been introduced at the Universiti Brunei Darussalam 
and a new building has been built for the faculty. The building, including research lab facilities, was completed in 
2009. There has been a School of Nursing since 1951. J 58 nurse managers were appointed in RIPAS to improve 
service and provide better medical care. ^ In December 2008, The nursing college merged with the Institute of 
Medicines at the Universiti Brunei Darussalam to produce more nurses and midwives. * It is now called the 
PAPRSB (Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'datul Bolkiah) Institute of Health Sciences. [108] 

See also 

■ Outline of Brunei 

■ Index of Brunei-related articles 



Astronomy in Brunei 
Brooketon 

Commonwealth of Nations 
Communications in Brunei 
Girl Guides in Brunei 
Hospitals in Brunei 
Istana Nurul Iman (Sultan's 
Palace) 



Jerudong Park Medical 

Centre 

List of Bruneians 

List of Brunei-related topics 

List of Sunni Muslim 

dynasties 

Media of Brunei 

Military of Brunei 



Music of Brunei 
Royal Brunei Airlines 
Scouting in Brunei 
Sport in Brunei 
Transport in Brunei 
Universiti Brunei Darussalam 



Notes and references 



, a b 



1. A The Prime Minister's Office of Brunei Darussalam (http://www.pmo.gov.bn/) 



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Monarchy of Australia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy_of_Australia 



Monarchy of Australia 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

The Monarchy of Australia is a form of government in 
which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of Australia. 
The monarchy is a constitutional one modelled on the 
Westminster style of parliamentary government, 
incorporating features unique to the Constitution of 
Australia. 

The present monarch is Elizabeth II, styled Queen of 
Australia, who has reigned since 6 February 1952. She is 
represented in Australia by the Governor-General, in 
accordance with the Australian Constitution and Letters 

Patent from the Queen. ^ J In each of the states, the 
monarch is represented by a governor, appointed directly by 
the Queen on the advice of each of her respective state 
governments. 

The Australian monarch, besides reigning in Australia, 
separately serves as monarch for each of fifteen other 
Commonwealth countries known as Commonwealth realms. 
This developed from the former colonial relationship of 
these countries to Britain, but they are now independent of 
each other and are legally distinct. 



Queen of Australia 

MONARCHY 
FEDERAL 




Y • 



Coat of arms of Australia 




Contents 


■ 1 International and domestic aspects 


■ 1.1 Title 


■ 1.2 Finance 


■ 1.3 Succession 


■ 2 Personification of the state 


■ 3 Constitutional role 


■ 3.1 Executive 


■ 3.1.1 Foreign affairs 


■ 3.2 Parliament 


■ 3.3 Courts 


■ 3.4 States and territories 


■ 4 Cultural role 


■ 4.1 Royal presence and duties 


■ 4.2 Symbols 


■ 5 Religious role 


■ 6 Vice-regal residences 


■ 7 Australian Defence Force 


■ 8 History 


■ 9 List of Australian Monarchs 


■ 10 See also 


■ 10.1 Other realms 



Incumbent: 
Elizabeth H 



Style: 

Heir apparent: 

First monarch: 

Formation: 



Her Majesty 
Charles, Prince of Wales 
Queen Victoria 
1 January 1901 



Australia 




This article is part of a series about the 

Politics and government 
of Australia 



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Monarchy of Australia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy_of_Australia 



■ 10.2 Australia 

■ 10.3 Other 

11 Bibliography 

12 Notes 

13 References 

14 External links 



International and domestic aspects 

Further information: Commonwealth realm: The Crown in the 
Commonwealth realms 

The monarch of Australia is the same person as the monarch of the fifteen 
other Commonwealth realms within the 54-member Commonwealth of 
Nations; however, each country is sovereign and independent of the 
others. * On all matters of the Australian state, the monarch is advised by 

Australian federal Ministers of the Crown ^ ^ * and, effective with the 
Australia Act 1986, no British government can advise the monarch on any 
matters pertinent to Australia. The British Government is thus considered a 
foreign power in regard to Australia's domestic and foreign affairs. Still, 
the High Court of Australia found that those natural-born subjects of other 
Commonwealth realms who migrated to Australia could not be classified 
as aliens (as referred to in the constitution) within Australia, given that 
they owed allegiance to the same monarch and thus are subjects of the 

Queen of Australia. J However, in Sue v Hill, the High Court of Australia 
found that the United Kingdom was a foreign power for the purposes of 
Section 44 of the Australian Constitution, which determines eligibility for 

parliamentary office. J 



Title 



Further information: List of titles and honours of Queen Elizabeth 
II and Australian peers 

The shared and domestic aspects of the Crown are also highlighted in the 
sovereign's Australian title, currently Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace 
of God Queen of Australia and Her other Realms and Territories, Head 
of the Commonwealth. The Australian monarch has maintained the style of 
"Elizabeth the Second", even though she is the first Queen of Australia 
with that name. The sovereign's role specifically as Queen of Australia, as 
well as her status as monarch of other nations, is communicated by 
mentioning Australia separately from, but along with, the Queen's other 
lands. Typically, the sovereign is styled Queen of Australia and is 
addressed as such when in Australia or performing duties on behalf of 
Australia abroad. The sovereign is the only member of the Royal Family to 
have a title established through Australian law; other members are 
accorded a courtesy title, which is the title they have been granted via 
Letters Patent in the United Kingdom. 



Commonwealth 

• Queen (Elizabeth n) 

• Constitution Act 

• Statute of Westminster 

• Australia Act 

Executive (The Crown) 



• Governor-General (QuentinBryce) 

• Prime Minister (Julia Giiiard) • Cabinet 

• Federal Executive Council 

• Current ministry 



Legislative 

• Parliament 

• Senate 

• House of Representatives 

• Opposition Leader (Tony Abbott) 



Judicial 

• High Court 

• Lower Courts 



Elections 

• Federal electoral system 

• Electoral divisions 

• Election of 1901 • 1903 - 1974 • 
1975 -1977 -1980 -1983 • 1984 « 
1987 -1990 -1993 -1996 -1998- 
2001 • 2004 • 2007 • 2010 • Next • 

Political parties 

By-elections 



States/territories 

Executive 

• Governors and Administrators 

• Premiers and Chief Ministers 

• NSW • Vic • Qld • WA • SA • Tas • 
ACT • NT 

Legislative 

• Parliaments and Assemblies 

• State electoral systems 



Local government 

• NSW • Vic • Qld • WA • SA • Tas • NT 



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Monarchy of Australia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



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Foreign relations 



Other countries * Atlas 

Politics portal 



Prior to 1953, the title had simply been the same as that in the United 

Kingdom, the current form of the title being the result of occasional 

discussion and an eventual meeting of Commonwealth representatives in 

London in December 1952, at which Canada's preferred format for the 

monarch's title was: Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of 

[Realm] and of Her other realms and territories, Head of the 

Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith'} * however, Australia wished to have the United Kingdom mentioned as 

well. J Thus, the resolution was a title that included the United Kingdom but, for the first time, also mentioned 

Australia, and the other Commonwealth realms, separately. The passage of a new Royal Style and Titles Act by the 

parliament of Australia put these recommendations into law. This act was further amended in 1973, removing 

specific reference to the monarch's role as Queen of the United Kingdom. Still, laws pre-dating the Royal Styles 

and Titles Acts have not been amended to alter references to the Queen of the United Kingdom} J 
Finance 



Australians do not pay any money to the Queen, either for personal income or to support the royal residences 
outside of Australia. Only when the Queen is in Australia, or acting abroad as Queen of Australia, does the 
Australian government support her in the performance of her duties. This rule applies equally to other members of 
the Royal Family. Usually the Queen's Australian governments pay only for the costs associated with the governor- 
general and governors in their exercising of the powers of the Crown on behalf of the Queen, including travel, 
security, residences, offices and ceremonial occasions, etc. 

Succession 

Succession is by primogeniture L J governed by the provisions of the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Bill of Rights 
1689. This legislation limits the succession to the natural (i.e. non-adopted), legitimate descendants of Sophia, 
Electress of Hanover and stipulates that the monarch must be in communion with the Church of England upon 
ascending the throne. Prior to 2011, the law gave preference to sons over any older sisters and stipulated that the 

monarch cannot be married to a Roman Catholic. J Though these constitutional laws, as they apply to Australia, 
lie within the control of the British parliament, * via adopting the Statute of Westminster, the UK agreed not to 
change its rules of succession without the unanimous consent of the other realms, unless explicitly leaving the 
shared monarchy relationship; a situation which applies symmetrically in all the other realms and which has been 

likened to a treaty amongst these countries. * 

Upon a demise of the Crown (the death or abdication of a sovereign) it is 
customary for the accession of the new monarch to be publicly proclaimed by the 
governor-general on behalf of the Federal Executive Council, which meets at 
Government House, Canberra, after the accession. Parallel proclamations are 
made by the governors in each stated ^ Regardless of any proclamations, the late 
sovereign's heir immediately and automatically succeeds, without any need for 
confirmation or further ceremony; hence arises the phrase "The King is dead. 
Long live the King!" Following an appropriate period of mourning, the monarch is 
also crowned in the United Kingdom, though this ritual is not necessary for a 
sovereign to reign; for example, Edward VIII was never crowned, yet was 
undoubtedly king during his short time on the throne. After an individual ascends 
the throne, he or she typically continues to reign until death. There is no provision 
in the law for a monarch to unilaterally abdicate; the only Australian monarch to 
Charles, Prince of Wales, is the abdicate, Edward VIII, did so with the authorisation of the Australian government, 
heir apparent to the Australian granted in His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act, 1936. 




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throne. 



Personification of the state 



Further information: The Crown 

Today the sovereign is regarded as the legal personality of the Australian state, which is therefore referred to as 
Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Australia. For example, if a lawsuit is filed against the Commonwealth 
government, the respondent is formally described as Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Australia, or simply 
Regina. Likewise, in a case in which a party sues both the state of Queensland and the federal government, the 
respondents would formally be called Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Queensland and Her Majesty the Queen 
in Right of Australia. 

As such, all state lands are called Crown land, state owned buildings and equipment are called Crown held 
property, and the copyright for all government publications is called Crown copyright. In this role, the monarch is 
also the locus of oaths of allegiance; many employees of the Crown are required by law to recite this oath before 
taking their posts, such as all members of the Commonwealth parliament, all members of the state and territorial 
parliaments, as well as all magistrates, judges and justices of the peace. This is in reciprocation to the sovereign's 
Coronation Oath, wherein he or she promises "to govern the Peoples of... Australia... according to their respective 

laws and customs". J Previously, new appointees to Cabinet would also swear an oath that included allegiance to 
the monarch before taking their post. This oath was never written in law, however, and would only take the form of 
what the prime minister of the time suggested to the governor-general. In December 2007, Kevin Rudd did not 
swear allegiance to the sovereign when sworn in by the Governor-General, making him the first prime minister not 

to do so, J however, he (like all other Members of Parliament) did swear allegiance to the Queen, as required by 
law, when sworn-in by the Governor-General as newly-elected parliamentarians. Similarly, the Oath of Citizenship 
contained a statement of allegiance to the reigning monarch until 1994, when a pledge of allegiance to Australia 
and its values was introduced. The High Court found, in 2002, though, that allegiance to the Queen of Australia 
was the "fundamental criterion of membership" in the Australian body politic, from a constitutional, rather than 
statutory, point of view. 



[6] 



Constitutional role 



Australia's constitution is a written one, based on the Westminster model 
of government, with federal elements modelled on the United States 
Constitution and a distinct separation of powers. It gives Australia a 
parliamentary system of government similar to the other Commonwealth 
realms, wherein the role of the Queen and the Governor-General is both 
legal and practical. The Crown is regarded as a corporation, in which 
several parts share the authority of the whole, with the Queen as the 
person at the centre of the constitutional construct, J meaning all 

powers of state are constitutionally reposed in the monarch, J the 1993 
Republic Advisory Committee concluded that "the Queen" in the 
constitution means "the Australian Government". * The sovereign is 
represented in the federal sphere by the Governor-General - appointed 
by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister of Australia - and in 
the states by governors - appointed by the monarch upon the advice of 
the relevant state premier. 

There is some debate over whether the sovereign or the governor-general 
is Australia's head of state. J 



We have a very good system 
f f now in terms of political 

stability... one of the reasons 
why we have had this 
wonderful stability is because 
of the constitutional linkages 
from Crown to Governor- 
General to Prime Minister at 
the Federal level, and Crown 
to Governor to Premiers at 
the State level. There are 
checks and balances in the 
system, and that is why we 
never had civil wars, that is 
why we never had huge 
political upheavals except in 
'32 and '75. So the system as 
it is has worked very 

W ell^ 



V 



-Governor- General Michael Jeffery, 2003 



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Executive 

In Australia's constitutional system, one of the main duties of the Governor- 
General is to appoint a prime minister, who thereafter heads the Cabinet and 
advises the governor-general on how to execute his or her executive powers 
over all aspects of government operations and foreign affairs. This means 
that the monarch's and the viceroy's roles are primarily symbolic and 
cultural, acting as a symbol of the legal authority under which all 
governments and agencies operate. In practice, ministers direct the use of 
the Royal Prerogative, which includes the privilege to declare war, maintain 
peace, and direct the actions of the Australian Defence Force. The 
governor-general is empowered by the Constitution to summon and 
prorogue parliament, and call elections; however the powers are almost 
never exercised without advice from the prime minister. Still, the Royal 
Prerogative belongs to the Crown, and not to any of the ministers and the 
governor-general may unilaterally use these powers in exceptional 
constitutional crisis situations,^ ^ such as when, during the 1975 Australian 
constitutional crisis, Sir John Kerr dismissed Prime Minister Gough 
Whitlam, on the occasion of a stalemate over government funding between 
the House of Representatives and the Senate. There are also a few duties 
which must be specifically performed by the Queen. These include signing 
the appointment papers of governors-general, the confirmation of the 

creation of awards of Australian honours, ^ J and the approval of any 
change in her Australian title. 




Australia Act 1986 (United Kingdom) 
document, located in Parliament 
House, Canberra, and bearing the 
signature of Elizabeth n, Queen of 
Australia. 




Elizabeth II is greeted by Margaret 
Whitlam at Fairbairn RAAF base, with 
Gough Whitlam, Prime Minister of 
Australia, and Lady Hasluck, wife of 
the then Governor-General, looking 



on. 



In accordance with convention, the governor-general, to maintain the 

stability of government, must appoint as prime minister the individual most 

likely to maintain the support of the House of Representatives: usually the 

leader of the political party with a majority in that house, but also when no 

party or coalition holds a majority (referred to as a minority government 

situation), or other scenarios in which the governor-general's judgement 

about the most suitable candidate for prime minister has to be brought into 

play. J The governor-general also appoints to Cabinet the other ministers of the Crown, who are, in turn, 

accountable to the Parliament, and through it, to the people. The Queen is informed by her viceroy of the 

acceptance of the resignation of a prime minister and the swearing-in of a new prime minister and other members 

of the ministry, and she holds audience with her Australian ministers where possible. J 

Members of various executive agencies and other officials are appointed by the governor-general, including High 
Court justices. Ministers and parliamentary secretaries are also appointed to the Federal Executive Council. Public 
inquiries are also commissioned by the Crown through a Royal Warrant, and are called Royal Commissions. A 
casual vacancy in the Senate is filled by an appointee from the same political party by a state parliament or state 
governor. 



Foreign affairs 

The Royal Prerogative also extends to foreign affairs: the Governor-General-in-Council negotiates and ratifies 
treaties, alliances, and international agreements. J As with other uses of the Royal Prerogative, no parliamentary 
approval is required;^ ^ however, a treaty cannot alter the domestic laws of Australia; an Act of Parliament is 
necessary in such cases. The governor-general, on behalf of the Queen, also accredits Australian High 
Commissioners and ambassadors, and receives diplomats from foreign states. In addition, the issuance of passports 



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falls under the Royal Prerogative, and, as such, all Australian passports are issued in the name of the governor- 
general as the monarch's representative. 

Parliament 

The sovereign, along with the Senate and the House of Representatives, being one of the three components of 
parliament, is called the Queen-in-Parliament. The authority of the Crown therein is embodied in the mace (House 
of Representatives) and Black Rod (Senate), which both bear a crown at their apex. The monarch and viceroy do 
not, however, participate in the legislative process save for the granting of Royal Assent by the Governor-General. 
Further, the constitution outlines that the Governor-General alone is responsible for summoning, proroguing, and 

dissolving parliament, J after which the writs for a general election are usually dropped by the Prime Minister at 
Government House. The new parliamentary session is marked by the State Opening of Parliament, during which 
either the monarch or the Governor-General reads the Speech from the Throne. As the monarch and viceroy, by 
convention, cannot enter the House of Representatives, this, as well as the bestowing of Royal Assent, takes place 
in the Senate chamber; Members of Parliament are summoned to these ceremonies from the House of 
Representatives by the Crown's messenger, the Usher of the Black Rod, after he knocks on the doors of the lower 
house that have been slammed closed on him to symbolise the barring of the monarch from the House of 
Representatives. 

All laws in Australia, except in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Legislative Assembly, are enacted only with 
the viceroy's granting of Royal Assent, done by the Governor-General or relevant Governor, with the Great Seal of 
Australia or the appropriate state seal, while territorial legislatures, unlike their state counterparts, are subject to the 
oversight of the Government of Australia. The Governor-General may reserve a bill "for the Queen's pleasure"; 
that is withhold his consent to the bill and present it to the sovereign for her personal decision. Under the 
constitution, the sovereign also has the power to disallow a bill within one year of the Governor-General having 
granted Royal Assent. The reference to the Queen in this section was intended as a reference to the monarch acting 
on the advice of his or her British Cabinet; however, with the passage of the Statute of Westminster and the 
Australia Acts, the power to disallow laws technically devolved to the Queen in a personal capacity.^ ^ This 
power, however, has never been used. 

Courts 

In the United Kingdom, the sovereign was deemed the fount of justice} ^ * However, he or she does not 

personally rule in judicial cases, J meaning that judicial functions are normally performed only in the monarch's 
name. Criminal offences are legally deemed to be offences against the sovereign and proceedings for indictable 
offences are brought in the sovereign's name in the form of The Queen [or King] against [Name] (sometimes also 
referred to as the Crown against [Name])} ^ J Hence, the common law holds that the sovereign "can do no 
wrong"; the monarch cannot be prosecuted in his or her own courts for criminal offences. Civil lawsuits against the 
Crown in its public capacity (that is, lawsuits against the government) are permitted; however, lawsuits against the 
monarch personally are not cognizable. In international cases, as a sovereign and under established principles of 
international law, the Queen of Australia is not subject to suit in foreign courts without her express consent. The 
prerogative of mercy lies with the monarch, and is exercised in the state jurisdictions by the governors, * who 
may pardon offences against the Crown, either before, during, or after a trial. 

In addition, the monarch also serves as a symbol of the legitimacy of courts of justice, and of their judicial 
authority; sessions of the High Court, for example, are opened with the words "the High Court of Australia is now 
in session; God Save the Queen." In a practice dating back to colonial times, state courts traditionally display the 
arms of the sovereign in right of the United Kingdom, except in New South Wales, where some of these have been 
replaced with the state arms. 



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States and territories 

Further information: Governors of the Australian states 

In accordance with the Australia Act 1986, the Queen has the power to appoint, on the advice of the relevant state 
Premier, a Governor in each of the Australian states, who themselves appoint executive bodies, as well as people to 
fill casual Senate vacancies, if the relevant state parliament is not in session, under the Great Seal of the State. The 
state Governors continue to serve as the direct representatives of the Queen, in no way subordinate to the 
Governor-General of the Commonwealth, and they carry out on her behalf all of the Queen's constitutional and 
ceremonial duties in respect of their respective state. The Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory 
resemble states in many respects, but are administered directly by the Commonwealth of Australia; an 
Administrator, appointed by the Governor-general upon the advice of the Commonwealth government, takes the 
place of a state governor in the Northern Territory. The Australian Capital Territory has no equivalent position. 

Cultural role 

Royal presence and duties 

Further information: Royal visits to Australia and List of Commonwealth visits made by Queen Elizabeth II 

Members of the Royal Family have been present in Australia since the late 1800s, on military manoeuvres, for 
official tours, or as the vice-regal representative of the monarch. Queen Elizabeth II was the first reigning monarch 
of Australia to set foot on Australian soil on 3 February 1954. The Queen has visited the country sixteen times, 
usually on important milestones, anniversaries, or celebrations of Australian culture, while other royals have been 
asked to participate in lesser occasions. In these instances, when acting at the direction of the Australian Cabinet, 
they are doing so as monarch of Australia and members of the Australian Royal Family, respectively, and will carry 
out two types of duties: 

Official duties involve the sovereign representing the state at home or 
abroad, or other Royal Family members participating in a government 
organised ceremony either in Australia or elsewhere. J The sovereign 
and/or his or her family have participated in events such as various 
centennials and bicentennials; Australia Day; the openings of Olympic and 
other games; award ceremonies; D-Day commemorations; anniversaries of 
the monarch's accession; and the like. Other royals have participated in 
Australian ceremonies or undertaken duties abroad, such as Prince Charles 
at the Anzac Day ceremonies at Gallipoli, or when the Queen, Prince 
Charles, and Princess Anne participated in Australian ceremonies for the 
anniversary of D-Day in France in 2004. On 22 February 2009, Princess 
Anne represented the Queen of Australia at the National Bushfires 

Memorial Service in Melbourne. ^ J The Queen also showed her support 
for the people of Australia by making a personal statement about the 

bushfires L J and by also making private donation to the Australian Red 

Cross Appeal.^ ^ The Duke of Edinburgh was the first to sign a book of 

condolences at the Australian High Commission in London. J 




Elizabeth II tours the Australian War 
Memorial, February 1954 



Unofficial duties are performed by Royal Family members on behalf of Australian organizations of which they 
may be patrons, through their attendance at charity events, visiting with members of the Australian Defence Force 
as Colonel-in-Chief, or marking certain key anniversaries. The invitation and expenses associated with these 
undertakings are usually borne by the associated organization. 



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Apart from Australia, the Queen and other members of the Royal Family 
regularly perform public duties in the other fifteen nations of the 
Commonwealth in which the Queen is sovereign. As the Crown within these 
countries is a legally separate entity from the Australian Crown, it is funded 
in these countries individually, through the ordinary legislative budgeting 
process. 

Symbols 



The Princess Royal passes behind the 
Princess Anne Banner at a parade for 
the 75th anniversary of the Royal 
Australian Corps of Signals 



* 


t * * ■»■■ *. % 


* 

■* 
t 


-HP* 


■■# 


t f * t : t 


The Queen's Personal Australian Flag. 



Main article: Australian Royal Symbols 

The monarchy is presently 
symbolised through images of the 
sovereign on currency and in 
portraits in public buildings; on 
Australian decorations and honours, some postage stamps and on coats of 
arms and other government symbols. The crown is used as a heraldic 
symbol in the coats of arms of the Commonwealth and the states of New 
South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia. Crowns are also 
visible on police and military badges. The Queen's Birthday is observed as a 
public holiday in all states. 

"God Save the Queen" is Australia's royal anthem. The Vice-Regal Salute, 
played only for the governor-general and each state sovernor, is the first 
four and last four bars of "Advance Australia Fair". 

There are also hundreds of places named after Australian and British 
monarchs and members of the Royal Family. The states of Queensland and 
Victoria were named after Queen Victoria; Adelaide, the capital of South 
Australia is named after Queen Adelaide, the consort of William IV; 
numerous streets, squares, parks and buildings are also named in honour of 
past or present members of the Royal Family. 



Religious role 

Neither the Queen, the governor-general, or any state governor have any 
religious role in Australia. There never has been an established church in 
Australia, either before or since Federation in 1901. Pursuant to the 
Australian Constitution the Commonwealth may not enact a law 

establishing or prohibiting the free exercise of religion. ^ This is one of the key differences from the Queen's role 
in England where she is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. 




A monument to King George V in 
Parkes, Australian Capital Territory. 



Vice-regal residences 

The Governor-General's official residence is Government House, commonly known as "Yarralumla", in the city of 
Canberra. The Australian monarch stays there when visiting the country as do some other visiting heads of 

state. J Government House is the site of most state banquets, investitures, swearing-in of ministers, and other 
ceremonies. Another vice-regal residence is Admiralty House, in Sydney, and is used principally as a retreat for the 
Governor-General. The states of New South Wales, Victoria, Western Australia, Queensland, Tasmania, and South 
Australia also maintain residences, used by the respective Governors, though the monarch or other members of the 



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Royal Family will stay there when in the state. These residences are the property of the Australian people 
administered by their federal and state governments. 

Australian Defence Force 

The Crown has a symbolic place in the Australian Defence Force, which consists of the Royal Australian Navy, 
Australian Army, and Royal Australian Air Force. 

Section 68 of the Australian Constitution says: "The command in chief of the naval and military forces of the 
Commonwealth is vested in the Governor-General as the Queen's representative." In practice, however, the 
Governor-General does not play any part in the ADF's command structure and the ADF is under the control of the 
Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers. The Minister advises the Governor-General who acts as 
advised in the normal form of executive government. ^ 

Australian naval vessels bear the prefix Her Majesty's Australian Ship (HMAS). The Royal Australian Regiment 
(RAR) which makes up most of the Infantry Corps and many other regiments carry the 'Royal' prefix. J Members 
of the Royal Family have presided over military ceremonies, including Trooping of the Colours, inspections of the 
troops, and anniversaries of key battles. Whenever the Queen is in Canberra she lays a wreath at the Australian 
War Memorial. In 2003, Elizabeth II acted in her capacity as Australian monarch when she dedicated the 
Australian War Memorial in Hyde Park, London. ^ ^ 

Some members of the Royal Family are Colonels-in-Chief of Australian regiments, including: the Royal Regiment 
of Australian Artillery; Royal Australian Army Medical Corps; the Royal Australian Armoured Corps and the 
Royal Australian Corps of Signals, amongst many others. The Queen's husband, the Duke of Edinburgh, is an 

Admiral of the Fleer J in right of the Royal Australian Navy, Marshal of the Royal Australian Air Force, and Field 
Marshal of the Australian Army. 

On 22 October 2011 at the Royal Military College, Duntroon in Canberra, the Queen of Australia presented new 
Sovereign's Colours to the Australian Defence Force. 

History 

Main article: History of monarchy in Australia 

The development of a distinctly Australian monarchy came about through a complex set of incremental events, 
beginning with the initial settlements of the territory in 1770, when Captain James Cook, in the name of, and under 

instruction from, King George III, claimed the east coast of Australia. J Colonies were soon after founded across 
the continent, ^ ^ all of them ruled by the monarch of the United Kingdom, upon the advice of his or her British 
ministers, the Secretary of State for the Colonies, in particular. After Queen Victoria's granting of Royal Assent to 
the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act on 9 July 1900, which brought about Federation in 1901, 
whereupon the six colonies became the states of Australia, the relationship between the state governments and the 
Crown remained as it was pre- 1901: References in the constitution to "the Queen" meant the government of the 
United Kingdom (in the formation of which Australians had no say) L J and the Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865 - 
by which colonial laws deemed repugnant to imperial (British) law in force in the colony were rendered void and 
inoperative - remained in force at in both the federal and state spheres;^ ^ and all the governors, both of the 
Commonwealth and the states, remained appointees of the British monarch on the advice of the British Cabinet, J 
a situation that continued even after Australia was recognised as a Dominion of the British Empire in 1907. * As 
Queen-Empress, Victoria "symbolised the British Empire of which all Australians were subjects". * 



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In response to calls from some Dominions for a re-evaluation in their status 
under the Crown after their sacrifice and performance in the First World 
War, J a series of Imperial Conferences was held in London, from 1917 
on, which resulted in the Balfour Declaration of 1926, which provided that 
the United Kingdom and the Dominions were to be considered as 
"autonomous communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no 
way subordinate to one another in any aspect of their domestic or external 
affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown." The Royal 
and Parliamentary Titles Act, 1927, an Act of the Westminster Parliament, 
was the first indication of a shift in the law, before the Imperial Conference 
of 1930 established that the Australian Cabinet could advise the sovereign 
directly on the choice of Governor-General, which ensured the 

independence of the office. J The Crown was further separated amongst 
its dominions by the Statute of Westminster 1931, ^ and, though it was not 
adopted by Australia until 1942 (retroactive to 3 September 1939), J the law's validity in the United Kingdom 
required its government to seek Australia's consent in allowing the abdication of Edward VIII as King of Australia 
and all the other Dominions in 1936. 




A statue of King George V looks over 
King's Hall in Old Parliament House, 
Canberra. 



The Curtin Labor Government appointed Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, as Governor-General during the 
Second World War. Curtin hoped the appointment might influence the British to despatch men and equipment to 
the Pacific War, and the selection of the brother of King George VI reaffirmed the important role of the Crown to 
the Australian nation at that time. * Queen Elizabeth II became the first reigning monarch to visit Australia in 
1954, greeted by huge crowds across the nation. Her son Prince Charles attended school in Australia in 
1967. J Her grandson Prince Harry undertook a portion of his gap-year living and working in Australia in 
2003. [57] 



The sovereign did not possess a title unique to Australia until the Australian parliament enacted the Royal Styles 
and Titles Act in 1953, after the accession of Elizabeth II to the throne, and giving her the title of Queen of the 
United Kingdom, Australia and Her other Realms and Territories. Still, Elizabeth remained a queen who reigned 
in Australia both as Queen of Australia (in the federal jurisdiction) and Queen of the United Kingdom (in each of 
the states), as a result of the states not wishing to have the Statute of Westminster apply to them, believing that the 
status quo better protected their sovereign interests against an expansionist federal government, which left the 
Colonial Laws Validity Act in effect. Thus, the British monarch could still - at least in theory, if not with some 
difficulty in practice - legislate for the Australian states, and the viceroys in the states were appointed by and 
represented the sovereign of the United Kingdom, not that of Australia, * as late as 1976, the British ministry 
advised the Queen to reject the nominee of the Queensland Cabinet for Governor. L J It was with the passage of 
the Australia Act in 1986, which repealed the Colonial Laws Validity Act, that the final vestiges of the British 
monarchy in Australia were removed, leaving a distinct Australian monarchy for the nation. 

It was around the same time that a discussion on the matter of Australia 
becoming a republic began to emerge, culminating, a decade later, in the 
1999 Australian republic referendum, which was defeated by 54.4% of the 
populace. The referendum followed the recommendation of a 1998 
Constitutional Convention called to discuss the issue of Australia becoming 
a republic. Still, nearly another ten years later, Kevin Rudd was appointed 
as Prime Minister, whereafter he affirmed that a republic was still a part of 
his party's platform, and stated his belief that the debate on constitutional 
change should continue. J 

Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, with 
The current Prime Minister, Julia Gillard has re-affirmed her party's 




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students of his Australian alma mater, 
Geelong Grammar School, in Corio, 






Victoria. 



platform about a possible future republic. She stated that she would like to 

see Australia become a republic, with an appropriate time being when there 

is a change in monarch. A change of opinion was recorded on 21 October 

2011 at a reception in the presence of the Queen at Parliament House in 

Canberra when the Prime Minister stated that the monarch is "a vital 

constitutional part of Australian democracy and would only ever be welcomed as a beloved and respected friend." 

*■ ^ The Opposition Leader, Tony Abbott, a former head of Australians for Constitutional Monarchy stated on 21 

October 2011, "Your Majesty, while 11 prime ministers and no less than 17 opposition leaders have come and gone, 

for 60 years you have been a presence in our national story and given the vagaries of public life, I'm confident that 

this will not be the final tally of the politicians that you have outlasted." L J 

A Morgan poll taken in October 2011 found that support for constitutional change is at its lowest for 20 years. Of 
those surveyed 34% were pro-republic as opposed to 55% pro-monarchist, preferring to maintain the current 

constitutional arrangements. L J 



List of Australian Monarchs 



Portrait Regnal name 



Reign over the 

Commonwealth of 

Australia 



Full name 



Consort 




Victoria 

(1819-1901) 
House of 
Hanover 



1 January 
1901 



22 January Alexandrina Victoria of Albert, Prince 

1901 Australia Consort 



Governors general: John Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun 
Prime ministers: Edmund Barton 



Edward VII 

(1841-1910) 
House of 

Saxe-Coburg 
and Gotha 



1 ™ 1 nuary 6 May 1910 Albert Edward of Australia ^ CXan ™ ° 
1901 J Denmark 



Governors general: John Hope, 7th Earl of Hopetoun, Hallam Tennyson, 2nd 
Baron Tennyson, Henry Northcote, 1st Baron Northcote, William Ward, 2nd Earl 
of Dudley 

Prime ministers: Sir Edmund Barton, Alfred Deakin, Chris Watson, George Reid, 
Andrew Fisher 





George V 

(1865-1836) 

House of 

Saxe-Coburg 

and Gotha (until 

1917) 

House of 

Windsor (after 

1917) 



r a t mm 20 January George Frederick Ernest , _ £ _ - 

6 May 1910 irv _, J A „ f r A 4 r MaryofTeck 

J 1936 Albert of Australia J 



Edward VIII 

(1894-1972) 
House of 
Windsor 



Governors generakW illiam Ward, 2nd Earl of Dudley, Thomas Denman, 3rd 
Baron Denman, Sir Ronald Ferguson, Henry Forster, 1st Baron Forster, John 
Baird, 1st Baron Stonehaven. Sir Isaac Isaacs 

Prime ministers: Andrew Fisher, Joseph Cook, Billy Hughes, Stanley Bruce, 
James Scullin, Joseph Lyons 



20 January 
1936 



11 December 
1936 



Edward Albert Christian 
George Andrew Patrick 
David of Australia 



none 



Governors general: Sir Isaac Alfred Isaacs, Alexander Hore-Ruthven, 1st Earl of 

Gowrie 

Prime ministers: Joseph Lyons 



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George VI 

(1895-1952) 
House of 
Windsor 



Elizabeth II 

(1926-) 
House of 
Windsor 



1 1 December 6 February Albert Frederick Arthur Elizabeth 

1936 1952 George of Australia Bowes-Lyon 



Governors general: Alexander Hore-Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie, Prince Henry, 
Duke of Gloucester, Sir William McKell 

Prime ministers: Joseph Lyons, Sir Earle Page, Robert Menzies, Arthur Fadden, 
John Curtin, Frank Forde, Ben Chifley, Robert Menzies 



6 February 
1952 



Present 



Elizabeth Alexandra Mary 
of Australia 



Prince Philip, Duke 
of Edinburgh 



Governors general: Sir William McKell, Sir William Slim, William Morrison, 1st 
Viscount Dunrossil, William Sidney, 1st Viscount De L'Isle, Richard Casey, Baron 
Casey, Sir Paul Hasluck, Sir John Kerr, Sir Zelman Cowen, Sir Ninian Stephen, 
William Hayden, Sir William Deane, Peter Hollingworth, Michael Jeffery, 
Quentin Bryce 

Prime ministers: Sir Robert Menzies, Harold Holt, John McEwen, John Gorton, 
William McMahon, Gough Whitlam, Malcolm Fraser, Bob Hawke, Paul Keating, 
John Howard, Kevin Rudd, Julia Gillard 



See also 



Other realms 



Current Commonwealth realms 



Australia 



Australian Constitution 

List of Australian organisations with royal patronage 

Australian Peerages 



Other 



Commonwealth realm 

States headed by Elizabeth II 

Prime Ministers of Queen Elizabeth II 

List of Commonwealth visits made by Queen Elizabeth II 



Bibliography 



Smith, David I. (2005). Head of State - the Governor -General, the Monarchy, the Republic and the 
Dismissal; 1st ed.. Sydney: Macleay Press. 

Twomey, A. (2006). The Chameleon Crown - The Queen and her Australian Governors; 1st ed.. Sydney: 
The Federation Press. 



Notes 



1. A Governor-General of the Commonwealth of 
Australia: Letters Patent Relating to the Office of 
Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia 



(http ://www. gg. gov. au/go vernorgeneral 
/content.php?id=4) 
2. A Governor-General of the Commonwealth of 



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The Bahamas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Bahamas 



The Bahamas 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

The Bahamas 4 ^/b^haur\BZ/ 9 officially the 

Commonwealth of the Bahamas, is a nation consisting of 

more than 3,000 islands, cays, and islets. It is located in the 

Atlantic Ocean north of Cuba and Hispaniola (Dominican 

Republic and Haiti), northwest of the Turks and Caicos 

Islands, and southeast of the United States (nearest to the 

9 
state of Florida). Its land area is 13,939 km (5,382 sq mi), 

with a population of 353,658. Its capital is Nassau. 

Geographically, The Bahamas lie in the same island chain as 

Cuba, Hispaniola and the Turks and Caicos Islands; the 

designation of Bahamas refers normally to the 

Commonwealth and not the geographic chain. 

Originally inhabited by the Lucayans, a branch of the 
Arawakan-speaking Taino people, the Bahamas were the site 
of Columbus' first landfall in the New World in 1492. 
Although the Spanish never colonized the Bahamas, they 
shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola. The 
islands were mostly deserted from 1513 to 1648, when 
English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of 
Eleuthera. 

The Bahamas became a Crown Colony in 1718 when the 
British clamped down on piracy. After the American War of 
Independence, thousands of pro-British loyalists and enslaved 
Africans moved to the Bahamas and set up a plantation 
economy. The slave trade was abolished in the British Empire 
in 1807 and many Africans liberated from slave ships by the 
Royal Navy were settled in the Bahamas during the 19th 
century. Slavery itself was abolished in 1834 and the 
descendants form the majority of the Bahamas's population 
today. 

In terms of GDP per capita, The Bahamas is one of the richest 
countries in the Americas (following Bermuda, the United 
States, Cayman Islands, Canada, and the British Virgin 

Islands) [8] 



Contents 



1 Etymology 

2 History 

■ 2.1 18th century 

■ 2.2 20th century 



Commonwealth of the Bahamas 





Hag 



Coat of arms 



Motto: "Forward, Upward, Onward, Together" 



Anthem: "March On, Bahamaland" 
Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen" 












-> 

* 













Capital 

(and largest city) 



Nassau 

25 o 4'N77°20W 



Official language(s) English 



Ethnic groups 



85% African Bahamians 
12% European Bahamians 



3% Asians and Hispanic 1 



[1] 



Demonym 



Bahamian 



Government 



- Monarch 

- Governor-General 

- Prime Minister 



Unitary Parliamentary 
democracy and 
Constitutional monarchy 
PIP] 

Elizabeth H 

Sir Arthur Foulkes 

Hubert Ingraham 



Legislature 

- Upper house 

- Lower house 



Parliament 

Senate 

House of Assembly 



Independence 

- from the United 
Kingdom 



July 10, 1973 



[4] 



Area 



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■ 3 Geography and climate 


■ 3.1 Climate 


■ 4 Government and politics 


■ 4.1 Administrative divisions 


■ 4.2 Military 


■ 4.3 National symbols 


■ 4.3.1 National flag 


■ 4.3.2 Coat of arms 


■ 4.3.3 National flower 


■ 5 Economy 


■ 6 Ethnic groups 


■ 6.1 Afro-Bahamians 


■ 6.2 Europeans 


■ 7 Demographics 


■ 8 Culture 


■ 9 See also 


■ 10 References 


■ 1 1 Further reading 


■ 11.1 General history 


■ 11.2 Economic history 


■ 11.3 Social history 


■ 12 External links 



Etymology 

The origin of the name Bahamas is unclear. It may derive 

from the Spanish baja mar ("low sea") or the Lucayan word for Grand Bahama island, ba-ha-ma ("large upper 

middle land"). [9] 



- Total 

- Water (%) 


13,878 km 2 (160th) 
5,358 sqmi 
28% 


Population 

- 2010 estimate 

- 1990 census 

- Density 


353,658 [5] (177th) 
254,685 

23. 27/km 2 (181st) 
60/sq mi 


GDP (PPP) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2011 estimate 
$9,136 billion [6] 

$26,225 [6] 


GDP (nominal) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2011 estimate 
$7,787 billion [6] 

$22,352 [6] 


HDI(2011) 


A0.771 [7] (high)(53rd) 


Currency 


Bahamian dollar (bsd) 


Time zone 

- Summer (DST) 


EST (UTC-5) 
EDT (UTC-4) 


Drives on the 


left 


Internet TLD 


.bs 


Calling code 


+1-242 



History 



'.rnr.it 



.3& * 



NORTH 

ATLANTIC 

OCEAN 



NASSAU 



%> 



^ 



£A*U0M*a 



An&tf& **■* 







V [any islana 5*fi#u 



AcHw 






Ar.i;..ij.,'i,- 



T 



* J* 




Main article: History of The Bahamas 

Taino people moved into the uninhabited southern Bahamas 
from Hispaniola and Cuba around the 11th century AD. These 
people came to be known as the Lucayans. There were an 
estimated 30,000+ Lucayans at the time of Columbus's arrival in 
1492. Christopher Columbus's first landfall in the New World 
was on an island named San Salvador (known to the Lucayans as 
Guanahani), which some researchers believe to be present-day 
San Salvador Island, (also known as Watling's Island) in the 
southeastern Bahamas. 

An alternative theory holds that Columbus landed to the 
southeast on Samana Cay, according to calculations made in 
1986 by National Geographic writer and editor Joseph Judge 
based on Columbus's log. Evidence in support of this remains 
inconclusive. On the landfall island, Columbus made first contact 



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Map of The Bahamas 



with the Lucayans and exchanged goods with them. 



The Lucayans throughout the Bahamas were wiped out as a 
result of Spanish forced migration of the population to Hispaniola for use as forced labour there, and exposure to 

diseases to which they had no immunity. J The smallpox that ravaged the Taino Indians after Columbus's 

arrival wiped out half of the population in what is now The Bahamas. J 

It is generally assumed that the islands were uninhabited by Europeans until the mid- 17th century. However, 
recent research suggests that there may have been attempts to settle the islands by groups from Spain, France, 
and Britain, as well as by other Amerindians. In 1648, the Eleutherian Adventurers migrated from Bermuda. 
These English Puritans established the first permanent European settlement on an island which they named 
Eleuthera — the name derives from the Greek word for freedom. They later settled New Providence, naming it 
Sayle's Island after one of their leaders. To survive, the settlers resorted to salvaged goods from wrecks. 

In 1670 King Charles II granted the islands to the Lords Proprietors of the Carolinas, who rented the islands 
from the king with rights of trading, tax, appointing governors, and administering the country. J In 1684 Spain's 
corsair Juan de Alcon raided the capital, Charles Town (later renamed Nassau), and in 1703 a joint Franco- 
Spanish expedition briefly occupied the Bahamian capital during the War of the Spanish Succession. 

18th century 

During proprietary rule, the Bahamas became a haven for pirates, including the infamous Blackbeard. To restore 
orderly government, The Bahamas were made a British crown colony in 1718 under the royal governorship of 
Woodes Rogers, who, after a difficult struggle, succeeded in suppressing piracy. J In 1720, Rogers led local 
militia to drive off a Spanish attack. 

During the American War of Independence, the islands were a target for American naval forces under the 
command of Commodore Ezekial Hopkins. The capital of Nassau on the island of New Providence was occupied 
by US Marines for a fortnight. 

In 1782, following the British defeat at Yorktown, a Spanish fleet appeared off the coast of Nassau, and the city 
surrendered without a fight. 

After American independence, some 7,300 Loyalists and their slaves moved to the Bahamas from New York, 
Florida, and the Carolinas. These Loyalists established plantations on several islands and became a political force 
in the capital. The small population became mostly African from this point on. 

The British abolished the slave trade in 1807, which led to the forced settlement on Bahamian islands of 
thousands of Africans liberated from slave ships by the Royal Navy. Slavery itself was finally abolished in the 
British Empire on August 1, 1834. 

20th century 

Modern political development began after the Second World War. The first political parties were formed in the 
1950s and the British made the islands internally self-governing in 1964, with Sir Roland Symonette of the 
United Bahamian Party as the first premier. 

The fourth James Bond film Thunderball was partly filmed in 1965 in Nassau. 

In 1967, Sir Lynden Pindling of the Progressive Liberal Party became the first black premier of the colony, and 



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in 1968 the title was changed to prime minister. In 1973, The Bahamas became fully independent, but retained 
membership in the Commonwealth of Nations. Sir Milo Butler was appointed the first Bahamian governor- 
general (the representative of Queen Elizabeth II) shortly after independence. 

Based on the twin pillars of tourism and offshore finance, the Bahamian economy has prospered since the 1950s. 
However, there remain significant challenges in areas such as education, health care, housing, international 
narcotics trafficking and illegal immigration from Haiti. 

The College of The Bahamas is the national higher education/ tertiary system. Offering baccalaureate, masters 
and associate degrees, COB has three campuses and teaching and research centers throughout The Bahamas. 
The College is in the process of becoming The University of The Bahamas as early as 2012. 



Geography and climate 




The Bahamas from space. NASA Aqua 
satellite image, 2009 



Main article: Geography of The Bahamas 

The country lies between latitudes 20° and 28 °N, and longitudes 72° and 
80°W. 

In 1864 the Governor of the Bahamas reported that there were 29 
islands, 661 cays, and 2,387 rocks in the colony. J 

The closest island to the United States is Bimini, which is also known as 
the gateway to The Bahamas. The island of Abaco is to the east of Grand 
Bahama. The southeasternmost island is Inagua. The largest island is 
Andros Island. Other inhabited islands include Eleuthera, Cat Island, 
Long Island, San Salvador Island, Acklins, Crooked Island, Exuma and 
Mayaguana. Nassau, capital city of The Bahamas, lies on the island of 
New Providence. 

All the islands are low and flat, with ridges that usually rise no more than 
15 to 20 m (49 to 66 ft). The highest point in the country is Mount 
Alvernia, (formerly Como Hill) on Cat Island. It has an altitude of 63 metres (207 ft). 

To the southeast, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and three more extensive submarine features called Mouchoir 
Bank, Silver Bank, and Navidad Bank, are geographically a continuation of The Bahamas, but not part of the 

Commonwealth of The Bahamas. [citation needed] 

Climate 

See also: Geography of the Bahamas 

The climate of The Bahamas is subtropical to tropical, and is moderated significantly by the waters of the Gulf 
Stream, particularly in winter. J Conversely, this often proves very dangerous in the summer and autumn, when 
hurricanes pass near or through the islands. Hurricane Andrew hit the northern islands during the 1992 Atlantic 
hurricane season, and Hurricane Floyd hit most of the islands during the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season. 

While there has never been a freeze reported in The Bahamas, the temperature can fall as low as 2-3 °C 
(35.6-37.4 °F) during Arctic outbreaks that affect nearby Florida. Snow was reported to have mixed with rain in 

Freeport in January 1977, the same time that it snowed in the Miami area. J The temperature was about 4.5 °C 



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(40.1 °F)atthetime. [17] 



Climate data for Nassau, Bahamas 


Month 


Jan 


Feb 


Mar 


Apr 


May 


Jun 


Jul 


Aug 


Sep 


Oct 


Nov 


Dec Year 


Average high °C 

(°F) 


25.4 
(77.7) 


25.5 
(77.9) 


26.6 

(79.9) 


27.9 
(82.2) 


29.7 
(85.5) 


31.0 

(87.8) 


32.0 
(89.6) 


32.1 
(89.8) 


31.6 
(88.9) 


29.9 

(85.8) 


27.8 
(82.0) 


26.2 

(79.2) 


28.8 
(83.8) 


Daily mean °C 

(°F) 


21.4 
(70.5) 


21.4 
(70.5) 


22.3 
(72.1) 


23.8 
(74.8) 


25.6 

(78.1) 


27.2 
(81.0) 


28.0 

(82.4) 


28.1 
(82.6) 


27.7 
(81.9) 


26.2 

(79.2) 


24.2 
(75.6) 


22.3 
(72.1) 


24.8 
(76.6) 


Average low °C 

(°F) 

Precipitation mm 
(inches) 


17.3 
(63.1) 


17.3 
(63.1) 


17.9 

(64.2) 


19.6 
(67.3) 


21.4 
(70.5) 


23.3 
(73.9) 


24.0 

(75.2) 


24.0 

(75.2) 


23.7 
(74.7) 


22.5 
(72.5) 


20.6 
(69.1) 


18.3 
(64.9) 


20.8 
(69.4) 


39.4 
(1.551) 


49.5 
(1.949) 


54.4 

(2.142) 


69.3 

(2.728) 


105.9 
(4.169) 


218.2 
(8.591) 


160.8 
(6.331) 


235.7 
(9.28) 


164.1 
(6.461) 


161.8 
(6.37) 


80.5 
(3.169) 


49.8 
(1.961) 


1,389.4 
(54.701) 


Avg. precipitation 
days 


8 


6 


7 


8 


10 


15 


17 


19 


17 


15 


10 


8 


140 


Sunshine hours 


220.1 


220.4 


257.3 


276.0 


269.7 


231.0 


272.8 


266.6 


213.0 


223.2 


222.0 


213.9 


2,886 


Source: World Meteorological Organization (UN), L J Hong Kong Observatory^ J for data of sunshine hours 



Government and politics 

Main article: Politics of The Bahamas 

The Bahamas is a sovereign, independent, nation. Political and legal 
traditions closely follow those of the United Kingdom and the 
Westminster system. The Bahamas is a parliamentary democracy with 
two main parties, the Free National Movement and the Progressive 
Liberal Party. 




Bahamian Parliament, located in 
downtown Nassau 




Tourism generates about half of all jobs, but the number of visitors has 

dropped significantly since the beginning of the global economic 

downturn during the last quarter of 2008. Banking and international financial 

services also have contracted, and The Bahamas is one of 34 secrecy jurisdictions 

that would be subject to the Stop Tax Haven Abuse Act introduced in the U.S. 

Congress. 

The Bahamas is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, and a Commonwealth 
realm with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state (represented by a Governor- 
General). 

Legislative power is vested in a bicameral parliament, which consists of a 

41-member House of Assembly (the lower house), with members elected from 

single-member districts, and a 16-member Senate, with members appointed by the 

governor-general, including nine on the advice of the prime minister, four on the 

advice of the leader of the opposition, and three on the advice of the prime minister after consultation with the 

leader of the opposition. The House of Assembly carries out all major legislative functions. As under the 

Westminster system, the prime minister may dissolve parliament and call a general election at any time within a 

five-year term. 

The Prime Minister is the head of government and is the leader of the party with the most seats in the House of 
Assembly. Executive power is exercised by the cabinet, selected by the prime minister and drawn from his 



Prime Minister Hubert 
Ingraham 



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supporters in the House of Assembly. The current governor-general is Sir Arthur Foulkes and the current Prime 
Minister is Hubert Ingraham. 

The Bahamas has a largely two-party system dominated by the centre-left Progressive Liberal Party and the 
centre-right Free National Movement. A handful of splinter parties have been unable to win election to 
parliament. These parties have included the Bahamas Democratic Movement, the Coalition for Democratic 
Reform and the Bahamian Nationalist Party. 

Constitutional safeguards include freedom of speech, press, worship, movement, and association. Although The 
Bahamas is not geographically located in the Caribbean, it is a member of the Caribbean Community. The 
judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Jurisprudence is based on English law. 

Administrative divisions 



Main article: Local government in the Bahamas 

The districts of The Bahamas provide a system of local 
government everywhere except New Providence, whose 
affairs are handled directly by the central government. In 
1996, the Bahamian Parliament passed "The Local 
Government Act" to facilitate the establishment of Family 
Island Administrators, Local Government Districts, Local 
District Councillors, and Local Town Committees for the 
various island communities. The overall goal of this act is to 
allow the various elected leaders to govern and oversee the 
affairs of their respective districts without the interference of 
Central Government. In total, there are 32 districts, with 
elections being held every three years. There are also one 
hundred and ten Councillors and two hundred and 
eighty-one Town Committee members to correspond with 



the various districts. 



[20] 



Each Councillor or Town Committee member is responsible 
for the proper use of public funds for the maintenance and 
development of their constituency. 

The districts other than New Providence are: 



*--!.„ 




Districts of The Bahamas 



1. Acklins 


18. 


Mangrove Cay, Andros 


2. Berry Islands 


19. 


Mayaguana 


3. Bimini 


20. 


Moore's Island, Abaco 


4. Black Point, Exuma 


21. 


North Abaco 


5. Cat Island 


22. 


North Andros 


6. Central Abaco 


23. 


North Eleuthera 


7. Central Andros 


24. 


Ragged Island 


8. Central Eleuthera 


25. 


Rum Cay 


9. City of Freeport, Grand Bahama 


26. 


San Salvador 


10. Crooked Island 


27. 


South Abaco 


11. East Grand Bahama 


28. 


South Andros 


12. Exuma 


29. 


South Eleuthera 


13. Grand Cay, Abaco 


30. 


Spanish Wells, Eleuthera 



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14. Harbour Island, Eleuthera 

15. Hope Town, Abaco 

16. Inagua 

17. Long Island 



31. West Grand Bahama 

32. Green Turtle Cay (not shown on 
map) 



Military 

Main article: Royal Bahamas Defence Force 

The Bahamas does not have an army or an air force. Its military is composed of the Royal Bahamas Defence 
Force (RBDF), the navy of The Bahamas. Under The Defence Act, the Royal Bahamas Defence Force has been 
mandated to defend The Bahamas, protect its territorial integrity, patrol its waters, provide assistance and relief 
in times of disaster, maintain order in conjunction with the law enforcement agencies of The Bahamas, and carry 
out any such duties as determined by the National Security Council. The Defence Force is also a member of 
Caricom's Regional Security Task Force. 

The Royal Bahamas Defence Force officially came into existence on March 31, 1980. Their duties include 
defending the Bahamas, stopping drug smuggling, illegal immigration, poaching, and providing assistance to 
mariners whenever and wherever they can. The Defence Force has a fleet of 26 coastal and inshore patrol craft 
along with 2 aircraft and over 850 personnel including 65 officers and 74 women. 

National symbols 



National flag 




National Flag of The 
Bahamas 



The colors embodied in the design of the Bahamian flag symbolise the image and 
aspirations of the people of The Bahamas; the design reflects aspects of the natural 
environment (sun, sand, and sea) and the economic and social development. The 
flag is a black equilateral triangle against the mast, superimposed on a horizontal 
background made up of two colours on three equal stripes of aquamarine, gold and 
aquamarine. 



The symbolism of the flag is as follows: Black, a strong colour, represents the vigour 
and force of a united people, the triangle pointing towards the body of the flag represents the enterprise and 
determination of the Bahamian people to develop and possess the rich resources of sun and sea symbolized by 
gold and aquamarine respectively. In reference to the representation of the people with the colour black, some 
white Bahamians have joked that they are represented in the thread which "holds it all together.'^ J 




Coat of arms 

Main article: Coat of arms of The Bahamas 

The Coat of Arms of The Bahamas contains a shield with the national symbols as its 
focal point. The shield is supported by a marlin and a flamingo, which are the 
national animals of The Bahamas. The flamingo is located on the land, and the 
marlin on the sea, indicating the geography of the islands. 

On top of the shield is a conch shell, which represents the varied marine life of the 
island chain. The conch shell rests on a helmet. Below this is the actual shield, the 



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The yellow elder 



main symbol of which is a ship representing the Santa Maria of Christopher Columbus, shown sailing beneath 
the sun. Along the bottom, below the shield appears a banner upon which is scripted the national motto. J 

"Forward, Upward, Onward Together. " 

National flower 

The yellow elder was chosen as the national flower of The Bahamas because it is 
native to the Bahama Islands, and it blooms throughout the year. 

Selection of the yellow elder over many other flowers was made through the 
combined popular vote of members of all four of New Providence's garden clubs of 
the 1970s - the Nassau Garden Club, the Carver Garden Club, the International 
Garden Club, and the YWCA Garden Club. 

They reasoned that other flowers grown there - such as the bougainvillea, hibiscus, 
and poinciana - had already been chosen as the national flowers of other countries. 

The yellow elder, on the other hand, was unclaimed by other countries (although it is now also the national 

flower of the United States Virgin Islands). J 

Economy 

Main article: Economy of The Bahamas 

One of the most prosperous countries in the Caribbean region, 
The Bahamas relies on tourism to generate most of its economic 
activity. Tourism as an industry not only accounts for over 60 
percent of the Bahamian GDP, but provides jobs for more than 

half the country's workforce. J After tourism, the next most 
important economic sector is financial services, accounting for 
some 15 percent of GDP. 

The government has adopted incentives to encourage foreign financial business, and further banking and finance 
reforms are in progress. The government plans to merge the regulatory functions of key financial institutions, 
including the Central Bank of The Bahamas (CBB) and the Securities and Exchange Commission. ^ citation needed \ 
The Central Bank administers restrictions and controls on capital and money market instruments. The Bahamas 
International Securities Exchange currently consists of 19 listed public companies. Reflecting the relative 
soundness of the banking system (mostly populated by Canadian banks), the impact of the global financial crisis 
on the financial sector has been Iimited. [rftoft " OT needed] 

The economy has a very competitive tax regime. The government derives its revenue from import tariffs, license 
fees, property and stamp taxes, but there is no income tax, corporate tax, capital gains tax, value-added tax 
(VAT), or wealth tax. Payroll taxes fund social insurance benefits and amount to 3.9% paid by the employee and 
5.9% paid by the employer.^ J In 2010, overall tax revenue as a percentage of GDP was 17.2%. ^ J Authorities 
are trying to increase tax compliance and collection in the wake of the global crisis. Inflation has been moderate, 
averaging 3.7 percent between 2006 and 200S. [citation needed] 

By the terms of GDP per capita, the Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the Americas. J 




Cruise ships in Nassau Harbour 



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Ethnic groups 

Main article: Demographics of The Bahamas 
Afro-B ahamians 

Afro-Bahamians or Bahamians of African descent are Bahamians whose ancestry lies within the continent of 
Africa, most notably West Africa. The first Africans to arrive to The Bahamas came from Bermuda with the 
Eleutheran Adventurers as freed slaves looking for a new life. Currently, Afro-Bahamians are the largest ethnic 
group in The Bahamas, accounting for some 85% of the country's population.^ J 

Europeans 

European Bahamians, or Bahamians of European descent, numbering about 38,000, J are mainly the 
descendants of the British Puritans and American Loyalists who arrived in 1649 and 1783 respectively. J They 
form the largest minority group in The Bahamas, making up some 12% of the population.^ J Many Southern 
Loyalists went to Abaco, which is about 50% white. J 

A small portion of the European Bahamian population is descended from Greek labourers who came to help 
develop the sponging industry in the 1900s. Although making up less than 1% of the nation's population, they 
have been able to preserve their distinct Greek Bahamian culture. 

One of the features of the Bahamian genealogy is that most families have branches, and even immediate family 
members, spanning the entire spectrum between ' light', 'brown' and 'unequivocally dark.' ^ J 

Demographics 

■ Population: 354,563 

■ Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.9% (male 40,085; female 38,959) 

15-64 years: 67.2% (male 102,154; female 105,482) 

65 years and over: 6.9% (male 8,772; female 12,704) (2009 est.) 

■ Population growth rate: 0.925% (2010 est.) [32] 

■ Birth rate: 17.81 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) 

■ Death rate: 9.35 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) 

■ Net migration rate: -2.13 migrant(s)/ 1,000 population (2010 est.) 

■ Infant mortality rate: 23.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.) 

■ Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.87 years. 

Female: 73.49 years (2002 est.) 
Male: 66.32 years 

■ Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (2010 est.) [33] 

■ Nationality: noun: Bahamian(s) 

■ Adjective: Bahamian / bd'heimian / 

■ Ethnic groups: African 85%, European 12%, Asian and Mestizo 3% (Roughly 1.5% each).^ ^ 

■ Religions: Baptist 35.4%, Anglican 15.1%, Roman Catholic 13.5%, Pentecostal 8.1%, Church of God 



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4.8%, Methodist 4.2%, other Christian 15.2%, [1] other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 
2%^ J The 'other' category includes Jews, Muslims, Baha'is, Hindus, Rastafarians, and practitioners of 
Obeah. [35] 

■ Languages: English (official), Bahamian dialect ^ J 

■ Literacy (age 15+): total population: 98.2% 

male: 98.5% 

female: 98% (1995 est.) [37] 




Junkanoo celebration in Nassau 



Culture 

Main articles: Culture of The Bahamas and Music of The Bahamas 

In the less developed outer islands, handicrafts include 
basketry made from palm fronds. This material, commonly 
called "straw", is plaited into hats and bags that are popular 
tourist items. Another use is for so-called "Voodoo dolls," 
even though such dolls are the result of the American 

imagination and not based on historic fact. J 

Although not practised by native Bahamians, a form of folk 
magic obeah derived from West African origins, is practiced 
in some Family Islands (out-islands) of The Bahamas due to 
Haitian migration. The practice of obeah is however illegal in 

The Bahamas and punishable by law. J Junkanoo is a 
traditional African street parade of music, dance, and art 
held in Nassau (and a few other settlements) every Boxing 
Day, New Year's Day. Junkanoo is also used to celebrate 
other holidays and events such as Emancipation Day. 

Regattas are important social events in many family island settlements. They usually feature one or more days of 
sailing by old-fashioned work boats, as well as an onshore festival. 

Some settlements have festivals associated with the traditional crop or food of that area, such as the "Pineapple 
Fest" in Gregory Town, Eleuthera or the "Crab Fest" on Andros. Other significant traditions include story telling. 

See also 

■ Outline of the Bahamas 

■ Bibliography of the Bahamas 

■ Index of Bahamas-related articles 

■ List of Bahamas-related topics 

■ List of Bahamians 

■ Lucayan Archipelago 

■ Transport in the Bahamas 

Member of 

■ Caribbean Community 



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■ Commonwealth of Nations 

■ Organization of American States 

■ United Nations 

References 

j a a c e https://www.cia .gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bf.html 

2. A "•GENERAL SITUATION AND TRENDS" (http://www.paho.org/english/dd/ais/cp_044.htm) . Pan American 
Health Organization, http://www.paho.org/english/dd/ais/cp_044.htm. 

3. A "Mission to Long Island in the Bahamas" (http://www.caribbeanevangelical.org/newsevents/oldarticles. htm?id=82) 
. Evangelical Association of the Caribbean, http://www.caribbeanevangelical.org/newsevents/oldarticles. htm?id=82. 

4. A "1973: Bahamas' sun sets on British Empire" (http://news.bbc.co.Uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/9 
/newsid_2498000/2498835.stm) . BBC News. July 9, 1973. http://news.bbc.co.Uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/9 
/newsid_2498000/2498835.stm. Retrieved 2009-05-01. 

5. A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE 2000 AND 2010 POPULATION CENSUSES AND PERCENTAGE 
CHANGE. 

5 a a c "The Bahamas" (http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/201 l/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=99&pr.y=5& 
sy=2008&ey=2011&scsm=l&ssd=l&sort=country&ds=.&br=l&c=313& 

s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=) . International Monetary Fund. 
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/201 l/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=99&pr.y=5&sy=2008&ey=2011& 
scsm=l&ssd=l&sort=country&ds=.&br=l&c=313& 
s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a-. Retrieved 2011-12-14. 

7. A "Human Development Report 2011" (http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Tablel.pdf) . United Nations. 
2011. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Tablel.pdf. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 

8 . A https ://www. cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder 
/2004rank.html?countryName=Bahamas,% 

9. A Languages of the Pre-Columbian Antilles by Julian Granberry and Gary Vescelius 

10. A "Looking for Columbus" (http://www.millersville.edu/~columbus/data/art/DUMENE01.ART) . Joanne E. Dumene. 
Five Hundred Magazine. April 1990, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 11-15 

11. A Schools Grapple With Columbus's Legacy: Intrepid Explorer or Ruthless Conqueror? (http://www.edweek.org 
/login.html?source=http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/1991/10/09/06columb.hll.html&destination 
//www.edweek.org/ew/articles/1991/10/09/06columb.hll.html&levelld=2100) . Education Week. October 9, 1991. 

12. A "Diocesan History" (http://bahamas.anglican.org/history.php) . © Copyright 2009 Anglican Communications 
Department. 2009. http://bahamas.anglican.org/history.php. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 

13. A [IWoodard, Colin (http://www.colinwoodard.com) ] (2009). The Republic of Pirates 
(http://www.republicofpirates.net) . Harcourt, Inc. pp. 166-168, 262-314. ISBN 978-0-15-603462-3. 
http : //www. republic of pirate s . ne t . 

14. A Albury:6 

15. A Location and General Description (http://www.eoearth.org/article/Bahamian_dry_forests) Bahamian dry forests, 
The Encyclopedia of Earth 

16. A The Weather Doctor (http://www.islandnet.com/~see/weather/almanac/arc2002/alm02jan.htm) 

17. A Walker, N.D., Roberts, H.H., Rouse, L.J. and Huh, O.K. (1981, November 5). Thermal History of Reef-Associated 
Environments During A Record Cold-Air Outbreak Event. Coral Reefs (1982) 1:83-87 (http://www.esl.lsu.edu 
/quicklinks/publications/pdfs/thermalhistory.pdf) 

18. A "Weather Information for Nassau" (http://www.worldweather.org/025/c00097.htm) . http://www.worldweather.org 
/025/c00097.htm. 

19. A "Climatological Information for Nassau, Bahamas" (1961-1990) (http://www.weather.gov.hk/wxinfo/climat/world 
/eng/s_america/mx_cam/nassau_e.htm) - Hong Kong Observatory 

20. A Family Island District Councillors & Town Committee Members (http://www.bahamas.gov.bs/bahamasweb2 
/home.nsf/vContentW/A5FB7665F3E4341306256F0000763055) 

21 . A http://www.bahamasschools.com/Symbol%20-%20Flag.htm 

22. A http://www.bahamasschools.com/National%20Coat%20of%20Arms.htm 

23. A http://www.bahamasschools.com/Symbol%20-%20Flower.htm 

24. A "The Bahamas - Economy". (http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Americas/The-Bahamas-ECONOMY.html) 

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History of the Bahamas 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



The history of the Bahamas begins with the earliest arrival of humans in the islands in the first millennium AD. 
The first inhabitants of the islands now known as The Bahamas were the Lucayans, an Arawakan-speaking Taino 
people, who arrived between about 500 and 800 from the islands of the Caribbean. Recorded history begins in 
1492, when Christopher Columbus landed on the island of Guanahani, an unknown island somewhere in the 
Bahamas, on his first voyage. The earliest permanent European settlement occurred in 1647 on the island. The 
18th century slave trade brought many Africans to the Bahamas. Their descendants constitute 85 percent of the 
Bahamian population. The Bahamas gained independence from the United Kingdom on July 10, 1973. 



Contents 



1 Pre-Columbian period 

2 Spanish-Lucayan encounter 

3 Early English settlement 

4 Wreckers, privateers and pirates 

5 Woodes Rogers 

6 Mid-century 

7 Loyalists 

8 Post-emancipation 

9 Late-colonial period 

10 Post-independence era 

1 1 See also 

12 Notes 

13 References 

14 External links 



Pre-Columbian period 

The first inhabitants of the Bahamas were the Lucayans, a branch of the Arawakan-speaking Tainos of the 
Greater Antilles. Sometime between 500 to 800, Tainos began crossing in dugout canoes from Hispaniola and/or 
Cuba to the Bahamas. Suggested routes for the earliest migrations have been from Hispaniola to the Caicos 
Islands, from Hispaniola or eastern Cuba to Great Inagua Island, and from central Cuba to Long Island (in the 
central Bahamas). William Keegan argues that the most likely route was from Hispaniola or Cuba to Great 
Inagua. Granberry and Vescelius argue for two migrations, from Hispaniola to the Turks and Caicos Islands and 
from Cuba to Great Inagua. J 

From the initial colonization(s) the Lucayans expanded throughout the Bahamas Islands in some 800 years (c. 
700 - c. 1500), growing to a population of about 40,000. Population density at the time of first European contact 
was highest in the south central area of the Bahamas, declining towards the north, reflecting the progressively 
shorter time of occupation of the northern islands. Known Lucayan settlement sites are confined to the nineteen 
largest islands in the archipelago, or to smaller cays located less than one km. from those islands. Population 
density in the southern-most Bahamas remained lower, probably due to the drier climate there (less than 800 mm 
of rain a year on Great Inagua Island and the Turks and Caicos Islands and only slightly higher on Acklins and 



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Crooked Islands and Mayaguana). J 

Spanish-Lucayan encounter 

In 1492 Christopher Columbus sailed from Spain with three ships, the Nina, the Pinta and the flag ship The Santa 
Maria, seeking a direct route to Asia. On October 12, 1492 Columbus reached an island in the Bahamas, an 
event long regarded as the 'discovery' of America. This first island to be visited by Columbus was called 
Guanahani by the Lucayans, and San Salvador by the Spanish. The identity of the first American landfall by 
Columbus remains controversial, but many authors accept Samuel E. Morison's identification of what was then 
called Watling (or Watling's) Island as Columbus' San Salvador. The former Watling Island is now officially 
named San Salvador. Columbus visited several other islands in the Bahamas before sailing on to Cuba and 
afterward to Hispaniola. J 

The Bahamas held little of interest to the Spanish other than as a source of slave labor. Nearly the entire 
population of Lucayans (almost 40,000 people total) were deported over the next 30 years. When the Spanish 
decided to evacuate the remaining Lucayans to Hispaniola in 1520, they could find only eleven in all of the 
Bahamas. The islands remained abandoned and depopulated for 130 years afterwards. With no gold to be found, 
and the population removed, the Spanish effectively abandoned the Bahamas, but still retained titular claims to 
them until the Treaty of Versailles in 1783. [4][5] 

When Europeans first landed on the islands, they reported the Bahamas were lushly forested. The forests were 
cleared during plantation days and have not regrown. 

Early English settlement 

In 1648 a group from Bermuda called 'The Company of Adventurers for the Plantation of the Islands of 
Eleutheria' which was led by William Sayle, sailed to the Bahamas to found a colony. These early settlers were 
Puritans and republicans. Bermuda was also becoming overcrowded, and the Bahamas offered both religious and 
political freedom and economic opportunity. The larger of the company's two ships, the William, wrecked on the 
reef at the north end of what is now called Eleuthera Island, with the loss of all provisions. Despite the arrival of 
additional settlers, including whites, slaves and free blacks, from Bermuda and the receipt of relief supplies from 
Virginia and New England, the Eleuthera colony struggled for many years because of poor soil, fighting between 
settlers, and conflict with the Spanish. In the mid- 1650s many of the settlers returned to Bermuda. The remaining 
settlers founded communities on Harbour Island and Saint George's Cay (Spanish Wells) at the north end of 

Eleuthera. In 1670 there were about 20 families living in the Eleuthera communities. J 

In 1666 other settlers from Bermuda arrived on New Providence, which soon became the center of population 
and commerce in the Bahamas, with almost 500 people living on the island by 1670. Unlike the Eleutherians, 
who were primarily farmers, the first settlers on New Providence made their living from the sea, salvaging 
(mainly Spanish) wrecks, making salt, and taking fish, turtles, conchs and ambergris. Farmers from Bermuda 
soon followed the seamen to New Providence, where they found good, plentiful land. Neither the Eleutherian 
colony nor the settlement on New Providence had any legal standing under English law. In 1670 the Proprietors 
of Carolina were issued a patent for the Bahamas, but the governors sent by the Proprietors had difficulty in 

imposing their authority on the independent-minded residents of New Providence. J 

The early settlers continued to live much as they had in Bermuda, fishing, hunting turtles, whales, and seals, 
finding ambergris, making salt on the drier islands, cutting the abundant hardwoods of the islands for lumber, 
dyewood and medicinal bark, and wrecking, or salvaging wrecks. The Bahamas were close to the sailing routes 



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between Europe and the Caribbean, so shipwrecks in the islands were common, and wrecking was the most 
lucrative occupation available to the Bahamians. J 

For more details on this topic, see Wrecking (shipwreck)#Wrecking in the Bahamas. 

Wreckers, privateers and pirates 

The Bahamians soon came into conflict with the Spanish over the salvaging of wrecks. The Bahamian wreckers 
drove the Spanish away from their wrecked ships, and even attacked the Spanish salvagers and seized goods the 
Spanish had already recovered from the wrecks. The Spanish raided the Bahamas, the Bahamians in turn 
commissioned privateers against Spain, even though England and Spain were at peace, and in 1684 the Spanish 
burned the settlements on New Providence and Eleuthera, after which they were largely abandoned. New 
Providence was settled a second time in 1686 from Jamaica. 

In the 1690s English privateers (England was at war with France) established themselves in the Bahamas. In 
1696 Henry Every (or Avery), using the assumed name Henry Bridgeman, brought his ship Fancy, loaded with 
pirate's loot, into Nassau harbor. Every bribed the governor, Nicholas Trott (uncle of the Nicholas Trott who 
presided at the trial of Stede Bonnet), with gold and silver, and by leaving him the Fancy, still loaded with 50 
tons of elephant tusks and 100 barrels of gunpowder. Following peace with France in 1697 many of the 
privateers became the pirates. From this time the pirates increasingly made the Bahamian capitol of Nassau, 
founded in 1694, their base. The governors appointed by the Proprietors usually made a show of suppressing the 
pirates, but most were often accused of dealing with the pirates. By 1701 England was at war with France and 
Spain. In 1703 and in 1706 combined French-Spanish fleets attacked and sacked Nassau, after which some 
settlers left and the Proprietors gave up on trying to govern the Bahamas. J 

With no functioning government in the Bahamas, Nassau became a base of operations for English privateers, in 
what has been called a "privateers' republic," which lasted for eleven years. The raiders attacked French and 
Spanish ships, while French and Spanish forces burned Nassau several times. The War of the Spanish Succession 
ended in 1714, but some privateers were slow to get the news, or reluctant to accept it, and slipped into piracy. 
One estimate puts at least 1,000 pirates in the Bahamas in 1713, outnumbering the 200 families of more 
permanent settlers. The "privateers' republic" in Nassau became a "pirates' republic". At least 20 pirate captains 
used Nassau or other places in the Bahamas as a home port during this period, including Henry Jennings, Edward 
Teach (Blackbeard), Benjamin Hornigold and Stede Bonnet. Many settler families moved from New Providence 
to Eleuthera or Abaco to escape harassment from the pirates. On the other hand, residents of Harbor Island were 
happy to serve as middlemen for the pirates, as merchants from New England and Virginia came there to 
exchange needed supplies for pirate plunder.^ J As mentioned above, the activities of pirates provoked frequent 
and brutal retaliatory attacks by the French and Spanish. 

Woodes Rogers 

The "pirates' republic" came to an end in 1718, when Woodes Rogers, the first Royal Governor of the Bahamas, 
reached Nassau with a small fleet of warships. Starting in 1713, Rogers had conceived the idea of leading an 
expedition to Madagascar to suppress the pirates there and establish it as a British colony. Rogers' friends 
Richard Steele and Joseph Addison eventually convinced him to tackle the pirates nest in the Bahamas, instead. 
Rogers and others formed a company to fund the venture. They persuaded the Proprietors of Carolina to 
surrender the government of the Bahamas to the king, while retaining title to the land. The 1,000 or so pirates on 
the islands surrendered peacefully and the Proprietors then leased their land in the Bahamas to Rogers' company 
for 21 years. In 1717 King George appointed Rogers governor of the Bahamas and issued a proclamation 



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granting a pardon to any pirate who surrendered to a British governor within one year.^ J 

Word of the appointment of a new governor and of the offer of pardons reached Nassau ahead of Rogers. Some 
of the pirates were willing to accept a pardon and retire from piracy. Others were not ready to give up. Many of 
those were Jacobites, supporters of the House of Stuart, who regarded themselves as enemies of the Hanoverian 
King George. Still others simply saw themselves as rebels, or thought they were better off as pirates than trying 
to earn an honest living. When a Royal Navy ship brought official word to Nassau of the pardon offer, it seemed 
at first that most of the pirates in Nassau would accept. Soon, however, the recalcitrant party gained the upper 

hand, eventually forcing the Navy ship to leave. J 

Some pirates, such as Henry Jennings and Christopher Winter, sailed off to find British authorities to confirm 
their acceptance of the amnesty. Others, such as Blackbeard, Stede Bonnet, Nicholas Brown and Edmond 
Condent, left the Bahamas for other territories. Charles Vane, with "Calico Jack" Rackham and Edward England 
in his crew, came to prominence at this time. Vane worked to organize resistance to the anticipated arrival of 
Royal authority, even appealing to the James Francis Edward Stuart, the Stuart pretender, for aid in holding the 

Bahamas and capturing Bermuda for the Stuarts. As aid from the Stuarts failed to materialize and Rogers' arrival 

ri3i 
approached, Vane and his crew prepared to leave Nassau. J 

Woodes Rogers arrived in Nassau in late July 1718, with his own 460 ton warship, three other ships belonging to 
his company, and escorted by three ships of the Royal Navy. Vane's ship was trapped in Nassau harbor. His crew 
set that ship on fire, sending it towards Rogers' ships, and escaped in the ensuing confusion in a smaller ship they 
had seized from another pirate. Rogers' arrival in Nassau was welcomed by the remaining population, about 200 

settlers and 500 to 700 pirates who want to receive pardons, most prominently Benjamin Hornigold. J 

Rogers had control of Nassau, but Charles Vane was loose and threatening to drive Rogers out, and Rogers 
received word that the King of Spain wanted to drive the English completely out of the Bahamas. Rogers worked 
to improve the defenses of Nassau, but an unidentified disease killed almost 100 of the men who had come to 
Nassau with Rogers, and then the Navy ships left. Rogers sent four of his ships to Havana to assure the Spanish 
governor that Rogers was suppressing piracy in the Bahamas and to trade for supplies. The crews of ex-pirates 
and men who had come with Rogers all turned pirate themselves. Ten of those men were caught at Green Turtle 
Cay by Rogers' new pirate-hunter, the ex-pirate Benjamin Hornigold. Eight of the pirates were found guilty and 
hanged in front of the fort. * 

Charles Vane attacked several small settlements in the Bahamas, but after he refused to attack a stronger French 
frigate, he was deposed for cowardice and replaced as captain by "Calico Jack" Rackham. Vane never returned 
to the Bahamas, but was eventually caught, tried and executed in Jamaica. After nearly being captured by 
Jamaican privateers, and hearing that the king had extended the deadline being pardoned for piracy, Rackham 
and his crew returned to Nassau and received pardons from Woodes Rogers. In Nassau Rackham became 
involved with Anne Bonny and tried to arrange an annulment of her marriage to another ex-pirate, James Bonny. 
Rogers blocked the annulment, and Rackham and Bonny left Nassau to be pirates again, taking a small crew and 
Bonny's friend Mary Read with them. Within months, Rackham, Bonny and Read were captured and taken to 
Jamaica, where Rackham was executed and Bonny and Read escaped execution due to pregnancy. Bonny died 
in prison, while Read's fate is unknown. J 

Britain and Spain went to war again in 1719, and many of the ex-pirates became privateers. A Spanish invasion 
fleet set out for the Bahamas, but was diverted to Pensacola, Florida when it was seized by the French. Rogers 
continued to improve the defenses of Nassau, spending his money and going heavily into debt to do so. A second 
Spanish invasion fleet in 1720 was deterred by the defenses (and the accidental presence of a Royal Navy ship in 
Nassau). His efforts has also physically exhausted Rogers. He returned to Britain in 1722 to plead for repayment 
of the money he had borrowed to build up Nassau, only to find he had been replaced as governor. He then ended 

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up in debtors' prison, although his creditors later absolved his debts, allowing him to leave prison. After the 
publication in 1724 of A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pirates, which 
gave a favorable account of Rogers' efforts to suppress piracy in the Bahamas, his fortunes began to improve. 
The king awarded him a pension, retroactive to 1721, and in 1728 appointed Governor of the Bahamas for a 
second term. Rogers dissolved the colony's assembly when it would not approve taxes to repair Nassau's 
defenses. Woodes Rogers died in Nassau in 1732.^ ^ 

Mid-century 

William Shirley, former governor of Massachusetts, was appointed governor of the Bahamas in 1758 and served 
until 1770. [18] 

Loyalists 

During the American War of Independence the Bahamas fell to Spanish forces under General Galvez in 1782. A 
British- American loyalist expedition later recaptured the islands. After the American Revolution, the British 
issued land grants to American Loyalists, and the sparse population of the Bahamas tripled within a few years. 
Cotton growing soon became established, but it eventually dwindled from insect damage and soil exhaustion. 
Most of the current inhabitants are descended from the slaves brought to work on the Loyalist plantations, or 
from liberated Africans set free by the British navy after the abolition of the slave trade in the British Empire in 
1807. Plantation life ended with the British emancipation of slaves in 1834. 

Post-emancipation 

Main article: Bahamas in the American Civil War 

During the American Civil War, the Bahamas prospered as a base for Confederate blockade-running, bringing in 
cotton for the mills of England and running out arms and munitions. During Prohibition after World War I, the 
islands were a base for American rum-runners,smuggling liquor into the US. None of these provided any lasting 
prosperity to the islands, nor did attempts to grow various crops. After emancipation Caribbean societies 
inherited a rigid racial stratification that was reinforced by the unequal distribution of wealth and power. The 
three-tier race structure, which existed well into the 1940s and in some societies beyond, upheld the belief of 
European racial superiority, although most West Indians are of African descent. Race and racial attitudes remain 
important in mixed Caribbean societies. 

Late-colonial period 

During World War II, the Allies centred their flight training and antisubmarine operations for the Caribbean in 
the Bahamas. The wartime airfield became Nassau's international airport in 1957 and helped spur the growth of 
mass tourism, which accelerated after Havana was closed to American tourists in 1961. Freeport, on the island of 
Grand Bahama, was established as a free trade zone in the 1950s and became the country's second city. Bank 
secrecy combined with the lack of corporate and income taxes led to a rapid growth in the offshore financial 
sector during the postwar years. 

Post-independence era 

Bahamians achieved self-government in 1964 and full independence within the Commonwealth of Nations on 

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http : //en. wikipedi a . org/ wiki/Hi s tory_of_the_B ahamas 



July 10, 1973. The country's first prime minister was Lynden O. Pindling, leader of the Progressive Liberal Party. 
Pindling ruled for nearly 20 years, during which the Bahamas benefited from tourism and foreign investment. By 
the early 1980s, the islands had also become a major center for the drug trade, with 90% of all the cocaine 
entering the United States reportedly passing through the Bahamas. Diplomatic relations were established with 
Cuba in 1974. A decade later, as increased Cuban immigration to the islands strained the Bahamas' resources, 
Cuba refused to sign a letter of repatriation. 

In September 2004, Hurricane Frances swept through the Bahamas, leaving widespread damage in its wake. Just 
three weeks later, Hurricane Jeanne flattened the islands. Jeanne uprooted trees, blew out windows, and sent 
seawater flooding through neighborhoods on the islands of Abaco and Grand Bahama. Receding floodwaters left 
boats tossed on roads and homes battered. 

See also 

■ British colonization of the Americas 

■ History of the Americas 

■ History of the British West Indies 

■ History of North America 

■ History of the Caribbean 

■ List of Prime Ministers of the Bahamas 

■ Politics of the Bahamas 

■ Spanish colonization of the Americas 



Notes 



1. 


A Craton:17 




Granberry and Vescelius: 80-86 




Keegan:48-62 


2. 


A Keegan:25, 54-8, 86, 170-3 


3. 


A Albury:21-33 




Craton:28-37 




Keegan: 175-205 


4. 


A Albury:34-7 


5. 


A Albury:34-7 




Craton. pp. 37-39 




Johnson: 3 




Keegan:212, 220-3 


6. 


A Albury:41-6 




Johnson: 3-4 


7. 


A Albury:47-51 




Johnson:4 


8. 


A Johnson:4-5 


9. 


A Albury:51-5 


References 



10. 



11. 



12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 



Craton:70-87 

Johnson:6 

Woodard: 12-14, 23-24 

A Albury:58-68 

Craton: 89-90 

Woodard: 89-90, 140, 160 

A Albury:69-74 

Craton:93-6 

Johnson:7-8 

Woodard: 117-121, 163-168 

A Woodard:226-29 

A Woodard:236-40, 245-47, 259-61 

A Woodard:247-48, 262-67 

A Woodard:268-72, 286, 301-04 

A Woodard:304-10, 315-20 

A Woodard:3 11-14, 325-28 

A Carr:320 



Albury, Paul. (1975) The Story of the Bahamas. MacMillan Caribbean. ISBN 0-333-17131-4 

Carr, J. Revell. (2008) Seeds of Discontent: The Deep Roots of the American Revolution 1659-1750. 

Walker & Company. ISBN 978-0-8027-1512-8 

Craton, Michael. (1986) A History of the Bahamas. San Salvador Press. ISBN 0-9692568-0-9 



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Monarchy of the Bahamas 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

The monarchy of the Bahamas is a system of 
government in which a hereditary monarch is the 
sovereign and head of state of the Commonwealth of The 
Bahamas. The current monarch is Queen Elizabeth IP , 
who has reigned since the country became independent 
on 10 July 1973. The Bahamas share the Sovereign with a 
number of Commonwealth realms. * The Queen does not 
personally reside in the islands, and most of her 
constitutional roles are therefore delegated to her 
representative in the country, the Governor-General of 
the Bahamas. Royal succession is governed by the 
English Act of Settlement of 1701, which is part of 
constitutional law. 



Contents 


■ 1 International and domestic role 


■ 1.1 Development of shared monarchy 


■ 1.2 Title 


■ 2 Constitutional role 


■ 2.1 Duties 


■ 2.2 Succession 


■ 3 Legal role 


■ 4 Royal Presence 


■ 5 References 


■ 6 See also 


■ 6.1 Other realms 


■ 6.2 Other 



Queen of the Bahamas 

MONARCHY 




Coat of arms of the Bahamas 






Incumbent: 




Elizabeth H 


Style: 


Her Majesty 


Heir apparent: 


Charles, Prince of Wales 


First monarch: 


Elizabeth II 


Formation: 


July 10, 1973 



International and domestic role 



The Bahamas are one of sixteen independent nations, known as Commonwealth realms, which separately 
recognise the Queen as their individual monarch and head of state. J Despite sharing the same person as their 



respective monarch, each of the Commonwealth realms 
independent of the others. 



including the Bahamas — is sovereign and 



Development of shared monarchy 

The Balfour Declaration of 1926 provided the dominions the right to be considered equal to Britain, rather than 
subordinate; an agreement that had the result of, in theory, a shared Crown that operates independently in each 
realm rather than a unitary British Crown under which all the dominions were secondary. The Monarchy thus 
ceased to be an exclusively British institution, although it has often been called "British" since this time (in both 



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legal and common language) for reasons historical, legal, and of convenience. The Royal and Parliamentary 
Titles Act, 1927 was the first indication of this shift in law, further elaborated in the Statute of Westminster, 1931. 

Under the Statute of Westminster, the Bahamas have a common monarchy with Britain and the other 
Commonwealth realms, and though laws governing the line of succession to the Bahamian throne lie within the 
control of the Bahamian Parliament, the Bahamas cannot change the rules of succession without the unanimous 
consent of the other realms, unless explicitly leaving the shared monarchy relationship by means of a 
constitutional amendment. This situation applies symmetrically in all the other realms, including the UK. 

On all matters of the Bahamian State, the Monarch is advised solely by Bahamian ministers. 

Title 

In the Bahamas, the Queen's official title is: Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of the 
Commonwealth of The Bahamas and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth. 

This style communicates the Bahamas's status as an independent monarchy, highlighting the Monarch's role 
specifically as Queen of the Bahamas, as well as the shared aspect of the Crown throughout the realms. 
Typically, the Sovereign is styled "Queen of the Bahamas," and is addressed as such when in the Bahamas, or 
performing duties on behalf of the Bahamas abroad. 

Constitutional role 

The Bahamian constitution is made up of a variety of statutes and conventions that are either British or 
Bahamian in origin, which gives the Bahamas a similar parliamentary system of government as the other 
Commonwealth realms. 

All powers of state are constitutionally reposed in the Monarch, who is represented by the Governor General of 
the Bahamas — appointed by the Monarch upon the advice of the Prime Minister of the Bahamas. The Monarch 
is informed of the Prime Minister's decision before the Governor General gives Royal Assent. 

Duties 

Most of the Queen's domestic duties are performed by the Governor-General. The Governor-General represents 
the Queen on ceremonial occasions such as the opening of Parliament, the presentation of honours and military 
parades. Under the Constitution, he or she is given authority to act in some matters, for example in appointing 
and disciplining officers of the civil service, in proroguing Parliament. As in the other Commonwealth realms, 
however, the Monarch's role, and thereby the vice-regent's role, is almost entirely symbolic and cultural, acting 
as a symbol of the legal authority under which all governments operate, and the powers that are constitutionally 
hers are exercised almost wholly upon the advice of the Cabinet, made up of Ministers of the Crown. It has been 
said since the death of Queen Anne in 1714, the last monarch to head the British cabinet, that the monarch 
"reigns" but does not "rule". In exceptional circumstances, however, the Monarch or vice-regal can act against 
such advice based upon his or her reserve powers. 

There are also a few duties which must be specifically performed by, or bills that require assent by the Queen. 
These include: signing the appointment papers of Governors General, the confirmation of awards of honours, and 
approving any change in her title. 

It is also possible that if the Governor General decided to go against the Prime Minister's or the government's 
advice, the Prime Minister could appeal directly to the Monarch, or even recommend that the Monarch dismiss 



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the Governor General. 



Succession 



Charles, Prince of Wales 
the current heir to the 
throne of the Bahamas 



Succession to the throne is by male-preference primogeniture, and governed by the 
provisions of the Act of Settlement, as well as the English Bill of Rights. These 
documents, though originally passed by the Parliament of England, are now part of 
the Bahamian constitutional law. 

This legislation lays out the rules that the Monarch cannot be a Roman Catholic, nor 
married to one, and must be in communion with the Church of England upon 
ascending the throne. As the Bahamas's laws governing succession are currently 
identical to those of the United Kingdom (by the Statute of Westminster) see 
Succession to the British Throne for more information. 

The heir apparent is Elizabeth IPs eldest son, Charles, who has no official title 
outside of the UK, but is accorded his UK title, Prince of Wales, as a courtesy title. 



Legal role 



All laws in the Bahamas are enacted with the sovereign's, or the vice-regal's signature. The granting of a 
signature to a bill is known as Royal Assent; it and proclamation are required for all acts of Parliament, usually 
granted or withheld by the Governor General. The Vice-Regals may reserve a bill for the Monarch's pleasure, 
that is to say, allow the Monarch to make a personal decision on the bill. The Monarch has the power to disallow 
a bill (within a time limit specified by the constitution). 

The Sovereign is deemed the "fount of justice," and is responsible for rendering justice for all subjects. The 
Sovereign does not personally rule injudicial cases; instead, judicial functions are performed in his or her name. 
The common law holds that the Sovereign "can do no wrong"; the monarch cannot be prosecuted in his or her 
own courts for criminal offences. Civil lawsuits against the Crown in its public capacity (that is, lawsuits against 
the government) are permitted; however, lawsuits against the Monarch personally are not cognizable. The 
Sovereign, and by extension the Governor General, also exercises the "prerogative of mercy," and may pardon 
offences against the Crown. Pardons may be awarded before, during, or after a trial. 

In the Bahamas the legal personality of the State is referred to as "Her Majesty the Queen in Right of the 
Bahamas." For example, if a lawsuit is filed against the government, the respondent is formally described as Her 
Majesty the Queen in Right of the Bahamas. The monarch as an individual takes no more role in such an affair 
than in any other business of government. 

Royal Presence 

The Queen and members of the Royal Family have toured The Bahamas on several occasions. As part of larger 
Caribbean tours, the islands were visited by The Queen and her husband in February 1966 and February 1975, 
and again during her Silver Jubilee tour of October 1977. 

There was a further visit to Nassau for the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in October 1985. 
Earlier that year, Independence Day celebrations on the islands were attended by The Prince of Wales. The 
Queen returned again to The Bahamas in March 1994. 

[4] 



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbados 



Barbados 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

Barbados (4^ 1 / buj^beidos/ or /bar'beidous/) is an 
island country in the Lesser Antilles. It is 34 kilometres 
(21 mi) in length and as much as 23 kilometres (14 mi) in 
width, amounting to 431 square kilometres (166 sq mi). It is 
situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 
kilometres (62 mi) east of the Windward Islands and the 
Caribbean Sea, ^ therein, it is about 168 kilometres (104 mi) 
east of the islands of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and 
400 kilometres (250 mi) north-east of Trinidad and Tobago. 
Barbados is outside of the principal Atlantic hurricane belt. 

Barbados was initially visited by the Spanish around the late 
1400s to early 1500s and first appears on a Spanish map from 
1511. J The Spanish explorers may have plundered the island 
of whatever native peoples resided therein to become 
slaves. J Thereafter, the Portuguese in 1536 then visited, but 
they too left it unclaimed, with their only remnants being an 
introduction of wild hogs for a good supply of meat whenever 
the island was visited. The first English ship, the Olive 
Blossom, arrived in Barbados in 1624. They took possession 
of it in the name of 'James I, King of England'. Two years later 
in 1627 the first permanent settlers arrived from England and 
it became an English and later British colony 



Coordinates: 13°10'N59 o 33'W 



[8] 



Barbados has an estimated population of 284,000 people, J 
with around 80,000 living in or around Bridgetown, the largest 

city and the country's capital. J In 1966, Barbados became 
an independent state and Commonwealth realm, retaining 

Queen Elizabeth II as Head of State. J Barbados is one of 
the Caribbean's leading tourist destinations and is one of the 
most developed islands in the region, with an HDI number of 
0.788. In 2011 Barbados ranked 2nd in The Americas (16th 
globally) on Transparency International's Corruption 
Perception Index ^ J 



Contents 



1 Etymology 

2 History 

3 Government and politics 

■ 3.1 Law 

■ 3.2 Judiciary 

■ 3.3 Foreign relations 



Barbados 




Coat of arms 



Motto: "Pride and Industry" 



Anthem: "National Anthem of Barbados" 
Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen" 




Capital 

(and largest city) 

Official language(s) 

Recognised 
regional languages 



Bridgetown 

13°06 f N59°37W 



English 
Bajan 



Ethnic groups (2000) 



80% Afro-Bajan 
16% Asian 
and Multiracial 
4% European 



Demonym 



Barbadian, Bajan 
(colloquial) 



Government 



- Monarch 

- Acting Governor- 
General 

- Prime Minister 



Parliamentary democracy 
and Constitutional 
monarchy 

Elizabeth H 

Elliot Belgrave [1] 

Freundel Stuart 



Legislature 

- Upper house 

- Lower house 



Parliament 

Senate 

House of Assembly 



Independence 

- from the United 
Kingdom 



30 November 1966 



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■ 3.4 Military 

4 Geography and climate 

■ 4.1 Geology 

■ 4.2 Climate 

■ 4.3 Environmental issues 

5 Administrative divisions 

6 Economy 

■ 6.1 Tourism 

■ 6.1.1 Attractions, landmarks and points 
of interest 

7 Demographics 

■ 7.1 Languages 

■ 7.2 Religion 

8 Culture 

9 Health 

10 Education and literacy 

11 Sports 

12 Transport 

13 See also 

14 Notes 

15 References 

■ 15.1 Videography 

16 External links 



Etymology 

According to accounts by descendants of the indigenous 
Arawakan-speaking tribes in other regional areas, the original 
name for Barbados was Ichirouganaim, with possible 
translations including "Red Land with White Teeth", J 
"Redstone island with teeth outside (reefs)", ^ or simply 



Area 

- Total 

- Water (%) 


431 km 2 (200th) 
166 sqmi 
negligible 


Population 

- 2009 estimate 

- 2001 census 

- Density 


284,589 [2] (180th) 
250,012 

660/km 2 (15th) 
1,704/sqmi 


GDP (PPP) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2011 estimate 

$6421 billion [3] (148th) 

$23,156 [3] (40th) 


GDP (nominal) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2011 estimate 
$4,224 billion [3] 
$15,234 [3] 


HDI(2011) 


A 0.793 [4] (Very 
High) (47nd) 


Currency 


Barbadian dollar ($) (bbd) 


Time zone 

- Summer (DST) 


Eastern Caribbean 

(UTC-4) 

not observed (UTC-4) 


Drives on the 


left [5] 


ISO 3166 code 


BB 


Internet TLD 


.bb 


Calling code 


+1 (spec. +1-246) 



'Teeth' 



[15][16][17] 



The reason for the later name Barbados is controversial. According to some sources The Portuguese, en route to 
Brazil, ^ J were the first Europeans to come upon the island, while others say it was the Spanish which gave 
the Spanish name "Los Barbudos". The word Barbados means "bearded ones", but it is a matter of conjecture 
whether "bearded" refers to the long, hanging roots of the bearded fig-tree (Ficus citrifolia), indigenous to the 
island; to allegedly bearded Caribs once inhabiting the island; or, more fancifully, to the foam spraying over the 
outlying reefs giving the impression of a beard. In 1519, a map produced by the Genoese mapmaker Visconte 
Maggiolo showed and named Barbados in its correct position. Furthermore, an island in the Leewards which is 
very close in name to Barbados is Barbuda and was once named Las Barbudas by the Spanish. 

Other names or nicknames associated with Barbados include "Bim" and "Bimshire". The origin is uncertain but 
several theories exist. The National Cultural Foundation of Barbados says that "Bim" was a word commonly 
used by slaves and that it derives from the phrase "bi mu" or either ("bem", "Ndi bem", "Nwanyi ibem" or 

"Nwoke ibem"y J from an Igbo phrase meaning "my people". In colloquial or literary contexts, "Bim" can also 
take a more deific tone, referring to the "goddess" Barbados. ^ citation needed ^ 



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The word Bim and Bimshire are recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century 
Dictionaries. Another possible source for "Bim" is reported to be in the Agricultural Reporter of 25 April 1868, 
The Rev. N Greenidge (father of one of the island's most famous scholars, Abel Hendy Jones Greenidge) 
suggested the listing of Bimshire as a county of England. Expressly named were "Wiltshire, Hampshire, 

Berkshire and Bimshire". J Lastly in the Daily Argosy (of Demerara, i.e. Guyana) of 1652 it referred to Bim as 
a possible corruption of the word "Byam", who was a Royalist leader against the Parliamentarians. That source 

suggested the followers of Byam became known as Bims and became a word for all Barbadians. J 

History 

Main articles: History of Barbados and Timeline of Barbadian history 

Amerindian settlement of Barbados dates to about the 4th to 7th century AD, by a group known as the Saladoid- 
Barrancoid. * In the 13th century, the Caribs arrived from South America. ^ 

The Spanish and Portuguese briefly claimed Barbados from the late-16th to the 17th centuries, and may have 

seized the Arawaks on Barbados and used them as slave labour. Other Arawaks are believed to have fled to 

neighbouring islands. Apart from possibly displacing the Caribs, the Spanish and Portuguese left little impact and 

left the island uninhabited. Some Arawaks migrated from Guyana in the 1800s and continue to live in Barbados. 
[22] [23] [24] 

From the arrival of the first English settlers in 1627-1628 until independence in 1966, Barbados was under 
uninterrupted British governance (and was the only Caribbean island that did not change hands during the 
colonial period). In the very early years, the majority of the population was white and male, with African slaves 
providing little of the workforce. Cultivation of tobacco, cotton, ginger and indigo was handled primarily by 
European indentured labour until the start of the sugar cane industry in the 1640s. As Barbados' economy grew, 
Barbados developed a large measure of local autonomy through its founding as a proprietary colony. Its House of 
Assembly began meeting in 1639. Among the initial important figures was Anglo-Dutchman Sir William Courten. 

Government and politics 



Main articles: Government of Barbados and Politics of Barbados 

Barbados has been an independent country since 30 November 1966. It 
functions as a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, 
modelled on the British Westminster system, with Elizabeth II, Queen of 
Barbados, as head of state represented locally by the Governor-General, 
Elliot Belgrave and the Prime Minister as the head of the government. 
The number of representatives within the House of Assembly has 
gradually increased from twenty four at independence, to its present 
composition of thirty seats. 




Parliament Building. 



During the 1990s, at the suggestion of Trinidad and Tobago's Patrick 

Manning, Barbados attempted a political union with Trinidad and Tobago and Guyana. The project stalled after 

the then Prime Minister of Barbados Lloyd Erskine Sandiford became ill and his party (the Democratic Labour 

Party) lost the next general election.^ ^ J Barbados continues to share close ties with Trinidad and Tobago and 

Guyana, claiming the highest number of Guyanese immigrants after the United States, Canada and the United 

Kingdom. 



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Barbados functions as a two-party system, the two dominant parties being the ruling Democratic Labour Party 

and the opposition, Barbados Labour Party. Until 2003, each party had served two terms in office alternately. J 
The election of 2003 gave the BLP a third term victory, at which time the Barbados Labour Party (BLP) 
achieved being in government for 14 years, (1994 until the 2008 elections). Under that administration, the former 
Prime Minister, The Right Honourable Owen S. Arthur acted as the Regional Leader of the CSM (Caribbean 
Single Market). 

The Honourable David Thompson, who was elected Prime Minister of Barbados in 2008, died of pancreatic 
cancer on 23 October 2010. He was succeeded by Deputy Prime Minister Freundel Stuart, who was sworn in the 

same dayJ 28 " 29 ] 

Barbados has had several third parties over a period of time since independence: The People's Pressure 
Movement formed in the early 1970s and contested the 1976 elections; The National Democratic Party, which 
contested the 1994 elections; and the People's Democratic Congress, which contested the 2008 elections. Apart 
from these there were several independents who contested the elections, but independents are yet to win a seat 
in Parliament. 

Law 

The Constitution of Barbados is the supreme law of the nation. J The Attorney General heads the independent 
judiciary. Historically, Barbadian law was based entirely on English common law with a few local adaptations. At 
the time of independence, the British Parliament ceased having the ability to change local legislation at its own 
discretion. British law and various legal statutes within British law at this time, and other prior measures adopted 
by the Barbadian parliament became the basis of the modern-day law system. 

More recently, however, local Barbadian legislation may be shaped or influenced by such organisations as the 
United Nations, the Organization of American States, or other international fora to which Barbados has 
obligatory commitments by treaty. Additionally, through international cooperation, other institutions may supply 
the Barbados Parliament with key sample legislation to be adapted to meet local circumstances before crafting it 
as local law. 

Laws are passed by the Barbadian Parliament, whereby upon their passage, are given official vice-regal assent 
by the Governor-General to become law. 

In Barbados, camouflage clothing is reserved for military use and forbidden for civilians to wear, including 
children. [5] 

As of October 2010, it is illegal for persons to smoke in public areas. 
Judiciary 

Main article: Judiciary of Barbados 
The local court system of Barbados is made-up of: 

■ Magistrates' Courts: Covering Criminal, Civil, Domestic, Domestic Violence, and Juvenile matters. But can 
also take up matters dealing with Corornor's Inquests, Liquor Licences, and civil marriages. Further, the 

Magistrates' Courts deal with Contract and Tort law where claims do not exceed $10,000.00. J 

■ The Supreme Court: is made up of High Court and Court of Appeals. J 

■ High Court: Consisting of Civil, Criminal, and Family law divisions. 



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■ Court of Appeal: Handles appeals from the High Court and Magistrates' Court. It hears appeals in 
both the civil, and criminal law jurisdictions. It may consist of a single Justice of Appeal sitting in 
Chambers; or may sit as a Full Court of three Justices of Appeals. 
■ The Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ), (based in Port Of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago), is the court of last 
resort (final jurisdiction) over Barbadian law. It replaced the London-based Judicial Committee of the 
Privy Council (JCPC). The CCJ may resolve other disputed matters dealing with the Caribbean 
(CARICOM) Single Market and Economy (CSME). 

Foreign relations 

Main article: Foreign relations of Barbados 

Barbados is a full and participating member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), Caribbean Single 
Market and Economy (CSME), and the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). J Organization of American 
States (OAS), Commonwealth of Nations, and the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ), which currently pertains 
only to Barbados, Belize and Guyana. In 2001 the Caribbean Community heads of government voted on a 
measure declaring that the region should work towards replacing the UK's Judicial Committee of the Privy 
Council with the Caribbean Court of Justice. 

Barbados is an original Member (1995) of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), and participates actively in its 
work. It grants at least MFN treatment to all its trading partners. As of December 2007, Barbados is linked by an 
Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Commission. The pact involves the Caribbean Forum 
(CARIFORUM) subgroup of the Group of African, Caribbean, and Pacific states (ACP). CARIFORUM 
presently the only part of the wider ACP-bloc that has concluded the full regional trade-pact with the European 
Union. 

Trade policy has also sought to protect a small number of domestic activities, mostly food production, from 
foreign competition, while recognising that most domestic needs are best met by imports. 

Military 

The Barbados Defence Force has roughly 600 members; within it, 12-to- 18-year-old youngsters make up the 
Barbados Cadet Corps. 

Geography and climate 

Main article: Geography and climate of Barbados 

Barbados is the easternmost island in the Lesser Antilles. It is flat in comparison to its island neighbours to the 
west, the Windward Islands. The island rises gently to the central highland region, with the highpoint of the 
nation being Mount Hillaby, in the Scotland District, 340 metres (1,120 ft) above sea level. The island is situated 
in the Atlantic Ocean, east of the other West Indies Islands. 

In the parish of Saint Michael lies Barbados' capital and main city, Bridgetown. Other major towns scattered 
across the island include Holetown, in the parish of Saint James; Oistins, in the parish of Christ Church; and 
Speightstown, in the parish of Saint Peter. 

Geology 

Barbados lies on the boundary of the South American and the Caribbean Plates. J The shift of the South 

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American plate beneath the 
Caribbean plate scrapes sediment 
from the South American plate 
and deposits it above the 
subduction zone forming an 
accretionary prism. The rate of 
this depositing of material allows 
Barbados to rise at a rate of about 
25 millimetres (0.98 in) per 1,000 

years. J This subduction means 

geologically the island is 

composed of coral roughly 
(90 m/300 ft thick), where reefs formed above the sediment. The land 
slopes in a series of "terraces" in the west and goes into an incline in the 
east. A large proportion of the island is circled by coral reefs. The erosion 
of limestone rock in the North East of the island, in the Scotland District 
has resulted in the formation of various caves and gullys, some of which 

have become popular tourist attractions such as Harrison's Cave and Welchman Hall Gully. On the Atlantic East 
coast of the island coastal landforms including stacks have been created due to the limestone composition of the 
area. 



Beach near Bridgetown, Barbados. 




Map of Barbados 



Climate 

The country is generally split into a period of two seasons one of which includes noticeably higher rainfall. 
Known as the "wet season", this period runs from March-November, In contrast, the "dry season" runs 
December-May. The annual precipitation ranges between 40 inches (1,000 mm) and 90 inches (2,300 mm). 
From December-May the average temperatures range from 21 to 31 °C (70 to 88 °F), while between 
June-November, they range from 23 to 31 °C (73 to 88 °F). [35] 

On the Koppen climate classification scale, much of Barbados is regarded as a Tropical monsoon climate (Am). 
However, gentle breezes of 12-16 kilometres per hour (8-10 mph) abound throughout the year and give 
Barbados a warm climate which is moderately tropical. 

Infrequent natural hazards include: earthquakes, landslips, and hurricanes. Barbados is often spared the worst 
effects of the region's tropical storms and hurricanes during the rainy season. The far eastern location in the 
Atlantic Ocean puts the country just outside the principal hurricane strike zone. On average, a major hurricane 
strikes about once every 26 years. The last significant hit from a hurricane to cause severe damage to Barbados 
was Hurricane Janet in 1955, and more recently in 2010 the island was struck by Hurricane Tomas, but this only 
caused minor damage across the country. J 

Environmental issues 

The island is susceptible to environmental pressures. As one of the world's most densely populated isles, the 
government worked during the 1990s^ J to aggressively integrate the growing south coast of the island into the 
Bridgetown Sewage Treatment Plant to reduce contamination of offshore coral reefs. ^ J As of the 2000s, a 
second treatment plant has been proposed along the islands' west coast. With such a dense populus, Barbados 
has placed large efforts on protecting its underground aquifers. As a coral-limestone island, Barbados is highly 
permeable to seepage of surface water into the earth. As such, a major emphasis by the government has been 
placed on protecting the catchment areas (in specific surface areas known as buffer zones) that lead directly into 



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the huge network of underground aquifers and streams. J On occasion illegal squatters have breached these 
areas, and the government has removed squatters in order to preserve the cleanliness of the underground springs 
for islands drinking water. J The government has placed a huge emphasis on keeping Barbados clean with the 
aim of protecting the environment and preserving offshore coral reefs which surround the island. Many 
initiatives to mitigate human pressures on the coastal regions of Barbados and seas is the Coastal Zone 
Management Unit (CZMU) (http://www.coastal.gov.bb/) . * Barbados has nearly 90 km of coral reefs just 
offshore and two protected marine parks have been established off the west coast. J Over fishing is another 
threat which faces Barbados. J 

Barbados is host to four species of nesting turtles (green turtles, loggerheads, and leatherbacks) and has the 
second largest hawksbill turtle breeding population in the Caribbean. J The driving of vehicles on beaches can 
crush nests buried in the sand and such activity should be avoided in nesting areas. J 

Though on the opposite side of the Atlantic, and some 3000 miles west of Africa, Barbados is one of many 
places in the American continent which experiences heightened levels of mineral dust from the Sahara 
Desert. J Some particularly intense dust episodes have been blamed partly for the impacts on the health of 
coral reefs^ J surrounding Barbados or asthmatic episodes, J but evidence has not wholly supported the 
former such claim. J 

Administrative divisions 



Main article: Parishes of Barbados 
Barbados is divided into 11 parishes: 



1. 


Christ Church 


2. 


Saint Andrew 


3. 


Saint George 


4. 


Saint James 


5. 


Saint John 


6. 


Saint Joseph 


7. 


Saint Lucy 


8. 


Saint Michael 


9. 


Saint Peter 


10. 


Saint Philip 


11. 


Saint Thomas 



St. George and St. Thomas located in the middle of the country are the only 
two parishes without coastlines. 



( 7 \ 




1 9 \ 

L 2 \ 




V 6 

11 y 5 




r 3 V 

\ 8 


10 J 


^<C 1 




\_^s^ 




Map of the parishes of Barbados 



Economy 

Main article: Economy of Barbados 

Barbados is the 51st richest country in the world in terms of GDP (Gross domestic product) per capita, J has a 
well-developed mixed economy, and a moderately high standard of living. According to the World Bank, 

Barbados is classified as being in its 66 top High income economies of the world. J 



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Historically, the economy of Barbados had been dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities, but in 
the late 1970s and early 1980s it has diversified into the manufacturing and tourism sectors. Offshore finance 
and information services have become important foreign exchange earners, and there is a healthy light 
manufacturing sector. Since the 1990s the Barbados Government has been seen as business-friendly and 
economically sound. ltatwn nee e J The island has seen a construction boom, with the development and 
redevelopment of hotels, office complexes, and homes. ^ citation needed ^ 

Recent government administrations have continued efforts to reduce unemployment, encourage foreign direct 
investment, and privatise remaining state-owned enterprises. Unemployment has been reduced to 10.7 in 
2003. [2] 

The economy contracted in 2001 and 2002 due to slowdowns in tourism, consumer spending and the impact of 
the 11 September 2001 attacks, but rebounded in 2003 and has shown growth since 2004. J Traditional trading 
partners include Canada, the Caribbean Community (especially Trinidad and Tobago), the United Kingdom and 
the United States. 

Business links and investment flows have become substantial: as of 2003 the island saw from Canada CA$ 
25 billion in investment holdings, placing it as one of Canada's top five destinations for Canadian foreign direct 
investment (FDI). Businessman Eugene Melnyk of Toronto, Canada, is said to be Barbados' richest permanent 
resident ^ citation needed \ 

It has been reported that the year 2006 would have been one of the busiest years for building construction ever 
in Barbados, as the building-boom on the island entered the final stages for several multi-million dollar 
commercial projects. J 

The European Union is presently assisting Barbados with a €10 million programme of modernisation of the 
country's International Business and Financial Services Sector. J 

Barbados maintains the third largest stock exchange in the Caribbean region. At present, officials at the stock 
exchange are investigating the possibility of augmenting the local exchange with an International Securities 

Market (ISM) venture. [54] 
Tourism 

Barbados has numerous internationally known hotels. Time-shares are available, and many of the smaller local 
hotels and private villas which dot the island have space available if booked in advance. The southern and 
western coasts of Barbados are popular, with the calm light-blue Caribbean Sea and their white and pinkish 
sandy beaches. Along the island's east coast, which faces the Atlantic Ocean, there are tumbling waves that are 
perfect for light surfing. Some areas remain risky to swimmers due to under-tow currents. 

Shopping districts are popular in Barbados, with ample duty-free shopping. There is also a festive night-life in 
mainly tourist areas such as the Saint Lawrence Gap. Other attractions include wildlife reserves (Graeme Hall 
Nature Sanctuary), jewellery stores, scuba diving, helicopter rides, golf, festivals (the largest being the annual 
Crop Over festival July/ Aug), sightseeing, cave exploration (Harrison's Cave), exotic drinks and fine clothes 
shopping. 

Attractions, landmarks and points of interest 

Tourism accounts for almost one half of the economy. Name / Parish Location: 



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Christ Church 


- St. James 




- St. Lucy 


- St. Peter 


■ Graeme Hall 


■ St. James Parish Church 




■ Animal 


■ Barbados 


Nature 


■ Folkestone Marine Park 




Flower Cave 


Wildlife 


Sanctuary 


■ Lancaster Great House Gallery 


and Gardens 


■ Little Bay 


Reserve 


■ Saint 


(http://www.lancastergreathousegallery.com) 


■ Shamarra's 


■ Farley Hill 


Lawrence 


■ Queen's College 




House 


National 


Gap 








Park 


■ Grantley 


- St. John 




St. Michael 


■ St Nicholas 


Adams 








Abbey 


International 


■ Codrington College 




■ Barbados 




Airport 


■ Conset Bay 




Historical 


- St. Philip 


■ Chancery 


■ St. John Parish Church & church yard 


Museum 




Lane Swamp 


■ Massiah Street 




■ Bridgetown 


■ Crane 


■ Christ 






Synagogue 


Beach 


Church 


- St. Joseph 




and Cemetery 


■ Sunbury 


Foundation 






■ Bussa 


Plantation 


School 


■ Andromeda Gardens 




Emancipation 


■ Bay ley's 


(1809) 
■ Ocean Park, 


■ Flower Forest 




Statue 


Plantation 


■ Hackleton's Cliff 




■ Ilaro Court 




Barbados 


■ Bathsheba 




■ Garrison 
Savannah 


- St. Thomas 


St. Andrew 






■ Kensington 
Oval 


■ Clifton Hill 
Moravian 


■ Chalky 






■ Mount Gay 


Church 


Mount 






Rum 


■ Harrison's 


potteries 






■ Barbados 


Cave 


■ Cherry Tree 






National 


■ Sharon 


Hill 






Museum 


Moravian 


■ Morgan 






■ George 


Church 


Lewis 






Washington 


■ Welchman 


Windmill 






House 


Hall Gully 


■ Barclays 






■ The Salvation 




Park 






Army 
Divisional 




St. George 






Headquarters 





Francia Great 
House 
Gun Hill 
Signal Station 
Orchid World 



List of: Cities, towns and villages in Barbados. 

■ Bridgetown 

■ Holetown 

■ Oistins 

■ Six Cross Roads 

■ Speightstown 



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Saint Lawrence Gap 

Warrens 

Black Rock, Barbados 

Bank Hall 



Demographics 



Main articles: Demographics of Barbados and Barbadian people 

Barbados has a population of about 281,968 and a population growth rate 
of 0.33% (Mid-2005 estimates). It currently ranks as: the 4th most 
densely populated country in the Americas (18th globally), and the 10th 
most populated island country in the region, (101st globally). Close to 
90% of all Barbadians (also known colloquially as Bajan) are of African 
descent ("Afro-Bajans") and mixed-descent. The remainder of the 
population includes groups of Europeans ("Anglo-Bajans" / "Euro- 
Bajans") mainly from the United Kingdom, Ireland, Chinese, Bajan 
Muslims from India. Other groups in Barbados include people from the 
United Kingdom, United States and Canada. Barbadians who return after 
years of residence in the U.S. and children born in America to Bajan 
parents are called "Bajan Yankees", this term is considered derogatory by 

some. J Generally, Bajans recognise and accept all 'children-of-the- 
island' as Bajans, and refer to each other as such. 

The biggest communities outside the Afro-Caribbean community are: 



1. The Indo-Guyanese, an important part of the economy due to the 
increase of immigrants from partner country Guyana. There are 
reports of a growing Indo-Bajan diaspora originating from Guyana 
and India. They introduced roti and other Indian dishes to 
Barbados' culture. Mostly from southern India and Hindu states, 
they are growing in size but smaller than the equivalent 
communities in Trinidad & Guyana. 

2. Euro-Bajans (4% of the population/ have settled in Barbados 
since the 16th century, originating from England, Ireland and 

Scotland. In 1643, there were 37,200 whites in Barbados (86% of the population). J More commonly 
they are known as "White Bajans". Euro-Bajans introduced folk music, such as Irish music and Highland 
music, and certain place names, such as "Scotland", a mountainous region. Among White Barbadians there 

exists an underclass known as Redlegs; the descendants of indentured servants, and prisoners imported to 

T571 
the island. J Many additionally moved on to become the earliest settlers of modern-day North and South 

Carolina in the United States. 

3. Chinese are a minute portion of Barbados' Asian demographics, far smaller than the equivalent 
communities of Jamaica and Trinidad. Most if not all first arrived in the 1940s during the Second World 
War, originating mainly from the then British territory of Hong Kong. Many Chinese-Bajans have the 

surnames Chin, Chynn or Lee, although other surnames prevail in certain areas of the island. 

[citation needed] 

4. Lebanese and Syrians form the Arab community on the island and the Muslim minority among them make 
up a small percentage of the Muslim population. The majority of the Lebanese and Syrians arrived in 
Barbados due to trade opportunities. Although in the numbers are dwindling due to emigration and 
immigration to other countries. 




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5. Jewish people arrived in Barbados just after the first settlers in 1627. Bridgetown is the home of the oldest 
Jewish Synagogue in the Americas, dating from 1654, though the current structure was erected in 1833 
replacing one ruined by the hurricane of 1831. Tombstones in the neighbouring cemetery date from the 
1630s. Now under the care of the Barbados National Trust the site was deserted in 1929, but was 
subsequently saved and restored by the Jewish community in 1983. 

6. Indians from Gujarat in India make up majority of the Muslim population. Muslim-Indian Barbadians are 

often perceived to be the most successful group in business, along with the Chinese Bajans. ltatlon nee e J 

The average life expectancy is 72 years for males and 77 years for females. J Barbados and Japan have the 
highest per capita occurrences of centenarians in the world. J 

Languages 

English is the root official language of Barbados, and is used for communications, administration, and public 
services all over the island. In its capacity as the official language of the country, the standard of English tends to 
conform to the vocabulary, pronunciations, spellings, and conventions akin to, but not exactly the same as, those 
of British English. A regional variant of English, referred to locally as Bajan, is spoken by most Barbadians in 
everyday life, especially in informal settings. In its full-fledged form, Bajan sounds markedly different from the 
Standard English heard on the island. 

The degree of intelligibility between Bajan and general English changes depending on the speakers' origins and 
the "rawness" of one's accent. In rare instances, a Bajan speaker may be completely unintelligible to an outside 
English speaker if sufficient slang terminology is present in a sentence. Bajan is somewhat differentiated from, 
but highly influenced by other Caribbean English dialects; it is a fusion of British English and elements borrowed 
from the languages of West Africa. Hindi and Bhojpuri are also spoken on the island by a small Indo-Bajan 

minority. Spanish is considered the most popular second language on the island, followed by French. 

[citation needed] 

Religion 

Main article: Religion in Barbados 

Most Barbadians of African and European descent are Christians (95%), chiefly Anglicans (40%). Other 
Christian denominations with significant followings in Barbados are the Roman Catholic Church,Pentecostals 
(Evangelicals) Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventist and Spiritual Baptists. The Church of England was 
the official state religion until its legal disenfranchisement by the Parliament of Barbados following 

independence. J Religious minorities include Hindus, Muslims, the Baha'i Faith, J Jews and Wiccans. 

Culture 

Main article: Culture of Barbados 

See also: Music of Barbados and Rihanna 

The influence of the English on Barbados is more noticeable than on other islands in the West Indies. A good 
example of this is the island's national sport: cricket. Barbados has brought forth several great cricketers, 
including Sir Garfield Sobers and Frank Worrell. 

Citizens are officially called Barbadians. The term "Bajan" (pronounced "beijan) may have come from a 
localised pronunciation of the word Barbadian which at times can sound more like "Bar-bajan". 



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The largest carnival-like cultural event which takes place on the island is 
the Crop Over festival. As in many other Caribbean and Latin American 
countries, Crop Over is an important event for many people on the 
island, as well as the thousands of tourists that flock to the island to 
participate in the annual events. The festival includes musical 
competitions and other traditional activities. The male and female 
Barbadian that harvested the most sugarcane are also crowned as the 

King and Queen of the crop. J It gets under way from the beginning of 
July, and ends with the costumed parade on Kadooment Day, held on the 
first Monday of August. 

In the music business, Rihanna is currently one of Barbados' most well 
known Grammy winning artists. As of 2009 she was appointed as an 
official Honorary Ambassador of youth and culture for Barbados by the 
late Prime Minister, David Thompson. 




Growing up in Barbados, Rihanna 
became one of the biggest international 
pop icons. 



Health 

Similar to other nations within the Commonwealth of Nations all Barbadian citizens are covered by national 
healthcare. Barbados has over twenty policlinics throughout the country in addition to the Queen Elizabeth 
Hospital (General Hospital) located in Bridgetown. In 2011 the Government of Barbados signed a Memorandum 
of Understanding to lease its 22-acre Saint Joseph Hospital to Denver, Colorado based America World Clinics. 
Under the deal the group will use Barbados as one of its main destinations for medical tourism at that facility. 
The government also announced it would begin constructing a new $800 million dollar state-of-the-art hospital to 
replace the QEH. 

Education and literacy 

Main article: Education in Barbados 

Barbados' literacy rate is ranked close to 100%, with both UNESCO and the Minister of Education stating that 
Barbados was in the top 5 countries worldwide for literacy rate. J thus placing the country alongside many of 
the industrialised nations of the world. The mainstream public education system of Barbados is fashioned after 
the British model. The government of Barbados spends 6.7% of the GDP on education (2008). J All young 
people in the country must attend school until age 16. Barbados has over 70 primary schools, and over 20 
secondary schools throughout the island. There are also a number of private schools catering to various teaching 
models including Montessori and International Baccalaureate. Degree level education in the country is provided 
by the Barbados Community College, the Samuel Jackman Prescod Polytechnic, and a local Cave Hill campus of 
the University of the West Indies 

Sports 



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Main article: Sport in Barbados 

As in other Caribbean countries of British colonial heritage, cricket is 
very popular on the island. Barbadians play on the West Indies cricket 
team. In addition to several warm-up matches and six "Super Eight" 
matches, and the country hosted the final of the 2007 Cricket World Cup. 
They have had many great cricketers such as Sir Garfield Sobers, Sir 
Frank Worrell, Sir Clyde Walcott, Sir Everton Weekes, Gordon 
Greenidge, Joel Garner and Malcolm Marshall. 

Obadele Thompson is a world class sprinter from Barbados; he won a 
bronze medal at Olympic Games over 100m in 2000. Ryan Brathwaite, a 
hurdler, reached the 2008 Olympic semi-finals in Beijing. Brathwaite also 
earned Barbados its first ever medal at the world championships in 
Berlin, Germany on 20 August 2009, when he won the men's 110 meter 
hurdles title. The 21-year-old timed a national record of 13.14 seconds to 
win the Gold Medal. 

Polo is very popular amongst the rich 'elite' on the island and the 

'High-Goal' Apes Hill team is based in the St James's Club. J It is also 
played at the private Holders Festival ground. 

In golf, the Barbados Open is an annual stop on the European Seniors Tour. In December 2006 the WGC- World 
Cup took place at the country's Sandy Lane resort on the Country Club course, an 18-hole course designed by 
Tom Fazio. The Barbados Golf Club is the other main course on the island. Sanctioned by the PGA European 
Tour to host a PGA Seniors Tournament in 2003 and it has also hosted the Barbados Open on several occasions. 

Basketball is a popular sport played at school or college and is increasing in popularity, as is volleyball, though 
volleyball is mainly played indoors. 

Motorsports also play a role, with Rally Barbados occurring each summer and currently being listed on the FIA 
NACAM calendar. 

The presence of the trade winds along with favourable swells make the southern tip of the Island an ideal 
location for wave sailing (an extreme form of the sport of windsurfing). 

Netball is also popular with women in Barbados. 

Barbadian team The Flyin' Fish, are the 2009 Segway Polo World Champions. J 



The Kensington Oval, in Bridgetown 
hosted the 2007 Cricket World Cup 
final.Cricket is one of the most 
followed games in the nation and the 
Kensignton Oval is often referred to as 
the 'Mecca in Cricket' due to its 
significance and contributions to the 
sport. 



Transport 

Main article: Transport in Barbados 

In addition to being one of the world's most densely populated countries, Barbados also has one of the most 
dense road networks in the world. Although Barbados is only about 34 kilometres (21 mi) at its widest point, a 
car journey from Six Cross Roads in St. Philip (south-east) to North Point in St. Lucy (north-central) can take 
one and a half hours or longer, thanks to the country's narrow, winding and rough roads. 

Barbados has half as many registered cars as citizens in the country. The first letter of a vehicle's licence plate 
designates its usage or owner's registered parish of residence. "Z" and "ZR" are for taxis; "H" for rental cars; "B" 



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for buses and minibuses; "CD" for diplomatic cars; and "3D" or "7D" for 
defence force vehicles, while "ML" or "MP" with green plates usually 
designate military, police or government vehicles. As regards residence, 
"X" is for Christ Church; "A" for St. Andrew; "G" for St. George; "S" for 
St. James; "J" for St. John; "O" for St. Joseph; "L" for St. Lucy; "M" for 
St. Michael; "E" for St. Peter; "P" for St. Philip; and "T" for St. Thomas. 

Public transport on the island is relatively convenient, with 'route taxis', 
called "ZRs" (pronounced "Zed-Rs"), travelling to most points on the 
island. These small buses can at times be crowded, as passengers are 
generally never turned down, regardless of the number. However, they 
will usually take the more scenic routes to destinations. They generally 
depart from the capital Bridgetown or from Speightstown in the northern 
part of the island. 




Typical ZR-van with markings 
indicating that it serves the number 1 1 
route. 







^m. 



Old Barbados Transport Board bus 
in Bridgetown. 



Including the ZRs there are three bus systems running seven days a week 
(though less frequently on Sundays). There's ZRs, the yellow minibuses and 
the blue Transport Board buses. A ride on any of them costs BBD$2.00. The 
smaller buses from the two privately owned systems ("ZRs" and 
"minibuses") can give change; the larger blue buses from the government- 
operated Barbados Transport Board system cannot, but do give receipts. 
Children in school uniform ride for free on the government buses and for 
$1.50 on the minibuses and ZRs. Most routes require a connection in 
Bridgetown. Some drivers within the competitive privately owned systems 
are reluctant to advise persons to use competing services, even if those 
would be more suitable. 



Some hotels also provide visitors with shuttles to points of interest on the 
island from outside the hotel lobby. There are several locally owned and 
operated vehicle rental agencies in Barbados but there are no multi- 
national companies. 

The island's lone airport is the Grantley Adams International Airport. It 
receives daily flights by several major airlines from points around the 
globe, as well as several smaller regional commercial airlines and 
charters. The airport serves as the main air-transportation hub for the 
eastern Caribbean. In the first decade of 21st century it underwent a 
US$100 million upgrade and expansion. 

There is also a helicopter shuttle service, which offers air taxi services to a number of sites around the island, 
mainly on the West Coast tourist belt. Air and maritime traffic is regulated by the Barbados Port Authority. 




See also 



Outline of Barbados 

Index of Barbados-related articles 

Commonwealth of Nations 

International rankings of Barbados 

Lesser Antilles 

List of Barbadians 



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History of Barbados 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

Barbados was inhabited by Arawaks and Caribs at the time of European colonization in the 16th century. The 
island was a British colony from 1625 until 1966. Since 1966, it has been a constitutional monarchy and 
parliamentary democracy, modelled on the British Westminster system, with Elizabeth II, Queen of Barbados, as 
head of state. 



Contents 



I Early history 
2 1627-1639 

■ 2.1 Early English settlement 

3 1640-1680's, 18th century 

■ 3.1 England's civil war 

■ 3.2 Sugar cultivation 

4 1800s(decade)-1920s 

5 1930s-present 

6 Modern State 

7 Sugar cane and slavery 

8 Political history 

■ 8.1 Confederations, and political union proposals 

9 See also 

10 References 

I I Further reading 
12 External links 



Early history 

Some evidence exists that Barbados may not have been settled in the second millennium BC, but this is limited 

to fragments of conch lip adzes found in association with shells radiocarbon dated to c.1630 BC. J Fully 
documented Amerindian settlement dates to between about 350 to 650 AD, by a group known as the Saladoid- 
Barrancoid, who arrived from mainland South America. A second wave of migrants appeared around the year 
800 (the Spanish referred to these people as "Arawaks") and a third in the mid- 13th century (called "Caribs" by 
the Spanish). This last group was more politically organised and came to rule over the others. Frequent slave- 
raiding missions by the Spanish Empire in the early 16th century led to a massive decline in the Amerindian 
population of Barbados so that by 1541 a Spanish writer could claim they were uninhabited. The Amerindians 
were either captured for use as slaves by the Spanish or fled to other, more easily defensible mountainous islands 
nearby. J 

From about 1600 the English, French and Dutch began to found colonies in the North American mainland and 
the smaller islands of the West Indies. Although Spanish and Portuguese sailors likely had visited Barbados, the 
Commonwealth of England was the first Europeans to establish a lasting settlement in Barbados from 1627. 
England is commonly attributed as making their initial claim of Barbados in 1625, though reportedly an earlier 
claim may have been made in 1620. Nonetheless, by 1625 Barbados was claimed in the name of King James I of 
England. Despite earlier settlements by England in The Americas, (1607 Jamestown, 1609:Bermuda, and 



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1620:Plymouth Colony, and closer to Barbadoes the Leeward Islands were claimed by the 
English at about the same time as Barbados: 1623: St Kitts, 1628: Nevis, 1632: Montserrat, 
1632: Antigua.), Barbados quickly grew to became the third major English settlement in the 
Americas due to its prime eastern location. 

1627-1639 

Early English settlement 

The first English ship arrived on 14 May 1625 and was captained by John Powell. The first 
settlement began some time later on 17 February 1627, near what is now Holetown 
(formerly Jamestown). J The group was led by John Powell's younger brother, Henry, who 
arrived with 80 settlers and 10 slaves — these first ten slaves were among the sometimes 
kidnapped and other times runaway English or Irish youth. This settlement established as a 
proprietary colony and was funded by Sir William Courten, a London merchant who owned 
the title to Barbados and several other islands. Thus, the first colonists were actually tenants 
and the profits of their labour returned to Courten and his company. 




James Hay (Lord 
Carlisle), made 
Lord Proprietor 
of Barbadoes by 
King Charles I 
on 2 July 1627. 



Courten would later lose this title to James Hay, 1st Earl of Carlisle in what was called the "Great Barbados 
Robbery." Carlisle then chose as governor Henry Hawley. It was he who established the House of Assembly in 
1639, in an effort to appease the planters who might otherwise oppose his controversial appointment. 

In the period 1640-60 the West Indies attracted over two thirds of English emigrants to the New World. By 1650 
there were 44,000 Anglo settlers in the West Indies, as compared to 12,000 on the Chesapeake and 23,000 in 
New England. Most Anglo emigrants arrived as indentured servants. After five years of labour, they were given 
'freedom dues' of about £10, usually in goods. (Before the mid-1630s, they also received 5 to 10 acres of land 
but after that time the island filled up and there was no free land.) Around the time of Cromwell a number of 
rebels and criminals were also transported. The death rate was very high (Parish registers from the 1650s show, 
for the white population, four times as many deaths as marriages.) 

Before this the main stay of the infant colony's economy was the growth export of tobacco, but tobacco prices 
eventually fell in the 1630s as Chesapeake production expanded. 

1640-1680 f s, 18th century 



England's civil war 

Around the same time fighting during the War of the Three Kingdoms and the Interregnum spilled over into 
Barbados and Barbadian territorial waters. The island was not involved in the war until after the execution of 
Charles I, when the island's government fell under the control of Royalists (ironically the Governor, Philip Bell, 
remained loyal to Parliament while the Barbadian House of Assembly, under the influence of Humphrey 
Walrond, supported Charles II). To try to bring the recalcitrant colony to heel, the Commonwealth Parliament 
passed an act on 3 October 1650 which prohibited trade between England and the island, and because the island 
also traded with the Netherlands, further navigation acts were passed prohibiting any but English vessels trading 
with Dutch colonies. These acts were a precursor to the First Anglo-Dutch War. The Commonwealth of England 
sent an invasion force under the command of Sir George Ayscue which arrived in October 1651. After some 
skirmishing, the Royalists supporters in the Barbados House of Assembly led by Lord Willoughby surrendered. 
The conditions of surrender were incorporated into the Charter of Barbados (Treaty of Oistins), which was 



signed in the Mermaid's Inn, Oistins, on 17 January 1652. 



[4] 



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Sugar cultivation 

The introduction of sugarcane from Dutch Brazil completely transformed society and the economy. Barbados 

eventually had one of the world's biggest sugar industries after starting sugar cane cultivation in 1640. J One 
group which was instrumental for ensuring the early success of the sugar cane industry were the Sephardic Jews, 

who originally been expelled from the Iberian peninsula to end up in Dutch Brazil. J As the effects of the new 
crop increased, so did the shift in the ethnic composition of Barbados and surrounding islands. The workable 
sugar plantation required a large investment and a great deal of heavy labour. At first, Dutch traders supplied the 
equipment, financing, and African slaves, in addition to transporting most of the sugar to Europe. In 1644 the 
population of Barbados was estimated at 30,000, of this amount about 800 were of African decent, with the 
remainder mainly of white Anglo descent. These white Anglo smallholders were eventually bought out and the 
island was filled up with large African slave- worked sugar plantations. By 1660 there was near parity with 
27,000 blacks and 26,000 whites. By 1666 at least 12,000 white smallholders had been bought out, died, left or 
the island. Many of the remaining whites were increasingly poor. By 1680 there were seventeen slaves for every 
indentured servant. By 1700, there were 15,000 free whites and 50,000 enslaved blacks. 

Due to the increased implementation of slave codes, which created differential treatment between Africans and 
the white workers and ruling planter class, the island became increasingly unattractive to poor whites. Black or 
slave codes were implemented in 1661, 1676, 1682, and 1688. In response to these codes, several slave 
rebellions were attempted or planned during this time, but none succeeded. Nevertheless, poor whites who had 
or acquired the means to emigrate often did so. Planters expanded their importation of African slaves to cultivate 
sugar cane. 

By 1660, Barbados generated more trade than all the other English colonies combined. This remained until it was 
eventually surpassed by geographically larger islands like Jamaica in 1713. Even though, in 1730-31 the 

estimated value of the colony of Barbados was as much as £5,500,000. J Bridgetown, the capital, was one of 
the three largest cities in British America (the other two were Boston, Massachusetts and Port Royal, Jamaica.) 
By 1700 the English West Indies produced 25,000 tons of sugar, compared to 20,000 for Brazil, 10,000 for the 
French islands and 4,000 for the Dutch islands. J This quickly replaced tobacco plantations on the islands which 
were previously the main export. 

As the sugar industry developed into its main commercial enterprise, Barbados was divided into large plantation 
estates that replaced the smallholdings of the early English settlers. In 1680 over half the arable land was held by 
175 large planters who held at least 60 slaves. The great planters had connections with the English aristocracy 
and great influence on Parliament. (In 1668 the West Indian sugar crop sold for £180,000 after customs of 
£18,000. Chesapeake tobacco earned £50,000 after customs of £75,000). So much land was devoted to sugar 
that most food had to be imported from New England. The poorer whites that were squeezed off the island went 
to the British Leeward Islands or, especially, Jamaica. In 1670 the Province of South Carolina was founded with 
surplus persons leaving Barbados. Other nations benefiting from large numbers of Barbadians include: British 
Guiana, as well as Panama. 

1800s (decade)-1920s 

The British abolished the slave trade in 1807 but not the institution itself. In 1816, slaves rose up in the largest 
major slave rebellion in the island's history. Twenty thousand slaves from over 70 plantations rebelled. They 
drove whites off the plantations, but widespread killings did not take place. This was later termed "Bussa's 
Rebellion" after the slave ranger, Bussa, who with his assistants hated slavery, found the treatment of slaves on 
Barbados to be "intolerable", and believed the political climate in the UK made the time ripe to peacefully 
negotiate with planters for freedom (Davis, p. 211; Northrup, p. 191). Bussa's Rebellion failed. One hundred and 



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twenty slaves died in combat or were immediately executed; another 144 were brought to trial and executed; 
remaining rebels were shipped off the island (Davis, pp. 212-213). 

Slavery was finally abolished in the British Empire 18 years later in 1834. In Barbados and the rest of the British 
West Indian colonies, full emancipation from slavery was preceded by an apprenticeship period that lasted four 
years. 

In 1884, the Barbados Agricultural Society sent a letter to Sir Francis 
Hincks requesting his private and public views on whether the Dominion 
of Canada would favourably entertain having the then colony of 
Barbados admitted as a member of the Canadian Confederation. Asked 
of Canada were the terms of the Canadian side to initiate discussions, and 
whether or not the island of Barbados could depend on the full influence 
of Canada in getting the change agreed to by the United Kingdom. Then 
in 1952 the Barbados Advocate newspaper polled several prominent 
Barbadian politicians, lawyers, businessmen, the Speaker of the Barbados 
House of Assembly and later as first President of the Senate, Sir 
Theodore Branker, Q.C. and found them to be in favour of immediate 
federation of Barbados along with the rest of the British Caribbean with 
complete Dominion Status within five years from the date of inauguration 
of the West Indies Federation with Canada. 

1930s-present 

However, plantation owners and merchants of British descent still 
dominated local politics, owing to the high-income qualification required 
for voting. More than 70% of the population, many of them 
disenfranchised women, were excluded from the democratic process. It 
was not until the 1930s that the descendants of emancipated slaves began 
a movement for political rights. One of the leaders of this movement, Sir 
Grantley Adams, founded the Barbados Labour Party in 1938, then known as the Barbados Progressive League. 

Adams and his party demanded more rights for the poor and for the people, and staunchly supported the 
monarchy. Progress toward a more democratic government in Barbados was made in 1942, when the exclusive 
income qualification was lowered and women were given the right to vote. By 1949 governmental control was 
wrested from the planters and, in 1958, Adams became Premier of Barbados. 

Modern State 

From 1958 to 1962, Barbados was one of the ten members of the West Indies Federation, an organisation 
doomed by nationalistic attitudes and by the fact that its members, as British colonies, held limited legislative 
power. Adams served as its first and only "Premier", but his leadership failed in attempts to form similar unions, 
and his continued defence of the monarchy was used by his opponents as evidence that he was no longer in 
touch with the needs of his country. Errol Walton Barrow, a fervent reformer, became the new people's advocate. 
Barrow had left the BLP and formed the Democratic Labour Party as a liberal alternative to Adams' 
conservative government. Barrow instituted many progressive social programmes, such as free education for all 
Barbadians and the school meals system. By 1961, Barrow had replaced Adams as Premier and the DLP 
controlled the government. 



Statue of Lord Nelson in National 
Heroes Square which predates the 
more famous Nelson's Column by 
some 27 years. 



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With the Federation dissolved, Barbados reverted to its former status, that of a self-governing colony. The island 
negotiated its own independence at a constitutional conference with Britain in June 1966. After years of 
peaceful and democratic progress, Barbados finally became an independent state on 30 November 1966, with 
Errol Barrow its first Prime Minister, although Queen Elizabeth II remained the monarch. Upon independence 
Barbados maintained historical linkages with Britain by establishing membership to the Commonwealth of 
Nations grouping. A year later Barbados' international linkages were expanded by obtaining membership to the 
United Nations and the Organization of American States. 

Sugar cane and slavery 

Main article: Slavery in the British and French Caribbean 

Sugar cane cultivation began in the 1640s, after its introduction in 1637 by Pieter Blower. Initially, rum was 
produced but by 1642, sugar was the focus of the industry. As it developed into the main commercial enterprise, 
Barbados was divided into large plantation estates which replaced the small holdings of the early British settlers 
as the wealthy planters pushed out the poorer. Some of the displaced farmers relocated to British colonies in 
North America, most notably South Carolina. J To work the plantations, black Africans - primarily from West 
Africa - were imported as slaves in such numbers that there were three for every one planter. The slave trade 
ceased in 1807 and slaves were emancipated in 1834. Persecuted Catholics from Ireland also worked the 
plantations. Life expectancy of slaves was short, and replacements were purchased annually. 

Sugar cane dominated Barbados' economic growth, and the island's cash crop was at the top of the sugar industry 
until 1720. 

Increasingly after 1750 the plantations were owned by absentee landlords living in Britain and operated by hired 

[9] 
managers. 1 J 

Roberts (2006) shows that slaves did not spend the majority of time in restricted roles cultivating, harvesting, and 
processing sugarcane, the island's most important cash crop. Rather, slaves involved in various activities and in 
multiple roles: raising livestock, fertilizing soil, growing provisional crops, maintaining plantation infrastructure, 
caregiving, and other tasks. One notable soil management technique was intercropping, planting subsistence 
crops between the rows of cash crops - which demanded of the slaves skilled and experienced observations of 
growing conditions for efficient land use. J 

Political history 

Carrington (1982) examines politics during the American Revolution, revealing that Barbadian political leaders 
shared many of the grievances and goals of the American revolutionaries, but that they were unwilling to go to 
war over them. Nevertheless, the repeated conflicts between the island assembly and the royal governors 
brought important constitutional reforms which confirmed the legislature's control over most local matters and its 
power over the executive. J 

From 1800 until 1885, Barbados then served as the main seat of Government for the former British colonies of 
the Windward Islands. During the period of around 85 years the resident Governor of Barbados also served as 
the Colonial head of the Windward Islands. After the Government of Barbados officially exited from the 
Windward Island union in 1885, the seat was moved from Bridgetown to St. George's on the neighbouring island 
of Grenada, where it remained until the territory of the Windward Islands was dissolved. 

Soon after Barbados' withdrawal from the Windward Islands, Barbados became aware that Tobago was going to 



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be amalgamated with another territory as part of a single state. J In response, Barbados made an official bid to 

the British Government to have neighbouring Island Tobago joined with Barbados as a political union. J The 
British government however decided that Trinidad would be a better fit and Tobago instead was made a Ward of 

TrinidadJ 14 " 15 ] 

African slaves worked on plantations owned by merchants of British descent. It was these merchants who 
continued to dominate politically even after emancipation, due to a high income restriction on voting. Only an 
exclusive 30%, therefore, had any voice in the democratic process. It was not until the 1930s that a movement 
for political rights was begun by the descendants of emancipated slaves, who started trade unions. One of the 
leaders of this movement, Sir Grantley Adams, founded the Barbados Progressive League (now the Barbados 
Labour Party) in 1938. The Great Depression caused mass unemployment and strikes, and the quality of life on 
the island lowered drastically. Adams continued to advocate more for the people, especially the poor. 

Finally, in 1942, the income qualification was lowered. This was followed by the introduction of universal adult 
suffrage in 1951, with Adams elected the Premier of Barbados in 1958. For his actions, Adams would later 
become a National Hero. 

From 1958 to 1962, Barbados was one of the ten members of the West Indies Federation, an organisation 
doomed to failure by a number of factors, including what were often petty nationalistic prejudices and limited 
legislative power. Indeed, Adams' position as "Prime Minister" is a gross misnomer, as all of the Federation 
members were still colonies of Britain. Adams, once a political visionary and now a man blind to the needs of his 
country, not only held fast to his notion of defending the monarchy but also made additional attempts to form 
similarly flawed Federation-like entities after that union's demise. When the Federation was terminated, 
Barbados had reverted to its former status as a self-governing colony, but efforts were made by Adams to form 
another federation composed of Barbados and the Leeward and Windward Islands. 

Errol Walton Barrow was to replace Grantley Adams as the people's advocate and it was he who would 
eventually lead the island into Independence. Barrow, a fervent reformer and once a member of the Barbados 
Labour Party, had left the party to form his own Democratic Labour Party, as the liberal alternative to the 
conservative BLP government under Adams. He remains a National Hero for his work in social reformation, 
including the institution of free education for all Barbadians. In 1961, Barrow supplanted Adams as Premier as 
the DLP took control of the government. 

Due to several years of growing autonomy, Barbados, with Barrow at the helm, was able to successfully 
negotiate its independence at a constitutional conference with the United Kingdom in June 1966. After years of 
peaceful and democratic progress, Barbados finally became an independent state and formally joined the 
Commonwealth of Nations on 30 November 1966, Errol Barrow serving as its first Prime Minister. 

Confederations, and political union proposals 

A number of proposals have been mooted in the past to have Barbados integrated with either neighboring 
countries or once even the Canadian Confederation. To date all have failed, and one proposal even led to deadly 
riots in 1876 when Governor John Pope Hennessy tried to pressure Barbados' politicians to integrate more firmly 
into the Windward Islands. Governor Hennessy was quickly transferred from Barbados by the British Crown 
following the situation. In 1884 attempts were then made by the influential Barbados Agricultural Society to 
have Barbados form a political association with the Canadian Confederation. From 1958-1962 Barbados became 
one of the 10 states of the West Indies Federation. Lastly in the 1990s, a plan was devised by the leaders of 
Guyana, Barbados, and Trinidad and Tobago to form a political association between those three governments. 
Again this deal was never completed, following the loss of Sir Lloyd Erskine Sandiford in the Barbadian general 
elections. 



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See also 



British colonization of the 

Americas 

French colonization of the 

Americas 

History of the Americas 

History of North America 

History of the British West 



Indies 

List of Prime Ministers of 

Barbados 

List of Governors of 

Barbados 

Longitude 

Piracy in the Caribbean 



Politics of Barbados 

Spanish colonization of the 

Americas 

Timeline of Barbadian 

history 

West Indies Federation 



References 

■ <i This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World 
Factbook. 

■ tj This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States 
Department of State (Background Notes). 

■ Hoyes, F. A. 1963. The Rise of West Indian Democracy: The Life and Times of Sir Grantley Adams. 
Advocate Press. 

■ Williams, Eric . 1964. British Historians and the West Indies. P.N.M. Publishing Company, Port-of-Spain. 

■ Scott, Caroline 1999. Insight Guide Barbados. Discovery Channel and Insight Guides; fourth edition, 
Singapore. ISBN 0-88729-033-7 

1. A Peter Drewett, 1993. "Excavations at Heywoods, Barbados, and the Economic Basis of the Suazoid Period in the 
Lesser Antilles", Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society 38:113-137; Scott M. Fitzpatrick, "A 
critical approach to cl4 dating in the Caribbean", Latin American Antiquity, 17 (4), p.389ff. 

2. A A History of Barbados: From Amerindian Settlement to Caribbean Single Market by Hilary McD. Beckles 
(Cambridge University Press, 2007 edition) pp. 1-6 

3. A Beckles p.7 

4. A Karl Watson, The Civil War in Barbados (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution 
/barbados_01.shtml) , British History in-depth , BBC, 5 November 2009 

5. A a Barbados: Just Beyond Your Imagination. Hansib Publishing (Caribbean) Ltd. 1997. pp. 46, 48. 
ISBN 1870518543. 

6. A Sugar and slavery: an economic history of the British West Indies, 1623-1775 By Richard B. Sheridan, p. 144 

7. A Alan Taylor, American Colonies: The Settlement of North America', 2001, discusses Barbados in the context of 
North American settlement 

8. A South Carolina National Heritage Corridor (SCNHC) (http://www.sc-heritagecorridor.org/the_connection/) 

9. A Ragatz, (1931) 

10. A Justin Roberts, "Agriculture on Two Barbadian Sugar Plantations, 1796-97," William and Mary Quarterly 2006 
63(3): 551-586 

11. A S. H Carrington, "West Indian Opposition to British Policy: Barbadian Politics, 1774-82," Journal of Caribbean 
History 1982 (17): 26-49 

12. A [1] (http://hansard.irtillbanksystem 

13. A The Parliament of the United Kingdom c/o Hansard system: MOTION FOR A SELECT COMMHTEE. 
(http://hansard.millbanksystems.eom/commons/l 876/jun/30/motion-for-a-select-committee#column_758) 

14. A The Parliament of the United Kingdom c/o Hansard system: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO BEX.— (No. 195.) 
(http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/lords/1887/aug/02/second-reading) 

15. A The Parliament of the United Kingdom c/o Hansard system: (http://hansard.millbanksysterns.com/lords/1887/jul 
/28/trinidad-and-tobago-bill-hl#S3 V03 1 8P0_1 8870728_HOL_65) 



Further reading 



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Monarchy of Barbados - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http : //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Monarchy_of_B arbados 



Monarchy of Barbados 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

The monarchy of Barbados is a constitutional system of 
government in which a hereditary monarch is the 
sovereign and head of state of Barbados, forming the core 
of the country's Westminster style parliamentary 

democracy. ■"■ ^ The terms Crown in Right of Barbados, 
Her Majesty in Right of Barbados, or The Queen in 
Right of Barbados may also be used to refer to the entire 
executive of the government of Barbados. Though the 
Barbadian Crown has its roots in the British Crown, it has 
evolved over the centuries to become a distinctly 
Barbadian institution, represented by unique symbols. 

The present monarch is Elizabeth II - officially titled 
Queen of Barbados - who has reigned since 6 February 
1952. She, her consort, and other members of the Royal 
Family undertake various public and private functions 
across Barbados and on behalf of the country abroad. 
However, the Queen is the only member of the Royal 
Family with any constitutional role, holding ultimate 
executive authority, though her Royal Prerogative 
remains bound by laws enacted by her in parliament and 
by conventions and precedents, leaving the day-to-day 
exercise of executive power to her Cabinet. While several 
powers are the sovereign's alone, J most of the royal 
constitutional and ceremonial duties in Barbados are 
carried out by the Queen's representative, the Governor- 
General; as such, the Governor-General can sometimes 

be referred to as the head of state 



[4] 



Queen of Barbados 

MONARCHY 




Coat of arms of Barbados 




Incumbent: 
Elizabeth H 



Style: 


Her Majesty 




Heir apparent: 


Charles, Prince of Wales 




First monarch: 


Elizabeth II 




Formation: 


30 November 1966 







The Barbadian government had planned a referendum on 

the future of the monarchy in August 2008, however these plans were delayed indefinitely due to electoral 

concerns and change of government following the 2008 general election. 



Contents 


■ 1 International and domestic aspects 


■ 1.1 Title and style 


■ 1.2 Finance 


■ 1.3 Succession 


■ 2 Personification of the state 


■ 3 Constitutional role 


■ 3.1 Executive (Queen-in-Council) 


■ 3.1.1 Foreign affairs 


■ 3.2 Parliament (Queen-in-Parliament) 



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Monarchy of Barbados - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http : //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Monarchy_of_B arbados 



■ 3.3 Courts (Queen-on 


-the-Bench) 


■ 4 Cultural role 




■ 4.1 Symbols 




■ 5 History 




■ 6 Republicanism 




■ 7 Notes 




■ 8 See also 




■ 9 References 




■ 10 External links 





International and domestic aspects 

Further information: Commonwealth realm: The Crown in the Commonwealth realms 

Barbados, is one the Commonwealth realms, sharing the same person as their respective monarch. Each realm is 
sovereign and independent of the others, J meaning the Barbadian monarchy acts as a separate Kingdom with 
both a separate and yet shared character, and the monarchy has also thus ceased to be an exclusively British 
institution, although it has often been called British since this time (in both legal and common language) for 
reasons historical, political, and of convenience. On all matters of the Barbadian state, the monarch is advised 

solely by Barbadian Ministers of the Crown, J and, effective with the Barbados Independence Order of 1966 
and Statute of Westminster (1931), * no British or other realm government can advise the monarch on any 
matters pertinent to Barbados. 

Title and style 

Further information: List of titles and honours of Queen Elizabeth II 

The shared and domestic aspects of the Crown are also highlighted in the sovereign's Barbadian title, currently 
Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Barbados and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head 
of the Commonwealth. The sovereign's role specifically as Queen of Barbados, as well as her status as monarch 
of other nations, is communicated by mentioning Barbados separately from, but along with, the Queen's other 
lands. Typically, the sovereign is styled Queen of Barbados, and is addressed as such when in Barbados or 
performing duties on behalf of Barbados abroad. 

Finance 

The sovereign only draws from Barbadian coffers for support in the performance of her duties when in Barbados 
or acting as Queen of Barbados abroad; Barbadians do not pay any money to the Queen, either towards personal 
income or to support royal residences outside of Barbados. This applies equally to other members of the Royal 
Family. Normally, tax dollars pay only for the costs associated with the Governor-General in the exercise of the 
powers of the Crown, including travel, security, residences, offices, ceremonies, and the like. 

Succession 

Succession is by male-preference primogeniture governed by the provisions of the Act of Settlement, 1701, and 
the Bill of Rights, 1689. This legislation limits the succession to the natural (i.e. non- adopted), legitimate 
descendants of Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and stipulates that the monarch cannot be a Roman Catholic, nor 



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Monarchy of Barbados - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http : //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Monarchy_of_B arbados 



have married one, and must be in communion with the Church of England upon ascending the throne. Though 
these constitutional laws, as they apply to Barbados, still lie within the control of the British parliament, via 
adopting the Statute of Westminster both the United Kingdom and Barbados agreed not to change the rules of 
succession without the unanimous consent of the other realms, unless explicitly leaving the shared monarchy 

relationship, J a situation that applies symmetrically in all the other realms, and which has been likened to a 



treaty amongst these countries 
Kingdom. 



[9] 



Thus, Barbados' line of succession remains identical to that of the United 




Charles, Prince of Wales, is the 
heir apparent to the Barbadian 
throne. 



Upon a demise of the Crown (the death or abdication of a sovereign) it is 
customary for the accession of the new monarch to be publicly proclaimed by 
the Governor-General. Regardless of any proclamations, the late sovereign's 
heir immediately and automatically succeeds, without any need for 
confirmation or further ceremony; hence arises the phrase "The King is dead. 
Long live the King!" Following an appropriate period of mourning, the monarch 
is also crowned in the United Kingdom, though this ritual is not necessary for a 
sovereign to reign; for example, Edward VIII was never crowned, yet was 
undoubtedly king during his short time on the throne. All incumbent viceroys, 
judges, civil servants, legislators, military officers, etc., are not affected by the 
death of the monarch. After an individual ascends the throne, he or she 
typically continues to reign until death. Monarchs are not allowed to 
unilaterally abdicate; the only monarch to abdicate, Edward VIII, did so before 
Barbados was independent, and, even then, only with the authorization of 
special Acts of Parliament in the Dominions. 

Personification of the state 



Further information: The Crown 

Since the independence of Barbados, the sovereign's role as monarch of Barbados has been recognised and 
promoted as separate to his or her position as monarch of the United Kingdom. J From the beginning of Queen 
Elizabeth II's reign onwards, royal symbols in Barbados were altered or new ones created to make them 
distinctly Barbadian, such as the creation of the Royal Arms of Barbados in 1966 (presented on 14 February that 

year by the Queen to then President of the Senate Sir Grey Massiah), ^ J and Queen's Royal Standard for 
Barbados, created in 1975. J Today the sovereign is regarded as the personification, or legal personality, of the 
Barbadian state. Therefore, the state is referred to as Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Barbados', for example, 
if a lawsuit is filed against the government, the respondent is formally described as Her Majesty the Queen in 
Right of Barbados, or simply Regina. As such, the monarch is the owner of all state lands (called Crown land), 
buildings and equipment (called Crown held property), state owned companies (called Crown Corporations), 
and the copyright for all government publications (called Crown copyright), as well as guardianship of foster 
children (called Crown wards), in his or her position as sovereign, and not as an individual. Government staff are 
also employed by the monarch, as are the Governor-General, judges, members of the Barbados Defence Force, 
police officers, and parliamentarians, who all technically work for the monarch. Hence, many employees of the 
Crown are required by law to recite an oath of allegiance to the monarch before taking their posts, in 
reciprocation to the sovereign's Coronation Oath, wherein he or she promises "to govern the Peoples of ... 

[Barbados] ... according to their respective laws and customs". J The oath required by the Director of Public 
Prosecutions, for example, is: /, [name], do swear that I will well and truly serve Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth 
II, Her Heirs and Successors, in the office of Director of Public Prosecutions. So help me God, while that for 
judges is: /, [name], do swear that I will well and truly serve Our Sovereign Lady Queen Elizabeth II, Her Heirs 
and Successors, in the office of Chief Justice/Judge of the Supreme Court and I will do right to all manner of 



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Monarchy of Barbados - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http : //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Monarchy_of_B arbados 



people after the laws and usages of Barbados without fear or favour, affection or ill will, so help me God} J 

Constitutional role 



Barbados Gov ernmenl Structure 



The Sovereign 



r 






.. - .-I -\- "r---.* ? r .vi 



Ucmhn erf Firkurirfl 






M^.:!:.,-. 



A simplified diagram of the Barbados government 



Barbados' constitution is made up of a variety of statutes and 
conventions that are either British or Barbadian in origin, 
which gives Barbados a similar parliamentary system of 
government to the other Commonwealth realms, wherein the 
role of the Queen and the Governor-General is both legal 
and practical. The Crown is regarded as a corporation, in 
which several parts share the authority of the whole, with the 
Queen as the person at the centre of the constitutional 

construct, J meaning all powers of state are constitutionally 

reposed in the monarch (Section 63 of the Constitution), who 

is represented by the Governor-General - appointed by the 

monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister of Barbados. J Most of the Queen's domestic duties are 

performed by this vice-regal representative. 

All institutions of government are said to act under the sovereign's authority; the vast powers that belong to the 
Crown are collectively known as the Royal Prerogative. Parliamentary approval is not required for the exercise 
of the Royal Prerogative; moreover, the consent of the Crown must be obtained before either of the houses of 
parliament may even debate a bill affecting the sovereign's prerogatives or interests. While the Royal Prerogative 
is extensive, it is not unlimited; for example, the monarch does not have the prerogative to impose and collect 
new taxes - such an action requires the authorization of an Act of Parliament. The government of Barbados is 
also thus formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government. Further, the constitution instructs that any change to 
the position of the monarch, or the monarch's representative in Barbados, requires the consent of two-thirds of 

the all the members of each house of parliament. ^ J 



Executive (Queen-in-Council) 

In Barbados' constitutional system, one of the main duties of the Crown is to appoint a prime minister, J who 
thereafter heads the Cabinet and advises the monarch and Governor-General on how to execute their executive 

powers over all aspects of government operations and foreign affairs, J this requirement is, unlike in other 
Commonwealth realms where it is a matter of convention, constitutionally enshrined in Barbados. * Though the 
monarch's power is still a part of the executive process - the operation of the Cabinet is technically known as the 
Queen-in-Council (or Governor-in-Council) - the advice tendered is typically binding. Since the death of Queen 
Anne in 1714, the last monarch to head the British Cabinet, the monarch reigns but does not rule. This means 
that the monarch's role, and thereby the viceroys' role, is almost entirely symbolic and cultural, acting as a 
symbol of the legal authority under which all governments and agencies operate, while the Cabinet directs the 
use of the Royal Prerogative, which includes the privilege to declare war, maintain the Queen's peace, and direct 
the actions of the Barbados Defence Force, as well as to summon and prorogue parliament, and call elections. 
However, it is important to note that the Royal Prerogative belongs to the Crown, and not to any of the ministers, 

though it may sometimes appear that way, J and the royal figures may unilaterally use these powers in 
exceptional constitutional crisis situations. There are also a few duties which must be specifically performed by, 
or bills that require assent by, the Queen. These include signing the appointment papers of Governors-General, 
the confirmation of awards of Barbadian honours, and the approval of any change in her Barbadian title. 

In accordance with convention, the monarch or Governor-General, to maintain the stability of government, must 



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Monarchy of Barbados - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http : //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Monarchy_of_B arbados 



appoint as prime minister the individual most likely to maintain the support of the House of Assembly: usually 
the leader of the political party with a majority in that house, but also when no party or coalition holds a majority 
(referred to as a minority government situation), or other scenarios in which the Governor-General's judgement 
about the most suitable candidate for prime minister has to be brought into play. The Governor-General also 
appointes to Cabinet the other ministers of the Crown, who are, in turn, accountable to the democratically 
elected House of Assembly, and through it, to the people. The Queen is informed by her viceroy of the 
acceptance of the resignation of a prime minister and the swearing-in of a new prime minister and other members 
of the ministry, and she remains fully briefed through regular communications from her Barbadian ministers, and 
holds audience with them where possible. J 

Members of various executive agencies, and other officials are appointed by the Crown. The commissioning of 
privy councillors, senators, the Speaker of the Senate, Supreme Court justices also falls under the Royal 
Prerogative, though these duties are specifically assigned to the Governor-General by the constitution. J Public 
inquiries are also commissioned by the Crown through a Royal Warrant, and are called Royal Commissions. 

Foreign affairs 

The Royal Prerogative also extends to foreign affairs: the sovereign or Governor-General negotiates and ratifies 
treaties, alliances, and international agreements. As with other uses of the Royal Prerogative, no parliamentary 
approval is required; however, a treaty cannot alter the domestic laws of Barbados; an Act of Parliament is 
necessary in such cases. The Governor-General, on behalf of the Queen, also accredits Barbadian High 
Commissioners and ambassadors, and receives diplomats from foreign states. In addition, the issuance of 
passports falls under the Royal Prerogative, and, as such, all Barbadian passports are issued in the monarch's 
name. 




Parliament (Queen-in-Parliament) 

The sovereign, along with the Senate and the House of Assembly, is one 

of the three components of parliament, J called the Queen- 
in-Parliament. The authority of the Crown therein is embodied in the 
mace, which bears a crown at its apex; unlike other realms, however, the 

Barbados parliament only has a mace for the lower house. J Per the 
constitution, the monarch does not, however, participate in the legislative 
process; the viceroy does, though only in the granting of Royal 
Assent. J Further, the constitution outlines that the Governor-General 
alone is responsible for summoning, proroguing, and dissolving 

parliament, 1 J after which the writs for a general election are usually 
dropped by the Governor-General at Government House. The new 
parliamentary session is marked by the State Opening of Parliament, 

during which either the monarch or the Governor-General reads the Speech from the Throne. As the monarch 
and viceroy cannot enter the House of Assembly, this, as well as the bestowing of Royal Assent, takes place in 
the Senate chamber; Members of Parliament are summoned to these ceremonies from the Commons by the 
Crown's messenger, the Usher of the Black Rod, after he knocks on the doors of the lower house that have been 
slammed closed on him, to symbolise the barring of the monarch from the assembly. 

All laws in Barbados are enacted only with the viceroy's, or sovereign's, granting of Royal Assent; usually done 
by the Governor-General, with the Public Seal. Thus, all bills begin with the phrase "Her Majesty, by virtue and 
in exercise of the powers vested in Her by section 5 of the Barbados Independence Act 1966 and of all other 
powers enabling Her in that behalf, is pleased, by and with the advice of Her Privy Council, to order, and it is 



The Parliament of Barbados, in 
Bridgetown. 



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Monarchy of Barbados - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http : //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Monarchy_of_B arbados 



hereby ordered, as follows..."^ J 
Courts (Queen-on-the-Bench) 

The sovereign is deemed the fount of justice, and is responsible for rendering justice for all subjects, known in 
this role as the Queen on the Bench. However, he or she does not personally rule injudicial cases; instead, 
judicial functions are performed in his or her name. Hence, the common law holds that the sovereign "can do no 
wrong"; the monarch cannot be prosecuted in his or her own courts for criminal offences. Civil lawsuits against 
the Crown in its public capacity (that is, lawsuits against the government) are permitted; however, lawsuits 
against the monarch personally are not cognizable. In international cases, as a sovereign and under established 

principles of international law, the Queen of Barbados is not subject to suit in foreign courts without her express 

T251 
consent. The sovereign, and by extension the Governor-General, also exercises the prerogative of mercy, J and 

may pardon offences against the Crown, either before, during, or after a trial. In addition, the monarch also 

serves as a symbol of the legitimacy of courts of justice, and of their judicial authority. An image of the Queen or 

the Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Barbados is always displayed in Barbadian courtrooms. 

Cultural role 

Symbols 



The main symbol of the monarchy is the sovereign herself. Thus, her 
image appears in portraits in public buildings, and on stamps. ^ J A 
crown is also used to illustrate the monarchy as the locus of authority, 
appearing on police force and Barbados Defence Force regimental and 
maritime badges and rank insignia, as well as Barbadian honours, the 
system of such created through Letters Patent issued by Queen Elizabeth 

II in July 1980. * The Queen's Personal Barbadian Flag is the symbol of 
the monarch. Second in precedence is the personal flag of the Governor- 
General. 




The Queen's Personal Barbadian Flag. 



History 

The current Barbadian monarchy can trace its ancestral lineage back to the Anglo-Saxon period, and ultimately 
back to the kings of the Angles and the early Scottish kings. The Crown in Barbados has grown over the 
centuries since the Barbados was claimed under King James VI of Scotland and I of England in 1625, though not 
colonised until 1627, when, in the name of King Charles I, Governor Charles Wolferstone established the first 
settlement on the island. J By the 18th century, Barbados became one of the main seats of British authority in 
the British West Indies, and then, after attempting in 1958 a federation with other West Indian colonies, similar 
to that of fellow Commonwealth realms Canada and Australia, continued as a self-governing colony under the 
Colonial Office, until independence came with the signing of the Barbados Independence Order by Queen 
Elizabeth II. 

In the same year, Elizabeth's cousin, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, opened the second session of the first 

parliament of the newly established country,^ J before the Queen herself, along with her husband, Prince Philip, 

Duke of Edinburgh, toured Barbados, opening Barclays Park, J in Saint Andrew, amongst other events. 
Elizabeth returned for her Silver Jubilee in 1977, after addressing the new session of parliament, she departed on 

the Concorde, which was the Queen's first supersonic flight. J She also was in Barbados in 1989, to mark the 



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Monarchy of Barbados - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http : //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Monarchy_of_B arbados 



350th anniversary of the establishment of the Barbados parliament, where she sat to receive addresses from both 
houses.™ 2 * 

Republicanism 



Main article: Republicanism in Barbados 



[30] 



The former Prime Minister Owen Arthur called for a referendum on becoming a republic to be held in 2005 
It was subsequently pushed back to "at least 2006" in order to speed up Barbados' integration into the 

CARICOM Single Market and Economy; it was assumed the referendum would be held in 2007, J but it was 
announced on 26 November 2007 that the referendum would be held in 2008 together with the general 
election.^ J On 2 December 2007, reports emerged that this vote was put off due to concerns raised by the 

Electoral and Boundaries Commission. J Following the election, David Thompson replaced Arthur as prime 
minister. 



Notes 



Burleigh, Craig (2008) "Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee in Barbados ends with her first flight on 
Concorde on a record setting flight back to London Heathrow." (http://www.burleighphoto.com/pages 
/stk-qe77/qe2.htm) http://www.burleighphoto.com/pages/stk-qe77/qe2.htm. Retrieved 16 January 2010 
"Queen and Barbados: Royal visits" (http://www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchAndCommonwealth 
/TheQueenandBarbados/Royalvisits.aspx) 01 2010 http://www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchAndCommonwealth 
/TheQueenandBarbados/Royalvisits.aspx. Retrieved 16 January 2010 



Videos 



Diamond Jubilee Celebration for Queen Elizabeth II (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MleudteaZdo) 
on YouTube, Visits to Barbados by the Royal Family over the decades, By the Barbados Government 
Information Service (Esther Jones) 



See also 



Prime Ministers of Queen Elizabeth II 

List of Commonwealth visits made by Queen Elizabeth II 

Monarchies in the Americas 

List of monarchies 

List of current state leaders by date of assumption of office 



References 



2. 



A Caribbean Court of Justice: Barbados 

(http://www.caribbeancourtofjustice.org 

/flags%20of%20caricom/flag%20meanings 

/barbados.html) 

A a c Commonwealth Secretariat: Barbados: 

C onstitution (http ://www. thecommonwealth. org 

/YearbookInternal/138236/constitution/) 



3. A Constitution of Barbados: EXECUTIVE POWER 



(Chapter 6), Section 63. Section 63 of the 
Constitution says that "the executive authority of 
Barbados shall be vested in Her Majesty the Queen" 

4. A The Barbados Parliament: Heads of State 
(http://www.barbadosparliament.com 
/heads_of_state.php) 

5. A The English Court of Appeal ruled in 1982, while 
"there is only one person who is the Sovereign within 



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Belize - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belize 



Belize 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

Belize 4 ' / ba 1 1 i : z / (formerly British Honduras) is a country 
located on the north eastern coast of Central America. Belize 
has a diverse society, comprising many cultures and 
languages. Belize is the only country in Central America 
where English is the official language. Kriol and Spanish are 
more commonly spoken. Belize is bordered to the north by 
Mexico, south and west by Guatemala, and to the east by the 
Caribbean Sea. Belize's mainland is about 290 kilometres 
(180 mi) long and 110 kilometres (68 mi) wide. 

With 22,960 square kilometres (8,860 sq mi) of land and a 
population of only 333,200 inhabitants (2010 est.), [4] Belize 
possesses the lowest population density in Central America. J 
The country's population growth rate of 2.21% (2008 est.), ^ 
however, is the highest in the region and one of the highest in 
the western hemisphere. Belize's abundance of terrestrial and 
marine species, and its diversity of ecosystems give it a key 
place within the globally significant Mesoamerican Biological 
Corridor. [6] 

Belize is culturally unique among its Central American 
neighbours; it is the only nation in the region with a British 
colonial heritage. As a part of the Western Caribbean Zone, 
however, it also shares a common heritage with the Caribbean 
portions of other Central American countries. In general, 
Belize is considered to be a Central American nation with 
strong ties to both the Caribbean and Latin America. Belize is 
a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the 
Community of Latin American and Caribbean States 
(CELAC), and Sistema de la Integracion Centroamericana 
(SICA). 



Coordinates: 17°4'N88 42'W 



Contents 




■ 1 Etymology 




■ 2 History 




■ 2.1 Early history 




■ 2.2 Battle of St. George's 


Caye 


■ 2.3 As part of the British 


Empire 


■ 2.4 Independence 




■ 3 Geography 




■ 3.1 Climate 




■ 3.2 Vegetation 




■ 3.2.1 Forests and deforestation 



Belize 





Coat of arms 



Motto: "Sub Umbra Floreo" (Latin) 

'1 Flourish in the Shade" 



Anthem: Land of the Free 
Royal anthem: God Save the Queen 




Capital 
Largest city 



Belmopan 

17°15TSf88°46'W 

Belize City 



Official language(s) 

Recognised 
regional languages 



English 

Kriol, Spanish, Garifuna, 
Maya, Plautdietsch 



Ethnic groups 



34% Mestizo 
25% Kriol 
15% Spanish 
11% Maya 
6% Garifuna 
9% Others 



Demonym 



Belizean (c /b^\\iz\Bn/ 
or /ba'liigan/)) 



Government 



- Monarch 

- Governor-General 

- Prime Minister 



Parliamentary democracy 
and Constitutional 
monarchy 

Elizabeth H 

Sir Colville Young 

Dean Barrow 



Independence 



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Belize - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belize 



■ 3.3 Geology, mineral potential, and energy 

4 Economy 

■ 4.1 Banking 

■ 4.2 Industrial Infrastructure 

■ 4.3 Tourism 

5 Education 

6 Politics 

7 Districts and constituencies 

8 Armed Forces 

9 Demographics 

■ 9.1 Population and housing 

■ 9.2 Maya and early settlers 

■ 9.3 Kriols 

■ 9.4 Garinagu 

■ 9.5 Mestizos and Spanish 

■ 9.6 Other groups 

■ 9.7 Emigration, immigration, and demographic 
shifts 

10 Language 

11 Religion 

12 Culture 

■ 12.1 Cuisine 

■ 12.2 Sports 

■ 12.3 Folklore 

■ 12.4 Holidays 

13 National Symbols 

■ 13.1 Black Orchid 

■ 13.2 Mahogany Tree 

■ 13.3 Keel Billed Toucan 

■ 13.4 Tapir 

14 National heroes 

15 See also 

16 References 

17 Further reading 

1 8 External links 



- from the United 
Kingdom 


21 September 1981 


Area 

- Total 

- Water (%) 


22,966 km 2 (150th) 

8,867 sqmi 

0.7 


Population 

- 2010 estimate 

- Density 


333,200 [1] (174th) 

15/km 2 (198th 2 ) 
38/sqmi 


GDP (PPP) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2010 estimate 
$2,651 billion [2] 
$7,895 [2] 


GDP (nominal) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2010 estimate 
$1,396 billion [2] 

$4,158 [2] 


HDI(2010) 


A0.694 [3] (high) (78th) 


Currency 


Belize dollar (bzd) 


Time zone 


CST (UTC-6) 


Drives on the 


right 


ISO 3166 code 


BZ 


Internet TLD 


.taz 


Calling code 


501 


1 These ranks are based on 


the 2007 figures. 



Etymology 

The origin of the name Belize is unclear, but one idea is that the name is from the native Maya word belix, 
meaning "muddy water", applied to the Belize River. Others have suggested that it is derived from a Spanish 

pronunciation of the name of the Scottish buccaneer Peter Wallace, which was applied to an early settlement 

T71 
along the Belize River and to the river itself. J Belize has a sizeable proportion of Africans from the ancient 

Kingdom of Kongo, who could have brought the name with them, as there is a Belize in Angola as well. 

History 

Main article: History of Belize 



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Early history 

Main article: Pre-Columbian Belize 

The Maya civilization spread itself over the area which is today Belize 
beginning in around 1500 BC and flourished there until about A.D. 800. 
The recorded history of the centre and south is dominated by Caracol, 
where the inscriptions on their monuments were, as elsewhere, in the 

Lowland Maya aristocratic tongue Classic Ch'olti'an. J North of the 
Maya Mountains, the inscriptional language at Lamanai was Yucatecan 
as of A.D. 625. [9] 



, , 


^ — ,»- 


SS^l 


Izoyr.^ 


u — *<- * i 


J *-^~ , 




■ 




"El Castillo" at Xunantunich 



In the late classic period of Maya civilisation (before A.D. 1000), as 

many as 400,000 people may have lived in the area that is now Belize. Some lowland Maya still occupied the 
area when Europeans arrived in the 16th century. By then the primary inhabitants were the Mopan branch of the 
Yucatec Maya. 

Spanish colonists tried to settle the inland areas of Belize, but Maya rebellions and attacks forced them to 
abandon these efforts. 

English and Scottish buccaneers known as the Baymen first settled on the coast of Belize in 1638, seeking a 
sheltered region from which they could attack Spanish ships (see English settlement in Belize). The settlers 
turned to cutting logwood during the 18th century. The wood yielded a fixing agent for clothing dyes that was 
vital to the European woollen industry. The Spanish granted the British settlers the right to occupy the area and 
cut logwood in exchange for an end to piracy. J 

Battle of St. George's Caye 

Main article: Battle of St. George's Caye 

The Battle of St. George's Caye was a short military engagement that lasted from 3-10 September 1798, 
undertaken off the coast of what is now Belize. The name, however, is typically reserved for the final battle that 
occurred on 10 September. The British first appointed a superintendent over the Belize area in 1786. Prior to that 
time, the British government did not initially recognize the settlement in Belize as a colony for fear of provoking 
a Spanish attack. The delay in government oversight allowed the settlers to establish their own laws and forms of 
government. During this time a few wealthy settlers gained control of the local legislature, known as the Public 
Meeting, as well as of most of the settlement's land and timber. 

The battle took place between an invading force from what would become Mexico, attempting to wrest Belize 
for Spain, and a small force of resident woodcutters called Baymen, who fought for their livelihood assisted by 
black slaves. 

The Spanish repeatedly tried to gain control over Belize by force, but were unsuccessful. Spain's last effort 
occurred on 10 September 1798, when the British repelled the Spanish fleet in a short engagement with no 
known casualties on either side known as the Battle of St. George's Caye. The anniversary of the battle is now a 
national holiday in Belize. 

As part of the British Empire 

In the early 19th century, the British sought greater control over the settlers, threatening to suspend the Public 



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feg^l 


|gg^ 






9 




H^£ 










Flag of British Honduras 



Meeting unless it observed the government's instructions to eliminate 
slavery in whole. Slavery was abolished in the British Empire in 1838, 
but this did little to change working conditions for labourers in the Belize 
settlement. Slaves of the colony were valued for their potentially superior 
abilities in the work of mahogany extraction. As a result, former slave 
owners in British Honduras earned £53.69 on average per slave, the 
highest amount paid in any British territory. J 

Soon after, a series of institutions were put in place to ensure the 
continued presence of a viable labour force. Some of these greatly restricted the ability of individuals to obtain 
land, in a debt-peonage system to organise the newly "free." The position of being "extra special" mahogany and 
logwood cutters undergirded the early ascriptions of the capacities (and consequently the limitations) of people 
of African descent in the colony. Because a small elite controlled the settlement's land and commerce, former 

slaves had no choice but to continue to work in timber cutting. J 

In 1836, after the emancipation of Central America from Spanish rule, the British claimed the right to administer 
the region. In 1862, Great Britain formally declared it a British Crown Colony, subordinate to Jamaica, and 

named it British Honduras. * As a colony, Belize began to attract British investors. Among the British firms 
that dominated the colony in the late 19th century was the Belize Estate and Produce Company, which 
eventually acquired half of all the privately held land in the colony. Belize Estate's influence accounts in part for 
the colony's reliance on the mahogany trade throughout the rest of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th 
century. 




The Great Depression of the 1930s caused a near-collapse of the colonial economy as British demand for timber 
plummeted. The effects of widespread unemployment were worsened by a devastating hurricane that struck the 
colony in 1931. Perceptions of the government's relief effort as inadequate were aggravated by its refusal to 
legalize labour unions or introduce a minimum wage. Demonstrations and riots in 1934 marked the beginning of 
an independence movement. In response, the government repealed criminal penalties for workers who violated 
the terms of their labour contracts regarding unions and granted workers the right to join unions. 

Economic conditions improved during World War II (1939-1945) when many Belizean men entered the armed 
forces or otherwise contributed labour to the war effort. Following the war, the colony's economy again 
stagnated due to the pressures caused by its damaging effect. Britain's decision to devalue the British Honduras 
dollar in 1949 worsened economic conditions and led to the creation of the People's Committee, which 
demanded independence. The People's Committee's successor, the People's United Party (PUP), sought 
constitutional reforms that would expand voting rights to all adults. 

Independence 

Constitutional reforms were initiated in 1954 and resulted in a new constitution ten years later. Britain granted 



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British Honduras self-government in 1964, and the head of the PUP — independence leader George Price — 
became the colony's prime minister. British Honduras was officially renamed Belize in 1973. Progress toward 
independence, however, was hampered by a Guatemalan claim to sovereignty over the territory of Belize. When 
Belize finally attained full independence on 21 September 1981, Guatemala refused to recognise the new nation. 
About 1,500 British troops remained to protect Belize from the Guatemalan threat. 

With Price at the helm, the PUP won all elections until 1984. In that election, the first national election after 
independence, the PUP was defeated by the United Democratic Party (UDP), and UDP leader Manuel Esquivel 
replaced Price as prime minister. Price returned to power after elections in 1989. Guatemala's president formally 
recognised Belize's independence in 1992. The following year the United Kingdom announced that it would end 
its military involvement in Belize. British soldiers were withdrawn in 1994, but the United Kingdom left behind a 
military training unit to assist with the newly formed Belize Defence Force. 

The UDP regained power in the 1993 national election, and Esquivel became prime minister for a second time. 
Soon afterwards Esquivel announced the suspension of a pact reached with Guatemala during Price's tenure, 
claiming Price had made too many concessions in order to gain Guatemalan recognition. The pact may have 
curtailed the 130-year-old border dispute between the two countries. Border tensions continued into the early 
2000s, although the two countries cooperated in other areas. 

The PUP won a landslide victory in the 1998 national elections, and PUP leader Said Musa was sworn in as 
prime minister. In the 2003 elections the PUP maintained its majority, and Musa continued as prime minister. He 
pledged to improve conditions in the underdeveloped and largely inaccessible southern part of Belize. 

In 2005, Belize was the site of unrest caused by discontent with the People's United Party government, including 
tax increases in the national budget. On 8 February 2008, Dean Barrow was sworn in as prime minister after his 
UDP won a landslide victory in general elections. 

Throughout Belize's history, Guatemala has claimed ownership of all or part of the territory. This claim is 
occasionally reflected in maps showing Belize as Guatemala's twenty-third department. As of February 2012, the 
border dispute with Guatemala remains unresolved and quite contentious. ^ ^ J Guatemala's claim to 
Belizean territory rests, in part, on the terms Clause VII of the Anglo-Guatemalan Treaty of 1859 which 
(supposedly) obligated the British to build a road between Belize City and Guatemala. At various times the issue 
has required mediation by the United Kingdom, Caribbean Community heads of Government, the Organization 
of American States, Mexico, and the United States. Notably, both Guatemala and Belize are participating in 
confidence-building measures approved by the OAS, including the Guatemala-Belize Language Exchange 

Project. [16] 

Since independence, a British garrison has been retained in Belize at the request of the Belizean government 
including, at times, Harrier jets. 



Geography 



Main article: Geography of Belize 

Belize is located on the Caribbean coast of northern Central America. It shares a border on the north with the 
Mexican state of Quintana Roo, on the west with the Guatemalan department of Peten, and on the south with 
the Guatemalan department of Izabal. To the east in the Caribbean Sea, the second-longest barrier reef in the 
world flanks much of the 386 kilometres (240 mi) of predominantly marshy coastline. The area of the country 
totals 22,960 square kilometres (8,865 sq mi), an area slightly larger than El Salvador or Massachusetts. The 
abundance of lagoons along the coasts and in the northern interior reduces the actual land area to 21,400 square 



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kilometres (8,263 sq mi). 

Belize is shaped like a rectangle that extends about 280 kilometres 
(174 mi) north-south and about 100 kilometres (62 mi) east- west, with a 
total land boundary length of 516 kilometres (321 mi). The undulating 
courses of two rivers, the Hondo and the Sarstoon River, define much of 
the course of the country's northern and southern boundaries. The 
western border follows no natural features and runs north-south through 
lowland forest and highland plateau. The north of Belize consists mostly 
of flat, swampy coastal plains, in places heavily forested. The flora is 
highly diverse considering the small geographical area. The south 
contains the low mountain range of the Maya Mountains. The highest 
point in Belize is Doyle's Delight at 1,124 m (3,688 ft). [17] 

The Caribbean coast is lined with a coral reef and some 450 islets and 
islands known locally as cayes (pronounced "keys"). They total about 
690 square kilometres (266 sq mi), and form the approximately 
320-kilometre (199 mi) long Belize Barrier Reef, the longest in the 
Western Hemisphere and the second longest in the world after the Great 
Barrier Reef. Three of merely four coral atolls in the Western 
Hemisphere are located off the coast of Belize. 

Belize's rugged geography has also made the country's coastline and 
jungle attractive to drug smugglers, who use the country as a gateway 
into Mexico. [18] In 2011, the United States added Belize to the list of 

nations considered major drug producers or transit countries for 

ri9i 
narcotics. 1 J 

Climate 

Main article: Climate of Belize 

Belize has a tropical climate with pronounced wet and dry seasons, 
although there are significant variations in weather patterns by region. 
Temperatures vary according to elevation, proximity to the coast, and the 
moderating effects of the northeast trade winds off the Caribbean. 
Average temperatures in the coastal regions range from 24 °C (75.2 °F) in 
January to 27 °C (80.6 °F) in July. Temperatures are slightly higher 
inland, except for the southern highland plateaus, such as the Mountain 
Pine Ridge, where it is noticeably cooler year round. Overall, the seasons 
are marked more by differences in humidity and rainfall than in temperature. 

Average rainfall varies considerably, ranging from 1,350 mm (53.1 in) in the north and west to over 4,500 mm 
(177.2 in) in the extreme south. Seasonal differences in rainfall are greatest in the northern and central regions of 
the country where, between January and April or May, fewer than 100 mm (3.9 in) of rain fall per month. The 
dry season is shorter in the south, normally only lasting from February to April. A shorter, less rainy period, 
known locally as the "little dry," usually occurs in late July or August, after the initial onset of the rainy season. 

Hurricanes have played key — and devastating — roles in Belizean history. In 1931 an unnamed hurricane 
destroyed over two-thirds of the buildings in Belize City and killed more than 1,000 people. In 1955 Hurricane 




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Janet levelled the northern town of Corozal. Only six years later, Hurricane 
Hattie struck the central coastal area of the country, with winds in excess of 
300 km/h (186 mph) and 4 m (13.1 ft) storm tides. The devastation of Belize City 
for the second time in thirty years prompted the relocation of the capital some 80 
kilometres (50 mi) inland to the planned city of Belmopan. Hurricane Greta 
caused more than US$25 million in damages along the southern coast in 1978. On 
9 October 2001, Hurricane Iris made landfall at Monkey River Town as a 
145 mph (233 km/h) Category Four storm. The storm demolished most of the 
homes in the village, and destroyed the banana crop. In 2007 Hurricane Dean 
made landfall as a Category 5 storm only 25 miles north of the Belize/Mexico 
border. Dean caused extensive damage in northern Belize. 

The most recent hurricane to affect Belize directly was the Category 2 Hurricane 
Richard, making landfall approximately 20 miles south-southeast of Belize City 

at around 0045 UTC on 25 October 2010. J The storm moved inland towards 
Belmopan, causing estimated damage of BZ$33.8 million ($17.4 million 

2010 USD), primarily from damage to crops and housing. J 







^| 


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Big Rock Falls in the Cayo 
District 



Vegetation 

While over 60% of Belize's land surface is covered by forest, J recent studies indicate that some 20% of the 
country's land is covered by cultivated land (agriculture) and human settlements. J Savannah, scrubland and 
wetland constitute the remainder of Belize's land cover. Important mangrove ecosystems are also represented 
across Belize's landscape. ^ J As a part of the globally significant Mesoamerican Biological Corridor which 
stretches from southern Mexico to Panama, Belize's biodiversity - both marine and terrestrial - is rich, with 
abundant flora and fauna. Belize is also a leader where it comes to protecting its biodiversity and natural 

resources. Recent (July 2010) information^ J from the Association of Protected Areas Management 
Organizations of Belize (APAMO) (http://www.apamo.net) indicates that some 36% of Belize's land territory 
falls under some form of official protected status, giving Belize one of the most extensive systems of terrestrial 
protected areas in the Americas. Nearby Costa Rica, by contrast, only has 25.8% of its land territory 
protected. J Some 13% of Belize's territorial waters - home to the Belize Barrier Reef System - are also 
protected. The Belize Barrier Reef System both constitutes a UNESCO-recognised World Heritage Site and the 
second largest barrier reef in the world, second only to Australia's Great Barrier Reef. 

Forests and deforestation 

A remote sensing study conducted by the Water Center for the Humid Tropics of Latin America and the 
Caribbean (CATHALAC) (http://www.cathalac.org) and NASA (http://www.nasa.gov) , in collaboration with the 
Forest Department and the Land Information Centre (LIC) of the Government of Belize's Ministry of Natural 
Resources and the Environment (MNRE), and published in August 2010 revealed that Belize's forest cover in 

early 2010 was approximately 62.7%, down from 75.9% in late 1980. J A similar study^ J by Belize Tropical 
Forest Studies (http://biological-diversity.info/deforestation.htm) and Conservation International revealed similar 
trends in terms of Belize's forest cover. Both studies indicate that each year, 0.6% of Belize's forest cover is lost, 
translating to the clearing of an average of 24,835 acres (10,050 ha) each year. The USAID 
(http://www.usaid.gov) -supported SERVIR (http://www.servir.net) study by CATHALAC, NASA, and the 
MNRE also showed that Belize's protected areas have been extremely effective in protecting the country's 
forests. While only some 6.4% of forests inside of legally declared protected areas were cleared between 1980 
and 2010, over a quarter of forests outside of protected areas had been lost between 1980 and 2010. As a 



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country with a relatively high forest cover and a low deforestation rate, Belize has significant potential for 
participation in initiatives such as REDD. Significantly, the SERVIR (http://www.servir.net) study 
(http://www.servir.net/servir_bz_forest_cover_1980-2010.pdf) on Belize's deforestation was also recognised by 
the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO) (http://www.earthobservations.org) , of which Belize 
is a member nation. J 

Geology, mineral potential, and energy 

Although a number of economically important minerals exist in Belize, none have been found in quantities large 
enough to warrant their mining. These minerals include dolomite, barite (source of barium), bauxite (source of 
aluminium), cassiterite (source of tin), and gold. In 1990 limestone, used in road-building, was the only mineral 
resource being exploited for either domestic or export use. 

The similarity of Belizean geology to that of oil-producing areas of Mexico and Guatemala prompted oil 
companies, principally from the United States, to explore for petroleum at both offshore and on-land sites in the 
early 1980s. Initial results were promising, but the pace of exploration slowed later in the decade, and production 
operations had been halted. As a result, Belize remains almost totally dependent on imported petroleum for its 
energy needs. In 2006, the cultivation of newly discovered crude oil in the town of Spanish Lookout has 

presented new prospects and problems for this developing nation. J The country also possess considerable 
potential for hydroelectric and other renewable energy resources, such as solar and biomass. In the mid-1980s, 
one Belizean businessman even proposed the construction of a wood-burning power station for the production of 
electricity, but the idea foundered in the wake of ecological concerns and economic constraints. 

Economy 

Main article: Economy of Belize 

Belize has a small, essentially private enterprise economy that is based primarily on agriculture, agro-based 
industry, and merchandising, with tourism and construction recently assuming greater importance. In 2006, the 
exploitation of a newly discovered crude oil field near the town of Spanish Lookout has presented new prospects 
and problems for this developing nation.^ J It has yet to be seen if significant economic expansion will be made 

by this. To date, oil production equal 3,000 bbl/d (480 m 3 /d) (2007 est.) and oil exports equal 1,960 bbl/d 

3 T311 

(312 m /d) (2006 est.). The country is a producer of industrial minerals. J Sugar, the chief crop, accounts for 

nearly half of exports, while the banana industry is the country's largest employer. J 

The new government faces important challenges to economic stability. Rapid action to improve tax collection 
has been promised, but a lack of progress in reining in spending could bring the exchange rate under pressure. 
The tourist and construction sectors strengthened in early 1999, leading to a preliminary estimate of revived 
growth at 4%. Infrastructure continues to be a major challenge for the economic development of Belize. J 

Belize has the most expensive electricity in the region. Trade is important and the major trading partners are the 

T321 
United States, Mexico, the European Union, and Central America. J 

Banking 

Belize has five commercial banks, of which the largest and oldest is Belize Bank. The other four banks are 
Heritage Bank, Atlantic Bank, FirstCaribbean International Bank, and Scotiabank (Belize). 

Industrial Infrastructure 



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The largest integrated electric utility and the principal distributor in Belize is BEL, an integrated electric utility 
and distributor. BEL is approximately 70% owned by Fortis Inc., a Canadian investor-owned distribution utility. 
Fortis took over the management of BEL in 1999, at the invitation of the Government of Belize in an attempt to 
mitigate prior financial problems within the locally managed utility. In addition to its regulated investment in 
BEL, Fortis owns Belize Electric Company Limited ("BECOL"), a non-regulated hydroelectric generation 
business that operates three hydroelectric generating facilities on the Macal River in Belize. 

In 2008 the Public Utilities Commission of Belize issued an order that has had a significant negative impact on 
the financial condition and operations of BEL. The order effectively disallowed the recovery of costs via 
customer rates and set rates at a level that does not allow BEL to earn a reasonable return. This has led to a 
deterioration of facilities and service. BEL appealed the rate order, but the court dismissed BEL's application, 
finding that various accepted concepts of good management shall not be applicable in Belize. BEL appealed this 
judgment to the Court of Appeal; however, a hearing is not expected until 2012. In May 2011, the Supreme 
Court of Belize granted BEL's application to prevent the PUC from taking any enforcement action against BEL 
pending the appeal. BEL has been in default of financial covenants under its long-term lending agreements since 
2008. [33] 

The government of Belize on Tuesday the 14TH of June 2011, nationalized the majority ownership interest of 
Fortis Inc. in Belize Electricity Ltd. The Belize utility encountered serious financial problems after the country's 
Public Utilities Commission in 2008 disallowed "the recovery of previously incurred fuel and purchased power 
costs in customer rates and set customer rates at a level that does not allow BEL to earn a fair and reasonable 
return," Fortis said in a statement released earlier this month. Fortis held approximately a 70 percent stake in 
Belize Electricity Ltd., which represents less than 2 percent of Fortis assets. The Belize Chamber of Commerce 
& Industry issued, a statement saying the government acted in haste and expressed concern over the 
nationalization and the message it sends to investors. In August 2009, the Government of Belize nationalized 
Belize Telemedia Limited, and the government owed entity now competes directly with Speednet. As a result of 
the nationalization process, the interconnection agreements are again subject to negotiations. 

Both BTL and Speednet boast a full range of products and services including basic telephone services, national 
and international calls, prepaid services, cellular services via GSM 1900 megahertz (Mhz) and 3G Code Division 
Multiple Access (CDMA) 2000 respectively, international cellular roaming, fixed wireless, dial-up and internet, 
high-speed DSL, internet service, and national and international data networks. 

[34] [35] 

Tourism 

Main article: Tourism in Belize 

A combination of natural factors — climate, the Belize Barrier Reef, over 1,000 offshore Cayes (islands), 
excellent fishing, safe waters for boating, scuba diving, and snorkeling, numerous rivers for rafting, and 
kayaking, various jungle and wildlife reserves of fauna and flora, for hiking, bird watching, and helicopter 
touring, as well as many Maya ruins — support the thriving tourism and ecotourism industry. Of the hundreds of 
cave systems, it also has the largest cave system in Central America. Development costs are high, but the 
Government of Belize has designated tourism as its second development priority after agriculture. In 2007, 
tourist arrivals totalled 251,655 (with more than 210,000 from the U.S.) and tourist receipts amounted to 
$183.3 million. 



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■ 












The Maya pyramid 
"Caana" at Caracol, 
Cayo District, still the 
highest man-made 
structure in Belize 



San Pedro Beach in 
Ambergris Caye 



The Great Blue Hole, 
located near Ambergris 
Caye, Belize 



Panoramic view of the 
Mountain Pine Ridge 
Forest Reserve's 
numerous mountains 





..ft j3 

Jr. 




"1,000 ft. Falls" in the 
Cayo District of Belize, 
the highest in Central 
America 



Half Moon Caye, Belize High Temple, Lamanai, 

Belize 



Cucumber Beach at the 
Old Belize Adventure 
Cultural and Historical 
Center at Mile 4, Belize 
City, Belize 



■ 


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The "Crystal Maiden" 
Mayan sacrifice taken 
from within the cave 
Actun Tunichil Muknal 



Caves Branch Cave 
System. Belize 
possesses the most 
extensive Cave system 
in all of Central 
America 



The St. John's 
Cathedral, Belize City, 
the oldest Anglican 
Church in Central 
America or the 
Caribbean 



A Glover's Reef Caye. 
Belize possesses well 
over 1,000 off shore 
cayes. 



Education 



Main article: Education in Belize 



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School children in San Ignacio. 



There are a number of kindergartens and secondary and tertiary schools in 
Belize. They provide quality education for students which is mostly funded 
by the government. Belize possess about 5 tertiary level institutions offering 
associates, bachelors, and undergraduate degrees. The biggest university is 
the University of Belize. The university has 6 campuses throughout the 
country and it offers accounting, management, education, science, 
agriculture and other degrees. 

Politics 



Main article: Politics of Belize 

Belize is a parliamentary democracy, a Commonwealth realm, and therefore a member of the Commonwealth of 
Nations. 

The structure of government is based on the British parliamentary system, and the legal system is modelled on 
the Common Law of England. The head of state is Elizabeth II, Queen of Belize. Since the Queen resides in the 
United Kingdom, she is represented in Belize by the Governor-General. However, the cabinet, led by the Prime 
Minister of Belize, who is head of government, acting as advisors to the Governor-General, in practice exercise 
executive authority. Cabinet ministers are members of the majority political party in parliament and usually hold 
elected seats within it concurrent with their cabinet positions. 

The bicameral National Assembly of Belize is composed of a House of Representatives and a Senate. The 31 
members of the House are popularly elected to a maximum five-year term and introduce legislation affecting the 
development of Belize. The Governor-General appoints the 12 members of the Senate, with a Senate president 
selected by the members. The Senate is responsible for debating and approving bills passed by the House. 

Belize is a full participating member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the Central American 
Integration System (SICA), The United Nations, and the Organization of American States. It is still in the process 
of acceding to Caricom and SICA treaties, including trade and single market treaties. 

Districts and constituencies 



Belize is divided into 6 districts, shown below with their areas (in sq.km) and populations at 
the 2010 Census: 

1. Belize District 4,204 - 89,247 

2. Cayo District 5,338 - 73,202 

3. Corozal District 1,860 - 40,324 

4. Orange Walk District 4,737 - 45,419 

5. Stann Creek District 2,176 - 32,166 

6. Toledo District 4,649 - 30,538 

Total areas and populations 22,964 - 312,971 

source: Central Statistical Office, Belize. 

These districts are further divided into 31 constituencies. 




Districts of 
Belize 



The principal municipalities at the 2010 Census were Belize City (53,532), Belmopan (13,654), Orange Walk 



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Town (13,400), San Pedro (11,510), San Ignacio (9,925), Corozal Town (9,871), Dangriga (9,096), Santa Elena 
(7,052), Benque Viejo (5,824) and Punta Gorda (5,205). 

Armed Forces 



Main article: Military of Belize 

The Belize Defence Force (BDF) is the Military of Belize, and is responsible for protecting the sovereignty of 
Belize. The BDF, along with the Belize National Coast Guard, and the Immigration Department, is a department 
of the Ministry of Defence and Immigration, which is headed by Carlos Perdomo; the BDF itself is commanded 
by Brigadier General Dario Tapia. In 1997, the regular army numbered over 900, the reserve army 381, the air 
wing 45 and the maritime wing 36, amounting to an overall strength of approximately 1400. J In 2005, the 
maritime wing became part of the Belizean Coast Guard. J In the same year, the government spent $1.2 million 
on the military, constituting 1.87% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). 



[38] 



After Belize achieved independence in 1981 the United Kingdom maintained a deterrent force in the country to 
protect it from invasion by Guatemala (see Guatemalan claim to Belizean territory). The main British force left 
in 1994, three years after Guatemala recognised Belizean independence, but the United Kingdom maintains a 
training presence via the British Army Training and Support Unit Belize (BATSUB) and 25 Flight Army Air 



Corps. 



[36] 



Ethnic group 


Population 


% of total* 


Mestizos 


121,275 


34% 


Kriols 


98,695 


25% 


Spanish 


59,153 


15% 


Maya 


37,819 


11% 


Garifuna 


29,909 


6% 


Others 


31,335 


9% 


* Percentage of total Belize 


an population 





Demographics 

Main articles: Demographics of Belize and Belizean people 

Colonisation, slavery, and immigration have 
played major roles in affecting the ethnic 
composition of the population and as a result, 
Belize is a country with numerous cultures, 
languages, and ethnic groups. ^ ^ J The 
country's population is currently estimated to be a 
little over 333,000. ^ Mestizos comprise about 
34% of the population, Kriols 25%, Spanish 15%, 

Maya 11%, and Garinagu 6%. [42] 
Population and housing 

According to the 2010 Housing and Population Census, the total population of Belize is 312,971. The total 
number of households in Belize was 79,598 and the average household size was 3.9. The homeless population 
amounted to 118 in total, of whom 113 were males and 5 were females. The institutional population were 
discovered to number 1,957; 1,665 being male and 292 being female. The total population in urban Belize was 
139,069; 68,020 males and 71,049 females. There were 39,104 total urban households in 2010, with an average 
household size of 3.6. The total population in rural Belize was 171,827; 88,261 males and 83,566 females. There 
40,494 total rural households in 2010, with an average household size of 4.2. 

Maya and early settlers 

The Maya are thought to have been in Belize and the Yucatan region since the second millennium BC; however, 



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much of Belize's original Maya population was wiped out by disease and 
conflicts between tribes and with Europeans. Three Maya groups now inhabit the 
country: The Yucatec (who came from Yucatan, Mexico to escape the Caste War 
of the 1840s), the Mopan (indigenous to Belize but were forced out by the 
British; they returned from Guatemala to evade slavery in the 19th century), and 
Kekchi (also fled from slavery in Guatemala in the 19th century V The later 
groups are chiefly found in the Toledo District. 

White, initially Spanish conquistadors explored and declared the land a Spanish 
colony but chose not to settle due to the lack of resources such as gold and the 
strong defence of the Yucatan by the Maya. Later English and Scottish settlers 
and pirates known as the "Baymen" entered the area in the 16th and 17th 
century respectively and established a logwood trade colony in what would 

become the Belize District. J 
Kriols 



Main article: Belizean Kriol people 

Kriols make up roughly 25% of the Belizean population and about 75% 

percent of the Diaspora. J They are descendants of the Baymen slave 
owners, and slaves brought to Belize for the purpose of the logging 

industry. J These slaves were mostly Black (many also of Miskito 
ancestry) from Nicaragua and born Africans who had spent very brief 
periods in Jamaica. J Bay Islanders and more Jamaicans came in the 
late- 19th century, further adding these all ready varied peoples, creating 
this ethnic group. 




Two Kekchi Maya children. 
The Maya predominate in the 
Toledo District of Belize. 




Boys of various ethnicities on a boat in 
Mango Creek 



For all intents and purposes, Kriol is an ethnic and linguistic 

denomination, but some natives, even those blonde and blue-eyed, may 

call themselves Kriol, defining it as more a cultural attribute and not limited to physical appearance. J Kriol 

was historically only spoken by them, but this ethnicity has become synonymous with the Belizean national 

identity, and as a result it is now spoken by about 75% of Belizeans. ^ J Kriols are found all over Belize, but 

predominantly in urban areas such as Belize City, coastal towns and villages, and in the Belize River Valley. 



Garinagu 

Main article: Garifuna people 

The Garinagu (singular Garifuna) are a mix of African, Arawak, and Carib ancestry.^ J More precisely, the 
average Garifuna is 76% Sub Saharan African, 20% Arawak/Carib and 4% European. J 

Throughout history they have been incorrectly labelled as Black Caribs. When the British took over Saint 
Vincent after the Treaty of Paris in 1763, they were opposed by French settlers and their Carib allies. The Caribs 
eventually surrendered to the British in 1796. The British separated the more African-looking Caribs from the 
more indigenous looking ones. 5,000 Garinagu were exiled, but only about 2,500 of them survived the voyage to 
Roatan, an island off the coast of Honduras. 

Because Roatan was too small and infertile to support their population, the Garinagu petitioned the Spanish 



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authorities of Honduras to be allowed to settle on the mainland coast. The Spanish employed them as soldiers, 
and they spread along the Caribbean coast of Central America. The Garinagu settled in Seine Bight, Punta Gorda 
and Punta Negra, Belize by way of Honduras as early as 1802. However, in Belize 19 November 1832 is the date 
officially recognised as "Garifuna Settlement Day" in Dangriga. J 

Mestizos and Spanish 

Around the 1840s, Mestizo, Spanish, and Yucatec settlers from Mexico began to settle in the north due to the 

Caste War of Yucatan. ^ J Currently, the Mestizos are the largest ethnic group in Belize, making up 34% of 
the population in 2000, and Spanish make up 15%. They predominate in the Corozal, Orange Walk, and much of 

the Cayo district, as well as San Pedro town in Ambergris Caye. J 

The Mestizo culture was originated from a mixture of Spanish and Maya. The Mestizo towns of Belize have 
much more in common with neighbouring Yucatan and most of Guatemala and Central America than central, 
southern or coastal Belize. Towns centre on a main square, and social life focuses on the Catholic Church built 

on one side of it. Most Mestizos and Spanish speak Spanish, English and Kriol fluently. J 



Other groups 

The remaining 9% is a mix of Mennonite farmers, Indians, Chinese, 
whites from the United States and Canada, and many other foreign 
groups brought to assist the country's development. During the 1860s, a 
large influx of East Indians who spent brief periods in Jamaica and 
American Civil War veterans from Louisiana and other Southern states 
established Confederate settlements in British Honduras and introduced 
commercial sugar cane production to the colony, establishing 11 
settlements in the interior. The 20th century saw the arrival of more 
Asian settlers from mainland China, South Korea, India, Syria, and 
Lebanon. Central American immigrants and expatriate Americans and 
Africans also began to settle in the country. J 

Emigration, immigration, and demographic shifts 




Mennonite children selling peanuts 
near Lamanai in Belize. Roughly 
10,000 German-speaking Mennonites 
live in Belize, farming the land and 
living according to their religious 
beliefs. 



Kriols and other ethnic groups are emigrating mostly to the United States, 

but also to the United Kingdom and other developed nations for better 

opportunities. Based on the latest U.S. Census, the number of Belizeans 

in the United States is approximately 160,000 (including 70,000 legal residents and naturalised citizens), 

consisting mainly of Kriols and Garinagu. J 

Due to conflicts in neighbouring Central American nations, Mestizo refugees from El Salvador, Guatemala, and 
Honduras have fled to Belize in significant numbers during the 1980s, and have been significantly adding to this 

group. J These two events have been changing the demographics of the nation for the last 30 years. J 

According to estimates by the CIA in 2009, Belize's total fertility rate currently stands at approximately 3.6 
children per woman. Its birth rate is 27.33 births/1,000 population, and the death rate is 5.8 deaths/1,000 
population.^ J 



Language 



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Main article: Languages of Belize 

English is the official language of Belize, a former British colony. English is the primary language of public 
education. Spanish is spoken as a native tongue by 50 % of the population and is taught in school. Most 
Belizeans speak some Spanish, but almost all speak Kriol and English. Bilingualism is very common and 
encouraged. 

Religion 

Main article: Religion in Belize 

Religious freedom is guaranteed in Belize. Nearly 80% of the inhabitants are Christian, with 49.6% of Belizeans 

being Roman Catholics and 29% Protestants. J Foreign Catholics frequently visit the country for special 

processions. The Greek Orthodox Church has a presence in Santa Elena. J Jehovah's Witnesses have 
experienced a significant increase in membership in recent years. According to the Witnesses, around 3% of the 

population attended at least one religious meeting in 2007. J The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 

claims 3,300 members in the country^ ^ 

Non-Christian minorities include: Hinduism, followed by most Indian immigrants, and Islam, common among 
Middle Eastern immigrants and has gained a following among some Kriols. 

Culture 



Main article: Culture of Belize 
See also: Music of Belize 

Cuisine 

Main article: Cuisine of Belize 

Belizean cuisine is inspired by British, Mexican and Western Caribbean 
cooking. The basic ingredients are rice and beans, which are often eaten 
with chicken, pork, veal, fish or vegetables. Coconut milk and fried 
plantains are added to the dishes to create a truly tropical taste. Exotic 
ingredients include armadillo meat, venison and fried paca (called Gibnut 
in Kriol). Conch soup is a traditional dish which has a characteristic taste 
and thick consistency due to added okra, potatoes, yams, cassava flour 
and a touch of toasted habanero. Immigration has brought Garifuna 
dishes based on fish and plantains, and among the best known are Hudut, 
Darasa, Ereba, and Bundiga. Belizean food is almost always 
accompanied by white rice in coconut milk. 

Sports 

Main article: Sport in Belize 




"The Bliss Center" in Belize City 




Garifuna performance at the Bliss 
Center in Belize City 



The major sports in Belize are football, basketball, volleyball and cycling, with smaller folio wings of boat racing, 
track & field, softball and cricket. Fishing is also popular in areas of Belize. The Cross Country Cycling Classic, 



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also known as the "cross country" race or the Holy Saturday Cross Country Cycling Classic, is considered to be 
one of the most important Belize sports events. This one-day sports event is meant for amateur cyclists but has 
also gained a worldwide popularity. 

This cycling event in Belize has seven rider categories based on rider rating, age, and gender. Action-packed and 
thrilling, this most interesting sporting event allows for the participation of tourists and visitors alike from all over 
the world. The cycling routes offer views across the resplendent greenery of the forest areas and the meandering 
rivers. This makes the event even more popular among the tourists. 

The history of Cross Country Cycling Classic in Belize dates back to the period when Monrad Metzgen picked 
up the idea from a small village on the Northern highway. The people from this village used to cover long 
distances on their bicycles to attend the weekly game of cricket. He improvised on this observation and added 
thrill by sowing the idea of a sporting event in the difficult terrain of western highways, which were then poorly 
built. 

On Easter day, citizens of Dangriga participate in a yearly fishing tournament. First, second, and third prize are 
awarded based on a scoring combination of size, species, and number. The tournament is broadcast over local 
radio stations, and prize money is awarded to the winners. 

Belize's National Basketball Team is the only National Team that has achieved major victories internationally. 
During the 1998 Caricom Men's Basketball Championship, held at the Civic Center in Belize City. Belize went 
on to win the championship and proceeded to participate in the 1999 Centrobasquet Tournament in Havana. The 
National Team finished seventh of eight teams after winning only 1 game despite playing close all the way. In a 
return engagement at the 2000 CARICOM championship in Barbados, Belize placed fourth. Shortly thereafter, 
Belize moved to the Central American region and won the Central American Games championship in 2001. The 
team has failed to duplicate this success, most recently finishing with a 2 and 4 record in the 2006 COCAB A 
championship. The team finished second in the 2009 COCABA tournament in Cancun, Mexico where it went 
3-0 in group play. Belize won its opening match in the Centrobasquet Tournament, 2010, defeating Trinidad and 
Tobago, but lost badly to Mexico in a rematch of the COCABA final. A tough win over Cuba set Belize in 
position to advance, but they fell to Puerto Rico in their final match and failed to qualify. 

Folklore 

In their folklore, we find the legends of Lang Bobi Suzi, La Llorona, Cadejo, La Sucia, Luguchu Ellis, Tata 
Duende, Chatona, X'tabai, and Anansi. 

Holidays 

The following holidays are observed in Belize. J 



Date 


English Name 


Remarks 


1 January 


New Year's Day 




9 March 


Baron Bliss Day 


Henry Edward Ernest Victor Bliss, commonly known as Baron Bliss 
(16 February 1869 - 9 March 1926), was a British-born traveller who 
willed some two million U.S. dollars to a trust fund for the benefit of the 
citizens of what was then the colony of British Honduras, now Belize. 


variable 


Easter 


Good Friday and Easter Sunday (both Christian days marking the death 
and resurrection of Jesus Christ respectively) are both public holidays. 
When holidays fall on a Sunday, the Monday is given as a public 



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holiday. Therefore "Easter Monday", the Monday following Easter 
Sunday, is a public holiday. In Dangriga, Easter marks the community's 
annual fishing tournament, which is broadcast via local radio and offers 
prize money to the first, second, and third place. 


1 May 


Labour Day 


Address by the Minister of Labour or a representative, followed by 
parades and rallies held throughout the country. Kite contests, cycle 
races, harbour regatta, and horse races are also held. 


24 May 


Commonwealth Day 


Celebrated nationwide as the Queen's birthday. National Sports Council 
holds horse races in Belize City at the National Stadium and in Orange 
Walk Town at the People's Stadium. Cycle races are held between Cayo 
and Belmopan. The three-day Toledo Cacao Festival is held in the 
Toledo District over the Commonwealth Day Holiday Weekend. 


First Monday 
in July 


CARICOM Day 


Celebrated Throughout the Caricom region. Not celebrated in Belize as 
a holiday. 


10 September 


St. George's Caye Day 


The Battle of St. George's Caye was a short military engagement that 
lasted from 3 to 10 September 1798, fought off the coast of what is now 
Belize. However, the name is typically reserved for the final battle that 
occurred on 10 September. 


21 September 


Independence Day 


The day Belize declared independence from the United Kingdom in 
1981. 


12 October 


Pan American Day 


Celebrated mainly in Orange Walk, Cayo and Corozal where the 
Mestizo culture is predominant. Fiestas and beauty contests are held to 
celebrate Mestizo culture. Horse and cycle races countrywide. Tourism 
Week: Activities include silent and Dutch auction, grand vacation raffle 
drawing and fair. 


19 November 


Garifuna Settlement 
Day 


Festivals, parades, and re-enactments, marking the first arrival of the 
Garifuna in 1832 in Dangriga. The annual Battle of the Drums 
competition is held in Punta Gorda Town on the Saturday preceding 
Garifuna Settlement Day. 


25 December Christmas 


The Christian celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ. 


26 December Boxing Day 


A Commonwealth gift-giving traditional holiday. 



National Symbols 

Black Orchid 

Further information: Prosthechea cochleata 

The National Flower of Belize is the Black Orchid {Prosthechea cochleata), also 

T571 
known as Encyclia cochleata)} J 

Mahogany Tree 

The National Tree of Belize is the Mahogany Tree (Swietenia macrophylla), one 
of the magnificent giants of the Belize rain forest. Rising straight and tall to over 
a hundred feet from great buttresses at the roots, it emerges above the canopy of the surrounding trees with a 




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crown of large, shining green leaves. In the early months of the year, when the leaves fall and new red-brown 
growth appears, the tree can be spotted from a great distance. The tree puts out a great flush of small whitish 
flowers - the blossom for dark fruits, which are pear-shaped capsules about six inches long. When the fruits 
mature they split into five valves, freeing large winged seeds which are carried away by the wind. They fall on 
the shaded protection of the forest floor and germinate to begin a new life cycle. The mahogany tree matures in 
60 to 80 years. 

British settlers exploited the Belizean forest for mahogany, beginning around the middle of the 17th century. It 
was originally exported to the United Kingdom in the form of squared logs, but shipments now consist mainly of 

sawn lumber. The motto "Sub Umbra Florero" means: Under the shade (of the mahogany tree) I flourish. J 
Keel Billed Toucan 



The Keel Billed Toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus) is the National Bird of Belize. It 
is noted for its great, canoe-shaped bill and its brightly coloured green, blue, red 
and orange feathers. Toucans are found in open areas of the country with large 
trees. It is mostly black with bright yellow cheeks and chest, red under the tail 
and a distinctive white patch at the base of the tail.They make a monotonous 
frog-like croak. Toucans like fruits, and eat by cutting with the serrated edge of 
their bills. Toucans nest in holes in trees, using natural holes or holes made by 
woodpeckers, often enlarging the cavity by removing soft, rotten wood. They lay 
two to four eggs which are incubated by both parents. The nesting stage lasts 
from six to seven weeks. 

Tapir 



_^ 


m 


+A 

M 






Pst 51 






The Keel Billed Toucan 



Belize's National Animal is the Baird's Tapir, the largest land mammal of the American tropics. It is also known 
as the mountain cow, although it is actually related to the horse and the rhinoceros. It is protected under Belizean 
law. 

National heroes 

The three people who have received Belize's highest honours, Order of National Hero and Order of Belize, are: 

■ Phillip Goldson 

■ Monrad Metzgen 

■ George Cadle Price 

See also 

■ Outline of Belize 

■ Index of Belize-related articles 

■ The Forgotten District - A Documentary on Maya ecotourism in southern Belize 

■ List of Belizeans 

■ List of international rankings 



References 



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History of Belize 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

The history of Belize dates back thousands of years. The Maya civilization spread into the area of Belize 
between 1500 BC and AD 200 and flourished until about AD 1200. Several major archeological sites — notably 
Cahal Pech, Caracol, Lamanai, Lubaantun, Altun Ha, and Xunantunich — reflect the advanced civilization and 
much denser population of that period. The first recorded European settlement was established by shipwrecked 
English seamen in 1638. Over the next 150 years, more English settlements were established. This period also 
was marked by piracy, indiscriminate logging, and sporadic attacks by pre-America natives and neighboring 
Spanish settlements. J 

Great Britain first sent an official representative to the area in the late 18th century, but Belize was not formally 
termed the "Colony of British Honduras" until 1840. It became a crown colony in 1862. Subsequently, several 
constitutional changes were enacted to expand representative government. Full internal self-government under a 
ministerial system was granted in January 1964. The official name of the territory was changed from British 

Honduras to Belize in June 1973, and full independence was granted on September 21, 1981. J 



Contents 


■ 1 Ancient Maya civilization 


■ 2 Conquest and early colonial period 


■ 2.1 Pre-Columbian Mayan societies and the conquest 


■ 2.2 Colonial rivalry between Spain and Britain 


■ 2.3 Beginnings of self-government and the plantocracy 


■ 2.4 Slavery in the settlement, 1794-1838 


■ 2.5 Emigration of the Garifuna 


■ 2.6 Constitutional developments, 1850-62 


■ 3 British Honduras (1862-1981) 


■ 3.1 Mayan emigration and conflict 


■ 3.2 Formal establishment of the colony, 1862-71 


■ 3.3 The colonial order, 1871-1931 


■ 3.4 Genesis of modern politics, 1931-54 


■ 3.5 Decolonization and the border dispute with Guatemala 


■ 4 Independent Belize 


■ 5 See also 


■ 6 References 



Ancient Maya civilization 

Main article: Pre-Columbian Belize 

The Maya civilization emerged at least three millennia ago in the lowland area of the Yucatan Peninsula and the 
highlands to the south, in what is now southeastern Mexico, Guatemala, western Honduras, and Belize. Many 
aspects of this culture persist in the area despite nearly 500 years of European domination. Prior to about 2500 
B.C., some hunting and foraging bands settled in small farming villages; they later domesticated crops such as 
corn, beans, squash, and chili peppers. A profusion of languages and subcultures developed within the Mayan 



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core culture. Between about 2500 B.C. and A.D. 250, the basic 

institutions of Mayan civilization emerged. The peak of this civilization 

T21 
occurred during the classic period, which began about A.D. 250. J The 

recorded history of the center and south is dominated by Caracol, where 
the inscriptions on their monuments was, as elsewhere, in the Lowland 
Maya aristocratic tongue Classic Ch'olti'an.^ ^ North of the Maya 
Mountains, the inscriptional language at Lamanai was Yucatecan as of 
625 CE} J The last date recorded in Ch'olti'an within Belizean borders is 
859 CE in Caracol, stele 10. Yucatec civilisation, in Lamanai, lasted 
longer. 

Farmers engaged in various types of agriculture, including labor-intensive irrigated and ridged-field systems and 
shifting slash-and-burn agriculture. Their products fed the civilization's craft specialists, merchants, warriors, and 
priest-astronomers, who coordinated agricultural and other seasonal activities with a cycle of rituals in 
ceremonial centers. These priests, who observed the movements of the sun, moon, planets, and stars, developed 
a complex mathematical and calendrical system to coordinate various cycles of time and to record specific 
events on carved stelae. The Maya were skilled at making pottery, carving jade, knapping flint, and making 
elaborate costumes of feathers. The architecture of Mayan civilization included temples and palatial residences 
organized in groups around plazas. These structures were built of cut stone, covered with stucco, and elaborately 
decorated and painted. Stylized carvings and paintings, along with sculptured stelae and geometric patterns on 

buildings, constitute a highly developed style of art. J 

Belize boasts important sites of the earliest Mayan settlements, majestic 

ruins of the classic period, and examples of late postclassic ceremonial 

construction. About five kilometers west of Orange Walk, is Cuello, a site 

from perhaps as early as 2,500 B.C. Jars, bowls, and other dishes found 

there are among the oldest pottery unearthed in present-day Mexico and 

Central America. Cerros, a site on Chetumal Bay, was a flourishing trade 

and ceremonial center between about 300 B.C. and A.D. 100. One of the 

finest carved jade objects of Mayan civilization, the head of what is 

usually taken to be the sun god Kinich Ahau, was found in a tomb at the 

classic period site of Altun Ha, thirty kilometers northwest of present-day 

Belize City. Other Mayan centers located in Belize include Xunantunich 

and Baking Pot in Cayo District, Lubaantiin and Nimli Punit in Toledo District, and Lamanai on Hill Bank 

Lagoon in Orange Walk District. J 




Maya temple at Altun Ha 



In the late classic period, probably at least 400,000 people inhabited the Belize area. People settled almost every 
part of the country worth cultivating, as well as the cay and coastal swamp regions. But in the 10th century, 
Mayan society suffered a severe breakdown. Construction of public buildings ceased, the administrative centers 
lost power, and the population declined as social and economic systems lost their coherence. Some people 
continued to occupy, or perhaps reoccupied, sites such as Altun Ha, Xunantunich, and Lamanai. Still, these sites 
ceased being splendid ceremonial and civic centers. The decline of Mayan civilization is still not fully explained. 
Rather than identifying the collapse as the result of a single factor, many archaeologists now believe that the 

decline of the Maya was a result of many complex factors and that the decline occurred at different times in 

T21 
different regions. J 

Conquest and early colonial period 

Main article: History of Belize (1502-1862) 



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[2] 



Pre-Columbian Mayan societies and the conquest 

Many Maya were still in Belize when the Europeans came in the 16th and 17th centuries. Archaeological and 
ethnohistorical research confirms that several groups of Mayan peoples lived in the area now known as Belize in 
the 16th century. The political geography of that period does not coincide with present-day boundaries, so 

several Mayan provinces lay across the frontiers of modern Belize, Mexico, and Guatemala. 

Spain soon sent expeditions to Guatemala and Honduras, and the conquest of 
Yucatan began in 1527. Though the Maya offered stiff resistance to Spanish 
"pacification", diseases contracted from the Spanish devastated the indigenous 
population and weakened its ability to resist conquest. In the 17th century, 
Spanish missionaries established churches in Mayan settlements with the 
intention of converting and controlling these people. J 

Piracy along the coast increased during this period. In 1642, and again in 1648, 
pirates sacked Salamanca de Bacalar, the seat of Spanish government in southern 
Yucatan. The abandonment of Bacalar ended Spanish control over the Mayan 

provinces of Chetumal and Dzuluinicob. J 







Christopher Columbus 
traveled to the Gulf of 
Honduras during his fourth 
voyage in 1502. 



Between 1638 and 1695, the Maya living in the area of Tipu enjoyed autonomy 

from Spanish rule. But in 1696, Spanish soldiers used Tipu as a base from which 

they pacified the area and supported missionary activities. In 1697 the Spanish 

conquered the Itza, and in 1707, the Spanish forcibly resettled the inhabitants of Tipu to the area near Lago 

Peten Itza. The political center of the Mayan province of Dzuluinicob ceased to exist at the time that British 

T21 
colonists were becoming increasingly interested in settling the area. J 

Colonial rivalry between Spain and Britain 

In the 16th and 17th centuries, Spain tried to maintain a monopoly on trade and colonization in its New World 
colonies, but northern European powers were increasingly attracted to the region by the potential for trade and 
settlement. These powers resorted to smuggling, piracy, and war in their efforts to challenge and then destroy 
Spain's monopoly. In the 17th century, the Dutch, English, and French encroached on Spain's New World 
possessions. J 

Early in the 17th century, in southeastern Mexico and on the Yucatan Peninsula, English buccaneers began 
cutting logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum), which was used in the production of a textile dye. According 
to legend, one of these buccaneers, Peter Wallace, called "Ballis" by the Spanish, settled near and gave his name 
to the Belize River as early as 1638. English buccaneers began using the coastline as a base from which to attack 
Spanish ships. Buccaneers stopped plundering Spanish logwood ships and started cutting their own wood in the 
1650s and 1660s. Logwood extraction then became the main reason for the English settlement for more than a 
century. A 1667 treaty, in which the European powers agreed to suppress piracy, encouraged the shift from 
buccaneering to cutting logwood and led to more permanent settlement. J 

Conflict continued between Britain and Spain over the right of the British to cut logwood and to settle in the 

T21 
region. In 1717 Spain expelled British logwood cutters from the Bay of Campeche west of the Yucatan. J 

During the 18th century, the Spanish attacked the British settlers repeatedly. The Spanish never settled in the 

region, however, and the British always returned to expand their trade and settlement. The 1763 Treaty of Paris 

conceded to Britain the right to cut logwood but asserted Spanish sovereignty over the territory. When war broke 

out again in 1779, the British settlement was abandoned until the Treaty of Versailles in 1783 allowed the British 



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to again cut logwood in the area. By that time, however, the logwood trade had declined and Honduras 
Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) had become the chief export. J 

Beginnings of self-government and the plantocracy 

The British were reluctant to set up any formal government for the settlement for fear of provoking the Spanish. 
On their own initiative, settlers had begun electing magistrates to establish common law as early as 1738. In 1765 
these regulations were codified and expanded into Burnaby's Code. When the settlers began returning to the area 
in 1784, Colonel Edward Marcus Despard was named superintendent to oversee the Settlement of Belize in the 
Bay of Honduras. The 1786 Convention of London allowed the British settlers to cut and export timber but not 
to build fortifications, establish any form of government, or develop plantation agriculture. Spain retained 
sovereignty over the area. J 

The last Spanish attack on the British settlement, the Battle of St. George's Caye, occurred two years after the 
outbreak of war in 1796. The British drove off the Spanish, thwarting Spain's last attempt to control the territory 

or dislodge other settlers. J 

Despite treaties banning local government and plantation agriculture, both activities flourished. In the late 18th 
century, an oligarchy of relatively wealthy settlers controlled the political economy of the British settlement. 
These settlers claimed about four-fifths of the available land; owned about half of all slaves; controlled imports, 
exports, and the wholesale and retail trades; and determined taxation. A group of magistrates, whom they elected 
from among themselves, had executive as well as judicial functions. The landowners resisted any challenge to 
their growing political power. J 

Slavery in the settlement, 1794-1838 

The earliest reference to African slaves in the British settlement appeared in a 1724 Spanish missionary's 
account, which stated that the British recently had been importing them from Jamaica, Bermuda, and other 
Central American British Colonies. A century later, the total slave population numbered about 2,300. Most 
slaves were born in Africa, and many slaves at first maintained African ethnic identifications and cultural 

practices. Gradually, however, slaves assimilated and a new, synthetic Kriol culture was formed. J 

Slavery in the settlement was associated with the extraction of timber, because treaties forbade the production of 
plantation crops. Settlers needed only one or two slaves to cut logwood, but as the trade shifted to mahogany in 
the last quarter of the 18th century, the settlers needed more money, land, and slaves for larger- scale operations. 
Other slaves worked as domestic helpers, sailors, blacksmiths, nurses, and bakers. The slaves' experience, though 
different from that on plantations in other colonies in the region, was nevertheless oppressive. They were 
frequently the objects of "extreme inhumanity," as a report published in 1820 stated. In the 18th century, many 
slaves escaped to Yucatan, and in the early 19th century a steady flow of runaways went to Guatemala and down 
the coast to Honduras. J 

One way the settler minority maintained its control was by dividing the slaves from the growing population of 
free Kriol people who were given limited privileges. Though some Kriols were legally free, their economic 
activities and voting rights were restricted. Privileges, however, led many free blacks to stress their loyalty and 

acculturation to British ways. J 

The act to abolish slavery throughout the British colonies, passed in 1833, was intended to avoid drastic social 
changes by effecting emancipation over a five-year transition period, by implementing a system of 
"apprenticeship" calculated to extend masters' control over the former slaves, and by compensating former slave 



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owners for their loss of property. After 1838, the masters of the settlement continued to control the country for 
over a century by denying access to land and by limiting freedmen's economic freedom. J 

Emigration of the Garifuna 

At the same time that the settlement was grappling with the ramifications of the end of slavery, a new ethnic 
group — the Garifuna — appeared. In the early 19th century, the Garifuna, descendants of Carib peoples of the 
Lesser Antilles and of Africans who had escaped from slavery, arrived in the settlement. The Garifuna had 
resisted British and French colonialism in the Lesser Antilles until they were defeated by the British in 1796. 
After putting down a violent Garifuna rebellion on Saint Vincent, the British moved between 1,700 and 5,000 of 
the Garifuna across the Caribbean to the Bay Islands (present-day Islas de la Bahia) off the north coast of 
Honduras. From there they migrated to the Caribbean coasts of Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, and the 
southern part of present-day Belize. By 1802 about 150 Garifuna had settled in the Stann Creek (present-day 

Dangriga) area and were engaged in fishing and farming. J 

Other Garifuna later came to the British settlement of Belize after finding themselves on the wrong side in a civil 
war in Honduras in 1832. Many Garifuna men soon found wage work alongside slaves as mahogany cutters. In 
1841 Dangriga, the Garifuna's largest settlement, was a flourishing village. The American traveler John Stephens 
described the Garifuna village of Punta Gorda as having 500 inhabitants and producing a wide variety of fruits 
and vegetables. J 

The British treated Garifuna as squatters. In 1857 the British told the Garifuna that they must obtain leases from 
the crown or risk losing their lands, dwellings, and other buildings. The 1872 Crown Lands Ordinance established 
reservations for the Garifuna as well as the Maya. The British prevented both groups from owning land and 

treated them as a source of valuable labor. J 

Constitutional developments, 1850-62 

In the 1850s, the power struggle between the superintendent and the planters coincided with events in 
international diplomacy to produce major constitutional changes. In the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850, Britain 
and the United States agreed to promote the construction of a canal across Central America and to refrain from 
colonizing any part of Central America. The British government interpreted the colonization clause as applying 
only to any future occupation. But the United States government claimed that Britain was obliged to evacuate 
the area, particularly after 1853, when President Franklin Pierce's expansionist administration stressed the 
Monroe Doctrine. Britain yielded on the Bay Islands and the Mosquito Coast in eastern Nicaragua. But in 1854, 
Britain produced a formal constitution establishing a legislative for its possession of the settlement in present-day 

Belize. [2] 

The Legislative Assembly of 1854 was to have eighteen elected members, each of whom was to have at least 
£400 sterling worth of property. The assembly was also to have three official members appointed by the 
superintendent. The fact that voters had to have property yielding an income of £7 a year or a salary of a £100 a 
year reinforced the restrictive nature of this legislature. The superintendent could defer or dissolve the assembly 
at any time, originate legislation, and give or withhold consent to bills. This situation suggested that the 
legislature was more a chamber of debate than a place where decisions were made. The Colonial Office in 
London became, therefore, the real political-administrative power in the settlement. This shift in power was 
reinforced when in 1862, the Settlement of Belize in the Bay of Honduras was declared a British colony called 
British Honduras, and the crown's representative was elevated to a lieutenant governor, subordinate to the 

governor of Jamaica. J 



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Under the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 between the U.S. and Britain, neither country was to undertake any 
control, colonization or occupation of any part of Central America, but it was unclear if it applied to Belize. In 
1853, a new American government attempted to have Britain leave Belize. In 1856, the Dallas-Clarendon Treaty 
between the two governments recognized Belize territory as British. The Sarstoon River was recognized as the 
southern border with Guatemala. The Anglo-Guatemalan Treaty of 1859 was signed, setting the present-day 
western boundary and temporarily settling the question of Guatemala's claim on the territory. Only the northern 
border with Mexico was undefined. 

British Honduras (1862-1981) 

Main article: British Honduras 
Mayan emigration and conflict 

As the British consolidated their settlement and pushed deeper into the interior in search of mahogany in the late 
18th century, they encountered resistance from the Maya. In the second half of the 19th century, however, a 
combination of events outside and inside the colony redefined the position of the Maya. J During the Caste War 
in Yucatan, a devastating struggle that halved the population of the area between 1847 and 1855, thousands of 
refugees fled to the British settlement. Though the Maya were not allowed to own land, most of the refugees 
were small farmers who were growing considerable quantities of crops by the mid- 19th century. One group of 
Maya, led by Marcos Canul, attacked a mahogany camp on the Bravo River in 1866. A detachment of British 
troops sent to San Pedro was defeated by the Maya later that year. Early in 1867, British troops marched into 
areas in which the Maya had settled and destroyed villages in an attempt to drive them out. The Maya returned, 
however, and in April 1870, Canul and his men occupied Corozal. J An unsuccessful 1872 attack by the Maya 
on Orange Walk was the last serious attack on the British colony. J 

In the 1880s and 1890s, Mopan and Kekchi Maya fled from forced labor in Guatemala and settled in several 
villages in southern British Honduras. Under the policy of indirect rule, a system of elected alcaldes (mayors) 
linked these Maya to the colonial administration. However, the remoteness of their settlements resulted in the 
Mopan and Kekchi Maya becoming less assimilated into the colony than the Maya of the north, where a Mestizo 
culture emerged. By the end of the 19th century, the ethnic pattern that remained largely intact throughout the 
20th century was in place: Protestants largely of African descent, who spoke either English or Creole and lived 
in Belize Town; the Roman Catholic Maya and Mestizos who spoke Spanish and lived chiefly in the north and 
west; and the Roman Catholic Garifuna who spoke English, Spanish, or Garifuna and settled on the southern 
coast. J 

Formal establishment of the colony, 1862-71 

Largely as a result of the costly military expeditions against the Maya, 

the expenses of administering the new colony of British Honduras 

increased, at a time when the economy was severely depressed. Great 

landowners and merchants dominated the Legislative Assembly, which 

controlled the colony's revenues and expenditures. Some of the 

landowners were also involved in commerce but their interest differed 

from the other merchants of Belize Town. The former group resisted the 

taxation of land and favored an increase in import duties; the latter 

preferred the opposite. Moreover, the merchants in the town felt 

relatively secure from Mayan attacks and were unwilling to contribute toward the protection of mahogany 

camps, whereas the landowners felt that they should not be required to pay taxes on lands given inadequate 

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— 1 


|gg^ 






^3 




' " -*- ^ 




Flag of British Honduras 

1 1 



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protection. These conflicting interests produced a stalemate in the Legislative Assembly, which failed to 
authorize the raising of sufficient revenue. Unable to agree among themselves, the members of the Legislative 
Assembly surrendered their political privileges and asked for establishment of direct British rule in return for the 
greater security of crown colony status. The new constitution was inaugurated in April 1871 and the new 

legislature became the Legislative Council. J 

Under the new constitution of 1871, the lieutenant governor and the Legislative Council, consisting of five ex 
officio or "official" and four appointed or "unofficial" members, governed British Honduras. This constitutional 
change confirmed and completed a change in the locus and form of power in the colony's political economy that 
had been evolving during the preceding half century. The change moved power from the old settler oligarchy to 

the boardrooms of British companies and to the Colonial Office in London. * 

The colonial order, 1871-1931 

The forestry industry's control of land and its influence in colonial decision-making slowed the development of 
agriculture and the diversification of the economy. Though British Honduras had vast areas of sparsely 
populated, unused land, landownership was controlled by a small European monopoly, thwarting the evolution of 

a Creole landowning class from the former slaves. J 

Landownership became even more consolidated during the economic depression of the mid- 19th century. Major 
results of this depression included the decline of the old settler class, the increasing consolidation of capital, and 
the intensification of British landownership. The British Honduras Company (later the Belize Estate and Produce 
Company) emerged as the predominant landowner, with about half of all the privately held land in the colony. 
The new company was the chief force in British Honduras's political economy for over a century. ^ * 

This concentration and centralization of capital meant that the direction of the colony's economy was henceforth 
determined largely in London. It also signaled the eclipse of the old settler elite. By about 1890, most commerce 
in British Honduras was in the hands of a clique of Scottish and German merchants, most of them newcomers. 
The European minority exercised great influence in the colony's politics, partly because it was guaranteed 
representation on the wholly appointed Legislative Council. In 1892, the governor appointed several Creole 
members, but whites remained the majority. ^ 

Despite the prevailing stagnation of the colony's economy and society during most of the century prior to the 
1930s, seeds of change were being sown. The mahogany trade remained depressed, and efforts to develop 
plantation agriculture failed. A brief revival in the forestry industry took place early in the 20th century as new 
demands for forest products came from the United States. Exports of chicle, a gum taken from the sapodilla tree 
and used to make chewing gum, propped up the economy from the 1880s. A short-lived boom in the mahogany 
trade occurred around 1900 in response to growing demand for the wood in the United States, but the ruthless 
exploitation of the forests without any conservation or reforestation depleted resources. J 

Creoles, who were well-connected with businesses in the United States, challenged the traditional political- 
economic connection with Britain as trade with the United States intensified. In 1927, Creole merchants and 
professionals replaced the representatives of British landowners (except for the manager of the Belize Estate and 
Produce Company) on the Legislative Council. The participation of this Creole elite in the political process was 
evidence of emerging social changes that were largely concealed by economic stagnation.^ J 

An agreement between Mexico and Britain in 1893 set the boundary along the Rio Hondo, though the treaty was 
not finalized until 1897. 



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Genesis of modern politics, 1931-54 

The Great Depression shattered the colony's economy, and unemployment increased rapidly. On top of this 
economic disaster, the worst hurricane in the country's recent history demolished Belize Town on September 10, 
1931, killing more than 1,000 people. The British relief response was tardy and inadequate. The British 
government seized the opportunity to impose tighter control on the colony and endowed the governor with the 
power to enact laws in emergency situations. The Belize Estate and Produce Company survived the depression 
years because of its special connections in British Honduras and London. J 

Meanwhile, workers in mahogany camps were treated almost like slaves. The law governing labor contracts, the 
Masters and Servants Act of 1883, made it a criminal offense for a laborer to breach a contract. In 1931 the 
governor, Sir John Burdon, rejected proposals to legalize trade unions and to introduce a minimum wage and 
sickness insurance. The poor responded in 1934 with a series of demonstrations, strikes, petitions, and riots that 
marked the beginning of modern politics and the independence movement. Riots, strikes, and rebellions had 
occurred before, but the events of the 1930s were modern labor disturbances in the sense that they gave rise to 
organizations with articulate industrial and political goals. Antonio Soberanis Gomez and his colleagues of the 
Labourers and Unemployed Association (LUA) attacked the governor and his officials, the rich merchants, and 
the Belize Estate and Produce Company, couching their demands in broad moral and political terms that began 
to define and develop a new nationalistic and democratic political culture. 

The labor agitation's most immediate success was the creation of relief work by a governor who saw it as a way 
to avoid civil disturbances. The movement's greatest achievements, however, were the labor reforms passed 
between 1941 and 1943. Trade unions were legalized in 1941, and a 1943 law removed breach-of-labor-contract 
from the criminal code. The General Workers' Union (GWU), registered in 1943, quickly expanded into a 
nationwide organization and provided crucial support for the nationalist movement that took off with the 
formation of the People's United Party (PUP) in 1950. The 1930s were therefore the crucible of modern Belizean 
politics. It was a decade during which the old phenomena of exploitative labor conditions and authoritarian 
colonial and industrial relations began to give way to new labor and political processes and institutions. The same 
period saw an expansion in voter eligibility. In 1945 only 822 voters were registered in a population of over 
63,000, but by 1954 British Honduras achieved suffrage for all literate adults. J 

In December 1949, the governor devalued the British Honduras dollar in defiance of the Legislative Council, an 
act that precipitated Belize's independence movement. The governor's action angered the nationalists because it 
reflected the limits of the legislature and revealed the extent of the colonial administration's power. The 
devaluation enraged labor because it protected the interests of the big transnational while subjecting the 
working class to higher prices for goods. Devaluation thus united labor, nationalists, and the Creole middle 
classes in opposition to the colonial administration. On the night that the governor declared the devaluation, the 



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People's Committee was formed and the nascent independence movement suddenly matured. J 

Between 1950 and 1954, the PUP, formed upon the dissolution of the People's Committee on September 29, 
1950, consolidated its organization, established its popular base, and articulated its primary demands. By January 
1950, the GWU and the People's Committee were holding joint public meetings and discussing issues such as 

devaluation, labor legislation, the proposed West Indies Federation, and constitutional reform. As political 

T21 
leaders took control of the union in the 1950s to use its strength, however, the union movement declined. J 

The PUP concentrated on agitating for constitutional reforms, including universal adult suffrage without a 
literacy test, an all- elected Legislative Council, an Executive Council chosen by the leader of the majority party 
in the legislature, the introduction of a ministerial system, and the abolition of the governor's reserve powers. In 
short, PUP pushed for representative and responsible government. The colonial administration, alarmed by the 
growing support for the PUP, retaliated by attacking two of the party's chief public platforms, the Belize City 
Council and the PUP. In 1952 he comfortably topped the polls in Belize City Council elections. Within just two 
years, despite persecution and division, the PUP had become a powerful political force, and George Price had 

clearly become the party's leader. J 

The colonial administration and the National Party, which consisted of loyalist members of the Legislative 
Council, portrayed the PUP as pro-Guatemalan and even communist. The leaders of the PUP, however, 
perceived British Honduras as belonging to neither Britain nor Guatemala. The governor and the National Party 
failed in their attempts to discredit the PUP on the issue of its contacts with Guatemala, which was then ruled by 
the democratic, reformist government of President Jacobo Arbenz. When voters went to the polls on April 28, 
1954, in the first election under universal literate adult suffrage, the main issue was clearly colonialism — a vote 
for the PUP was a vote in favor of self-government. Almost 70 percent of the electorate voted. The PUP gained 
66.3 percent of the vote and won eight of the nine elected seats in the new Legislative Assembly. Further 

constitutional reform was unequivocally on the agenda. J 
Decolonization and the border dispute with Guatemala 



r I I^^MM 

Belize (red) and Guatemala (blue) 



British Honduras faced two obstacles to independence: British reluctance 

until the early 1960s to allow citizens to govern themselves, and 

Guatemala's complete intransigence over its long-standing claim to the 

entire territory (Guatemala had repeatedly threatened to use force to take 

over British Honduras). By 1961, Britain was willing to let the colony 

become independent. Negotiations between Britain and Guatemala began 

again in 1961, but the elected representatives of British Honduras had no 

voice in these talks. George Price refused an invitation to make British 

Honduras an "associated state" of Guatemala, reiterating his goal of 

leading the colony to independence. In 1963 Guatemala broke off talks and ended diplomatic relations with 

Britain. Talks between Guatemala and British Honduras started and stopped abruptly during the late 1960s and 

early 1970s. From 1964 Britain controlled only British Honduran defense, foreign affairs, internal security, and 

the terms and conditions of the public service, and in 1973 the colony's name was changed to Belize in 

anticipation of independence. J 

By 1975, the Belizean and British governments, frustrated at dealing with the military-dominated regimes in 
Guatemala, agreed on a new strategy that would take the case for self-determination to various international 
forums. The Belize government felt that by gaining international support, it could strengthen its position, weaken 
Guatemala's claims, and make it harder for Britain to make any concessions. Belize argued that Guatemala 
frustrated the country's legitimate aspirations to independence and that Guatemala was pushing an irrelevant 



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claim and disguising its own colonial ambitions by trying to present the dispute as an effort to recover territory 
lost to a colonial power. Between 1975 and 1981, Belizean leaders stated their case for self-determination at a 
meeting of the heads of Commonwealth of Nations governments, the conference of ministers of the Nonaligned 
Movement, and at meetings of the United Nations (UN). Latin American governments initially supported 
Guatemala. Between 1975 and 1979, however, Belize won the support of Cuba, Mexico, Panama, and 
Nicaragua. Finally, in November 1980, with Guatemala completely isolated, the UN passed a resolution that 

demanded the independence of Belize. J 

A last attempt was made to reach an agreement with Guatemala prior to the independence of Belize. The 
Belizean representatives to the talks made no concessions, and a proposal, called the Heads of Agreement, was 
initialed on March 11, 1981. However, when ultraright political forces in Guatemala labeled the proponents as 
sellouts, the Guatemalan government refused to ratify the agreement and withdrew from the negotiations. 
Meanwhile, the opposition in Belize engaged in violent demonstrations against the Heads of Agreement. A state 
of emergency was declared. However, the opposition could offer no real alternatives. With the prospect of 
independence celebrations in the offing, the opposition's morale fell. Independence came to Belize on September 



21, 1981 after the Belize Act 1981, without reaching an agreement with Guatemala. 



[2] 



Independent Belize 



Main article: History of Belize (1981-present) 

With Price at the helm, the PUP won all elections until 1984. In that 
election, first national election after independence, the PUP was defeated 
by the United Democratic Party (UDP), and UDP leader Manuel 
Esquivel replaced Price as prime minister. Price returned to power after 
elections in 1989. Guatemala's president formally recognized Belize's 
independence in 1992. The following year the United Kingdom 
announced that it would end its military involvement in Belize. All British 
soldiers were withdrawn in 1994, apart from a small contingent of troops 
who remained to train Belizean troops. 




The flag of Belize, adopted in 1922 






The UDP regained power in the 1993 national election, and Esquivel 

became prime minister for a second time. Soon afterward Esquivel announced the suspension of a pact reached 
with Guatemala during Price's tenure, claiming Price had made too many concessions in order to gain 
Guatemalan recognition. The pact would have resolved a 130 year old border dispute between the two countries. 
Border tensions continued into the early 21st century, although the two countries cooperated in other areas. 

The PUP won a landslide victory in the 1998 national elections, and PUP leader Said Musa was sworn in as 
prime minister. In the 2003 elections the PUP maintained its majority, and Musa continued as prime minister. He 
pledged to improve conditions in the underdeveloped and largely inaccessible southern part of Belize. 

In 2005, Belize was the site of unrest caused by discontent with the 
People's United Party government, including tax increases in the national 
budget. On February 8, 2008, Dean Barrow of the UDP was sworn in as 
Belize's first black prime minister. 

Throughout Belize's history, Guatemala has claimed ownership of all or 
part of the territory. This claim is occasionally reflected in maps showing 
Belize as Guatemala's twenty-third province. As of March 2007, the 
border dispute with Guatemala remains unresolved and quite contentious; 




Riot police during Belize's 2005 



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^ ^ J at various times the issue has required mediation by the United unrest 



Kingdom, Caribbean Community heads of Government, the Organisation 

of American States, and the United States. Since independence, a British garrison has been retained in Belize at 
the request of the Belizean government. Notably, both Guatemala and Belize are participating in the confidence- 
building measures approved by the OAS, including the Guatemala-Belize Language Exchange Project. J 

See also 

■ British colonization of the Americas 

■ History of the Americas 

■ History of the British West Indies 

■ History of Central America 

■ History of North America 

■ History of the Caribbean 

■ List of Prime Ministers of Belize 

■ Politics of Belize 

■ Spanish colonization of the Americas 

References 

1. A a b c d ef "Background Note: Belize" (http://www.state.gOv/r/pa/ei/bgn/1955.htm) . U.S. Department of State 

(August 2008). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. 
rs A abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzaaabacadaeafagahaiajakal am an ao TD n ii« nr | KTiapl "Rpliyp- 

Historical Setting". In A Country Study: Belize (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/bztoc.html) (Tim Merrill, editor). 
Library of Congress Federal Research Division (January 1992). This article incorporates text from this source, 
which is in the public domain. 

3. A Houston, Stephen D.; John Robertson and David Stuart (2000). "The language of Classic Maya Inscriptions". 
Current Anthropology 41 (3): 321-356. ISSN 0010-3204 (http://www.worldcat.org/issn/0010-3204) . 

PMID 10768879 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10768879) . 

4. A Michael R Closs, <a href=http://www.mesoweb.com/bearc/cmr/21_text.html>The Hieroglyphic Text of Stela 9, 
Lamanai, Belize</a>, 13 from Closs, 1987 

5. A Nation News 2006 (http://www.nationnews.com/life/314888747749224.php) 

6. A ACP-EU summit 2000 (http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/47/185.html) 

7. A Guatemala-Belize language Exchange Project (http://www.guatemalabelize.com/) 

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index.php ?title=History_of_Belize&oldid=482844948 M 
Categories: History of Belize Spanish West Indies Former British colonies 

■ This page was last modified on 20 March 2012 at 05:21. 

■ Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution- Share Alike License; additional terms may 
apply. See Terms of use for details. 

Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. 



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Monarchy of Belize 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



The monarchy of Belize (the Belizean monarchy) is a 

system of government in which a hereditary monarch is 
the sovereign of Belize, holding the position of head of 
state; the incumbent is Elizabeth II, officially called 
Queen of Belize, who has reigned since September 21, 
1981. The heir apparent is Elizabeth's eldest son, Prince 
Charles, though the Queen is presently the only member 
of the Belizean Royal Family with any constitutional role. 
She, her husband and consort, Prince Philip, Duke of 
Edinburgh, Prince Charles, and other members of the 
Royal Family, including the Queen's other children and 
cousins, undertake various public ceremonial functions 
across Belize and on behalf of Belize abroad. 

Most of the Queen's powers in Belize are exercised by the 
Governor-General, presently Colville Young, though the 
monarch does hold several powers that are hers alone. 

The Belizean monarch, besides reigning in Belize, 
separately serves as head of state for each of fifteen other 
Commonwealth countries. This developed from the 
former colonial relationship of these countries to Britain, 
but they are now independent and the monarchy of each 
is legally distinct. 



Contents 


■ 1 Origins 


■ 2 International and domestic aspects 


■ 2.1 Development of shared monarchy 


■ 2.2 Title 


■ 2.3 Succession 


■ 3 Constitutional role 


■ 3.1 Constitutional duties 


■ 4 Legal role 


■ 5 The Crown and the Military of Belize 


■ 6 See also 


■ 6.1 Other realms: monarchy 


■ 6.2 Other realms: royal family 


■ 6.3 Other 


■ 7 Footnotes 


■ 8 External links 



Queen of Belize 

MONARCHY 




Coat of arms of Belize 






Incumbent: 




Elizabeth H 


Style: 


Her Majesty 


Heir apparent: 


Charles, Prince of Wales 


First monarch: 


Elizabeth II 


Formation: 


September 21, 1981 



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Origins 

The current Belizean monarchy can trace its ancestral lineage back to the Anglo-Saxon period, and ultimately 
back to the kings of the Angles and the early Scottish kings. The territories that today comprise Belize were 
claimed under King Philip IV of Spain in the early 17th century, and were won by King George III in 1798; both 
of whom are blood relatives of the current monarch. Throughout the 19th century colonial settlement increased 
and Belize was made the Crown colony of British Honduras by Queen Victoria in 1871. The country was granted 
its independence from the United Kingdom by Queen Elizabeth II in 1981 to form Belize as a kingdom in its own 
right. 

International and domestic aspects 

Sixteen states within the 54-member Commonwealth of Nations are known as Commonwealth realms and Belize 
is one of these. Despite sharing the same person as their respective national monarch, each of the 
Commonwealth realms is sovereign and independent of the others. J 

See also: Commonwealth realm: Constitutional implications 
Development of shared monarchy 

The Balfour Declaration of 1926 provided the Dominions the right to be considered equal to Britain, rather than 
subordinate; an agreement that had the result of a shared Crown that operates independently in each realm 
rather than a unitary British Crown under which all the Dominions were secondary. The monarchy thus ceased to 
be an exclusively British institution, although it has often been called "British" since this time (in both legal and 
common language) for reasons historical, political, and of convenience. The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 
1927 was the first indication of this shift in law, further elaborated in the Statute of Westminster 1931. 

Though constitutional laws governing the line of succession to the Belizean throne lie within the control of the 
Belizean parliament, via adopting the Statute of Westminster Belize agreed not to change its rules of succession 
without the unanimous consent of the other realms, unless explicitly leaving the shared monarchy relationship. 
This situation applies symmetrically in all the other realms, including the United Kingdom, a situation that has 
been likened to a treaty amongst these countries. J 

On all matters of the Belizean state, the monarch is advised solely by Belizean Ministers of the Crown. Effective 
with the Belize Act 1981, no British or other realm government can advise the monarch on any matters pertinent 
to Belize. 

See also: Executive Council of Belize 
Title 
In Belize, the Queen's official title is: 

■ Elizabeth The Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Belize and of Her Other Realms and Territories, 
Head of the Commonwealth. 

This style communicates Belize's status as an independent monarchy, highlighting the sovereign's role specifically 
as Queen of Belize, as well as the shared aspect of the Crown throughout the realms, by mentioning Belize 
separately from the other countries. Typically, the sovereign is styled "Queen of Belize," and is addressed as such 



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when in Belize, or performing duties on behalf of Belize abroad. 

Further information: List of titles and honours of Queen Elizabeth II 



Succession 




Charles, Prince of Wales, is the 
heir apparent to the Belizean 
Throne 



The heir apparent is Elizabeth ITs eldest son, Charles. J Upon the demise of the 
Crown the Executive Council of Belize is expected to proclaim him King of 
Belize upon his accession to the throne. 

Succession to the throne is by male-preference primogeniture, and governed by 
the provisions of the Act of Settlement, 1701, as well as the English Bill of 
Rights, 1689; these documents are part of British constitutional law to which 
Belize defers for the line of succession; however, as, per the Statute of 
Westminster, a part of Belizean constitutional law, no act of the British 
Parliament after 1931 will have effect in Belize. The Act of Settlement restricts 
the succession to the natural (i.e. non-adopted), legitimate descendants of 
Sophia, Electress of Hanover (1630-1714), a granddaughter of James I, and 
lays out the rules that the monarch cannot be a Roman Catholic, nor married to 
one, and must be in communion with the Church of England upon ascending 
the throne. As Belize defers to the United Kingdom for succession, see 
Succession to the British Throne for more information. 



Upon a "demise in the Crown" (the death of a sovereign), his or her heir 
immediately and automatically succeeds, without any need for confirmation or further ceremony; hence arises 
the phrase "The King is dead. Long live the King!" Nevertheless, it is customary for the accession of the 
sovereign to be publicly proclaimed by the Governor-General. After an appropriate period of mourning has 
passed, the sovereign is also crowned in Westminster Abbey, normally by the Archbishop of Canterbury. A 
coronation is not necessary for a sovereign to reign; for example, Edward VIII was never crowned, yet was 
undoubtedly king during his short reign. 

After an individual ascends the throne, he or she continues to reign until death. Monarchs are not allowed to 
unilaterally abdicate. 

Constitutional role 

Belize's constitution is made up of a variety of statutes and conventions that are either British or Belizean in 
origin, which gives Belize a similar parliamentary system of government as the other Commonwealth realms. All 

powers of state are constitutionally reposed in the monarch, J who is represented by the Governor General of 
Belize - appointed by the monarch upon the advice of the Prime Minister of Belize. Most of the Queen's 
domestic duties are performed by this vice-regal representative. 

As all executive authority is vested in the sovereign, the institutions of government are said to act under her 

authority; hence, the government of Belize is formally referred to as "Her Majesty's Government in Belize, " L J 
however, since the early 1970s, though the constitutional arrangements have not changed, the government is 
more often addressed simply as "The Government of Belize." 

Constitutional duties 



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The role of the Queen and the Governor-General is both legal and practical; the Crown is regarded as a 
corporation, in which several parts share the authority of the whole, with the Queen as the person at the centre 

of the constitutional construct. J 

The vast powers that belong to the Crown are collectively known as the Royal Prerogative, which includes many 
powers, such as the ability to make treaties and send ambassadors, as well as certain duties such as to defend the 
realm and to maintain the Queen's peace. Parliamentary approval is not required for the exercise of the Royal 
Prerogative; moreover, the consent of the Crown must be obtained before either of the Houses of Parliament 
may even debate a bill affecting the sovereign's prerogatives or interests. It is important to note that the Royal 

Prerogative belongs to the Crown, and not to any of the ministers, though it may sometimes appear that way. J 
Although the Royal Prerogative is extensive, it is not unlimited. For example, the monarch does not have the 
prerogative to impose and collect new taxes; such an action requires the authorization of an Act of Parliament. 

The Crown is responsible for appointing a prime minister to advise the monarch or Governor-General on how to 
execute their executive powers. In accordance with unwritten constitutional conventions, the monarch or 
Governor-General must appoint the individual most likely to maintain the support of the House of 
Representatives: usually, the leader of the party which has a majority in that house. In a parliament in which no 
party or coalition holds a majority, the Crown is required, by convention, to appoint the individual most likely to 
command the support of the House of Representatives, usually, but not necessarily, the leader of the largest 
party. The Queen is informed by the Governor-General of the acceptance of the resignation of a prime minister 
and the swearing-in of a new prime minister and members of the ministry. l a wn nee e J 

It is a duty of the Crown to also appoint and dismiss ministers, members of various executive agencies, and other 
officials. The appointment of Senators, the Speaker of the Senate, and Supreme Court justices also falls under the 
Royal Prerogative, though these duties are specifically assigned to the Governor-General by the Constitution. 
Effectively, however, the appointees are chosen by the Prime Minister, or, for less important offices, by other 
ministers. 

In addition, it is the Crown's prerogative to declare war, make peace, and direct the actions of the military, 
although the Prime Minister holds de facto decision-making power over the armed forces. The Royal Prerogative 
also extends to foreign affairs: the sovereign or Governor-General may negotiate and ratify treaties, alliances, 
and international agreements; no parliamentary approval is required. However, a treaty cannot alter the domestic 
laws of Belize; an Act of Parliament is necessary in such cases. The Governor-General, on behalf of the Queen, 
also accredits Belizean High Commissioners and ambassadors, and receives diplomats from foreign states. In 
addition, all Belizean passports are issued in the monarch's name. In Belize, major public inquiries are called 
Royal Commissions, and are created by the Cabinet, on behalf of the monarch, through a Royal Warrant. 

The sovereign is one of the three components of parliament; the others are the Senate and the House of 
Representatives. The Constitution Act, 1981, also outlines that the Governor-General alone is responsible for 
summoning the House of Representatives, though it remains the monarch's prerogative to prorogue, and dissolve 
parliament. The new parliamentary session is marked by the State Opening of Parliament, during which either 
the monarch of the Governor-General reads the Speech from the Throne in the Senate Chamber, outlining the 
Government's legislative agenda. A general election follows dissolution, the writs for which are dropped by the 
Governor-General at Government House. 

There are also a few duties which must be specifically performed by, or bills that require assent by the Queen. 
These include: signing the appointment papers of Governors-General, the confirmation of awards of Belizean 
honours, and approving any change in her Belizean title. 

Because the Belizean monarchy is a constitutional one, the powers that are constitutionally the monarch's are 



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exercised almost wholly upon the advice of his or her Prime Minister and the Ministers of the Crown in Cabinet, 
who are, in turn, accountable to the democratically elected House of Representatives, and through it, to the 
people. It has been said since the death of Queen Anne in 1714, the last monarch to head the British cabinet, that 
the monarch "reigns" but does not "rule". This means that the monarch's role, and thereby the viceroy's role, is 
almost entirely symbolic and cultural, acting as a symbol of the legal authority under which all governments and 
agencies operate. In exceptional circumstances, however, the monarch or viceroy can act against such advice 

based upon his or her reserve powers. J 

Legal role 

All laws in Belize are enacted with the sovereign's, or the viceroy's signature. Thus, all federal bills begin with 
the phrase "Now, therefore, Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of 

Representatives of Belize, enacts as follows." 1 J The granting of a signature to a bill is known as Royal Assent; it, 
and proclamation, are required for all acts of parliament, usually granted or withheld by the Governor-General, 
with the Great Seal of Belize. The Governor-General may reserve a bill for the monarch's pleasure, that is to say, 
allow the monarch to make a personal decision on the bill. 

The sovereign is deemed the "fount of justice," and is responsible for rendering justice for all subjects; however, 
they do not personally rule injudicial cases. Instead, judicial functions are performed in their name. Hence, the 
common law holds that the sovereign "can do no wrong"; the monarch cannot be prosecuted in their own courts 
for criminal offences. Civil lawsuits against the Crown in its public capacity (that is, lawsuits against the 
government) are permitted; however, lawsuits against the monarch personally are not cognizable. In international 
cases, as a sovereign and under established principles of international law, the Queen of Belize is not subject to 
suit in foreign courts without her express consent. J The sovereign, and by extension the Governor General, also 
exercises the "prerogative of mercy," and may pardon offences against the Crown. Pardons may be awarded 
before, during, or after a trial. 

In addition, the monarch also serves as a symbol of the legitimacy of courts of justice, and of their judicial 
authority. An image of the Queen or the Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Belize is always displayed in Belizean 
courtrooms. Itinerant judges will display an image of the Queen and the Belizean flag when holding a session 
away from established courtrooms; such situations occur in parts of Belize where the stakeholders in a given 
court case are too isolated geographically to be able to travel for regular proceedings. 

In Belize the legal personality of the state is referred to as "Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Belize." If a 
lawsuit is filed against the government, the respondent is formally described as Her Majesty the Queen in Right 
of Belize. In this capacity, all Crown copyright is held by the Queen. 

Further information: The Crown 

The Crown and the Military of Belize 

The Crown holds a prominent place within the Military of Belize. The Queen is the Commander-in-Chief of the 
entire Forces, though the Governor-General holds this title and exercises the duties on behalf of the sovereign. 

The sovereign's position and role in the military is reflected by naval vessels bearing the prefix Her Majesty's 
Belizean Ship (HMBS) - His Majesty's Belizean Ship during the reign of a king - and all members of the Armed 
Forces must swear allegiance to the Queen and her heirs and successors. As such, members of the Royal Family 
have presided over many military ceremonies both abroad and at home, including Trooping the Colours, 
inspections of the troops, and anniversaries of key battles. 



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy_of_Belize 



See also 

Other realms: monarchy 

■ Current Commonwealth realms 

Other realms: royal family 

■ British Royal Family 

■ Canadian Royal Family 



Other 



Figurehead 

Prime Ministers of Queen Elizabeth II 

List of Commonwealth visits made by Queen Elizabeth II 

Monarchies in the Americas 

List of monarchies 



Footnotes 



1. A The English Court of Appeal ruled in 1982, while 
"there is only one person who is the Sovereign within 
the British Commonwealth... in matters of law and 
government the Queen of the United Kingdom, for 
example, is entirely independent and distinct from the 
Queen of Canada." R v Foreign Secretary; Ex parte 
Indian Association, QB 892 at 928; as referenced in 
High Court of Australia: Sue v Hill [1999] HCA 30; 
23 June 1999; S179/1998 and B49/1998 
(http://www. austlii. edu. au/au/cases/cth/HC A 
/1999/30.html) 

2. A Justice Rouleau in a 2003 court ruling wrote that 
"Union under the... Crown together with other 
Commonwealth countries [is a] constitutional 
principle." O'Donohue v. Canada, 2003 CanLII 
41404 (ON S.C.) (http://www.canlii.org/en/on 
/onsc/doc/2003/2003canlii41404 
/2003canlii41404.html) 

3. A Department of Canadian Heritage: Prince of Wales 
Royal Visit (http://www.canadianheritage.gc.ca 
/special/royalvisit/englishhtm) 



4. A Accountable Government: A Guide for Ministers 
and Secretaries of State; Library and Archives 
Cataloguing in Publication; 2007; p. 49 
(http://www.pco-bcp.gc.ca 

/docs/InformationResources/Publications/guidemin 
/accountable-guide2007_e.pdf) 
A a Documents on Canadian External Relations: 
Chapter VUI: Relations with the United States; Part HI 
(http://www. dfait-maeci. gc . ca/department/history 
/dcer/details-en.asp?intRefid=4363) 
A a c Cox, Noel; Murdoch University Electronic 
Journal of Law: Black v Chretien: Suing a Minister 
of the Crown for Abuse of Power, Misfeasance in 
Public Office and Negligence; Volume 9, Number 3 
(September 2002) (http://www.murdoch.edu.au 
/elaw/issues/v9n3/cox93.html) 

7. A Bill C43: An Act to provide for consultations with 
electors on their preferences for appointments to the 
Senate (http ://www2. pari, gc . ca/HousePublications 
/Publication.aspx?Docid=2604319&file=4) 



5. 



6. 



External links 

■ Government of Belize: Governor General of Belize (http://www.governmentofbelize.gov.bz 
/exec_govgeneral.html) 

■ Constitution of Belize (http://www.behze.gov.bz/public/Attachment/98202443271.pdf) 



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http : //en. wikipedi a. org/ wiki/Canada 



Canada 



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

Canada (*> /'kaenada/) is a North American country 
consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in 
the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic 
Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and 
northward into the Arctic Ocean. Spanning over 9.9 million 
square kilometres, Canada is the world's second-largest 
country by total area, and its common border with the United 
States is the longest land border in the world. 

The land that is now Canada has been inhabited for millennia 
by various groups of Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 
15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and 
later settled, along the region's Atlantic coast. France ceded 
nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the 
Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British 
North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was 
formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an 
accretion of provinces and territories and a process of 
increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening 
autonomy was highlighted by the Balfour Declaration of 1926 
and reaffirmed by the Statute of Westminster of 1931, which 
declared self-governing dominions within the British Empire 
to be equal. The Canada Act of 1982 finally severed the 
vestiges of legal dependence on the British Parliament. 

Canada is a federal state that is governed as a parliamentary 
democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen 
Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual nation with 
both English and French as official languages at the federal 
level. One of the world's most highly-developed countries, 
Canada has a diversified economy that is reliant upon its 
abundant natural resources and upon trade - particularly with 
the United States, with which Canada has had a long and 
complex relationship. It is a member of the G7, G8, G20, 
NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth of Nations, 
Francophonie, OAS, APEC, and UN. With the sixth-highest 
Human Development Index globally, Canada has one of the 
highest standards of living and per capita income in the world. 



Contents 



1 Etymology 

2 History 

■ 2.1 Aboriginal peoples 



Canada 



i*i 



* 



Flag 






Coat of arms 



Motto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare (Latin) 
'From Sea to Sea" 



Anthem: "O Canada" 
Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen" [ ^ ] 




Capital 
Largest city 



Ottawa 

45°24'N75°40'W 
Toronto 



Official language(s) 

Recognised 
regional languages 



English and French 

Chipewyan, Cree, Gwich'in, 
Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, 
Inuvialuktun, Slavey (North 
and South) and TlichQ^ 1 



Demonym 



Canadian 



Government 



Monarch 

Governor General 
Prime Minister 
Chief Justice 



Federal parliamentary 
democracy and 
constitutional monarchy^ J 
Elizabeth H 
David Johnston 
Stephen Harper 
Beverley McLachlin 



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■ 2.2 European colonization 


■ 2.3 Confederation and expansion 


■ 2.4 Early 20th century 


■ 2.5 Modern times 


■ 3 Geography 


■ 4 Government and politics 


■ 4.1 Law 


■ 4.2 Foreign relations and military 


■ 4.3 Provinces and territories 


■ 5 Economy 


■ 5.1 Science and technology 


■ 6 Demographics 


■ 6.1 Language 


■ 7 Culture 


■ 8 See also 


■ 9 Notes 


■ 10 References 


■ 1 1 Further reading 


■ 12 External links 



Etymology 

Main article: Name of Canada 

The name Canada comes from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian 
word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement". ^ In 1535, 
indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region 
used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the 
village of Stadacona. J Cartier later used the word Canada 
to refer not only to that particular village, but also the entire 
area subject to Donnacona (the chief at Stadacona); by 1545, 
European books and maps had begun referring to this region 

as Canada} J 

In the 17th and early 18th centuries, "Canada" referred to the 
part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River and 
the northern shores of the Great Lakes. The area was later 
split into two British colonies, Upper Canada and Lower 
Canada. They were re-unified as the Province of Canada in 
1841. J Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted 
as the legal name for the new country, and the word Dominion 
was conferred as the country's title. J However, as Canada 
asserted its political autonomy from the United Kingdom, the 
federal government increasingly used simply Canada on state 
documents and treaties, a change that was reflected in the 

renaming of the national holiday from Dominion Day to Canada 



Legislature 


Parliament 


- Upper house 

- Lower house 


Senate 

House of Commons 


Establishment 

- Constitution Act, 
1867 

- Statute of 
Westminster 

- Canada Act 


July 1,1867 
December 11, 1931 
April 17, 1982 


Area 




- Total 

- Water (%) 


9,984,670 km 2 (2nd) 

3,854,085 sq mi 

8.92 

(891,163 km 2 /344,080 mi 2 ) 


Population 

- 2012 estimate 

- 2011 census 

- Density 


34,786,000 [5] (35th) 

33,476,688 [6] 

3.41/km 2 (228th) 
8.3/sqmi 


GDP (PPP) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2011 estimate 

$1,391 trillion [7] (14th) 

$40,457 [7] (15th) 


GDP (nominal) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2011 estimate 

$1,758 trillion [7] (11th) 

$51,147 [7] (10th) 


Gini (2005) 


32.1 [8] ( m) 


HDI(2011) 


0.908 [9] (very high) (6th) 


Currency 


Canadian dollar ($) (cad) 


Time zone 

- Summer (DST) 


(UTC-3.5 to -8) 
(UTC-2.5 to -7) 


Date formats 


dd-mm-yyyy, mm-dd-yyyy, 
and yyyy-mm-dd (CE) 


Drives on the 


Right 


ISO 3166 code 


CA 


Internet TLD 


.ca 


Calling code 


+ 1 


Canada portal 



Dayinl982. [14] 



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History 



Main article: History of Canada 
See also: List of years in Canada 

Aboriginal peoples 

Main article: Aboriginal peoples in Canada 

Archaeological studies and analyses of DNA haplogroups have indicated a human presence in the northern 

Yukon region from 26,500 years ago, and in southern Ontario from 9,500 years ago (7500 BC). ^ ^ J The 
Paleo-Indian archaeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human 
habitation in Canada. ^ ^ J The characteristics of Canadian Aboriginal societies included permanent 

settlements, agriculture, complex societal hierarchies, and trading networks. ^ J Some of these cultures had 
collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, and have only been 
discovered through archaeological investigations. J 

The aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 200,000^ ^ and two million in the late 15th 
century,^ J with a figure of 500,000 accepted by Canada's Royal Commission on Aboriginal Health.^ J 
Repeated outbreaks of European infectious diseases such as influenza, measles, and smallpox, combined with 
other effects of European contact, resulted in a forty- to eighty-percent population decrease among aboriginal 
peoples in the centuries after the European arrival. J Aboriginal peoples in Canada include the First 
Nations, J Inuit, J and Metis. J The Metis are a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid- 17th century 
when First Nations people and Inuit married European settlers. J The Inuit had more limited interaction with 
European settlers during the colonization period. J 

European colonization 

Main articles: New France and Canada under British rule (1763-1867) 
Further information: Former colonies and territories in Canada 

The first known attempt at European colonization began when Norsemen 

settled briefly at LAnse aux Meadows in Newfoundland around 1000 

T321 
AD. J No further European exploration occurred until 1497, when 

Italian seafarer John Cabot explored Canada's Atlantic coast for 

England. J Basque and Portuguese mariners established seasonal 
whaling and fishing outposts along the Atlantic coast in the early 16th 
century.^ J In 1534, Jacques Carrier explored the St. Lawrence River for 
France, where on July 24, he planted a 10 meter cross bearing the words 
"Long Live the King of France" and took possession of the territory in 

the name of King Francis I of France. * 




Benjamin West's The Death of 
General Wolfe (1771) dramatizes 
James Wolfe's death during the Battle 
of the Plains of Abraham at Quebec in 
1759. 



In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert claimed St. John's, Newfoundland, as the 
first North American English colony by the royal prerogative of Queen 

Elizabeth I. J French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603, 
and established the first permanent European settlements at Port Royal in 1605 and Quebec City in 1608. 
Among the French colonists of New France, Canadiens extensively settled the St. Lawrence River valley and 



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Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, while fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great 
Lakes, Hudson Bay, and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana. The Beaver Wars broke out in the mid- 17th 
century over control of the North American fur trade. J 

The English established additional colonies in Cupids and Ferryland, Newfoundland, beginning in 1610. The 
Thirteen Colonies were founded to the south soon after. J A series of four French and Indian Wars erupted 
between 1689 and 1763. J Mainland Nova Scotia came under British rule with the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the 
Treaty of Paris (1763) ceded Canada and most of New France to Britain after the Seven Years' War. J 

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 created the Province of Quebec out of New France, and annexed Cape Breton 

Island to Nova Scotia. J St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony in 1769. J To 
avert conflict in Quebec, the British passed the Quebec Act of 1774, expanding Quebec's territory to the Great 
Lakes and Ohio Valley. It re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law there. This 
angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, fuelling anti-British sentiment in the years prior to the 1776 



outbreak of the American Revolution. 



[14] 




The Treaty of Paris (1783) recognized American independence and ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to 
the United States. New Brunswick was split from Nova Scotia as part of a reorganization of Loyalist settlements 
in the Maritimes. To accommodate English-speaking Loyalists in Quebec, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided 
the province into French-speaking Lower Canada (later Quebec) and English-speaking Upper Canada (later 

Ontario), granting each its own elected legislative assembly. J 

The Canadas were the main front in the War of 1812 between the United 
States and Britain. Following the war, large-scale immigration to Canada 

from Britain and Ireland began in 1815. * Between 1825 and 1846, 

626,628 European immigrants reportedly landed at Canadian ports. J 
Between one-quarter and one-third of all Europeans who immigrated to 
Canada before 1891 died of infectious diseases. J 

The desire for responsible government in the Canadas resulted in the 
abortive Rebellions of 1837. The Durham Report subsequently 
recommended responsible government and the assimilation of French 
Canadians into English culture. J The Act of Union 1840 merged The 
Canadas into a united Province of Canada. Responsible government was 

established for all British North American provinces by 1849. J The 
signing of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the Oregon boundary dispute, 
extending the border westward along the 49th parallel. This paved the way for British colonies on Vancouver 

Island (1849) and in British Columbia (1858). [45] 
Confederation and expansion 

Main articles: Canadian Confederation and Territorial evolution of Canada 

Following several constitutional conferences, the 1867 Constitution Act officially proclaimed Canadian 
Confederation on July 1, 1867, initially with four provinces - Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New 
Brunswick. ^ ^ * Canada assumed control of Rupert's Land and the North- Western Territory to form the 
Northwest Territories, where the Metis' grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the creation of the 
province of Manitoba in July 1870. J British Columbia and Vancouver Island (which had been united in 1866) 



Robert Harris's Fathers of 
Confederation, J an amalgamation 
of the Charlottetown and Quebec 
conferences. 



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joined the Confederation in 1871, while Prince Edward 
Island joined in 1873. ^ Prime Minister John A. Macdonald 
and his Conservative government established a National 
Policy of tariffs to protect the nascent Canadian 
manufacturing industries. ^ J 

To open the West, the government sponsored the 
construction of three transcontinental railways (including the 
Canadian Pacific Railway), opened the prairies to settlement 
with the Dominion Lands Act, and established the 
North- West Mounted Police to assert its authority over this 
territory. [51][52] In 1898, during the Klondike Gold Rush in 
the Northwest Territories, the Canadian government created 
the Yukon Territory. Under the Liberal Prime Minister 
Wilfrid Laurier, continental European immigrants settled the 
prairies, and Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 
1905 




[50] 



An animated map showing the growth and change of 
Canada's provinces and territories since 
Confederation. 



Early 20th century 

Main article: Canada in the World Wars and Interwar Years 



K. 








Canadian soldiers and tank at the 
Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1 9 1 7 . 



Because Britain still maintained control of Canada's foreign affairs under 
the Confederation Act, its declaration of war in 1914 automatically 
brought Canada into World War I. Volunteers sent to the Western Front 
later became part of the Canadian Corps. The Corps played a substantial 
role in the Battle of Vimy Ridge and other major engagements of the 

war. J Out of approximately 625,000 Canadians who served in World 
War I, around 60,000 were killed and another 173,000 were wounded. J 
The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when conservative Prime 
Minister Robert Borden brought in compulsory military service over the 
objections of French-speaking Quebecers. In 1919, Canada joined the 
League of Nations independently of Britain,^ J and the 1931 Statute of 
Westminster affirmed Canada's independence 



[4] 



The Great Depression of the early 1930s brought great economic hardship to Canada. In response to the 
downturn, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Saskatchewan introduced many elements of a 

welfare state (as pioneered by Tommy Douglas) in the 1940s and 1950s. * Canada declared war on Germany 
independently during World War II under Liberal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, three days after 
Britain. The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939. J 

Canadian troops played important roles in many key battles of the war, including the failed 1942 Dieppe Raid, 
the Allied invasion of Italy, the Normandy landings, the Battle of Normandy, and the Battle of the Scheldt in 
1944. J Canada provided asylum for the monarchy of the Netherlands while that country was occupied, and is 
credited by the country for major contributions to its liberation from Nazi Germany. J The Canadian economy 
boomed during the war as its industries manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China, and the Soviet 

Union. J Despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec, Canada finished the war with a large army and strong 

[57] 
economy. 1 J 



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Modern times 

The Dominion of Newfoundland (now Newfoundland and Labrador) was 
unified with Canada in 1949. J Canada's post-war economic growth, 
combined with the policies of successive Liberal governments, led to the 
emergence of a new Canadian identity, marked by the adoption of the 
current Maple Leaf Flag in 1965, J the implementation of official 
bilingualism (English and French) in 1969, J and the institution of 

official multiculturalism in 1971. J Socially democratic programs were 
also instituted, such as Medicare, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada 
Student Loans, though provincial governments, particularly Quebec and 
Alberta, opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions. J 
Finally, another series of constitutional conferences resulted in the 1982 
patriation of Canada's constitution from the United Kingdom, concurrent 

with the creation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. J In 
1999, Nunavut became Canada's third territory after a series of 

negotiations with the federal government. J 

At the same time, Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes through the Quiet Revolution of the 
1960s, giving birth to a modern nationalist movement. The radical Front de liberation du Quebec (FLQ) ignited 

the October Crisis in 1970, J and the sovereignist Parti Quebecois was elected in 1976, organizing an 
unsuccessful referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980. Attempts to accommodate Quebec nationalism 

constitutionally through the Meech Lake Accord failed in 1990. J This led to the formation of the Bloc 
Quebecois in Quebec and the invigoration of the Reform Party of Canada in the West. ^ J A second 
referendum followed in 1995, in which sovereignty was rejected by a slimmer margin of just 50.6 to 49.4 
percent. In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled that unilateral secession by a province would be unconstitutional, and 
the Clarity Act was passed by parliament, outlining the terms of a negotiated departure from Confederation. J 



At Rideau Hall, Governor General the 
Viscount Alexander of Tunis (centre) 
receives the bill finalizing the union of 
Newfoundland and Canada on March 
31,1949. 



In addition to the issues of Quebec sovereignty, a number of crises shook Canadian society in the late 1980s and 
early 1990s. These included the explosion of Air India Flight 182 in 1985, the largest mass murder in Canadian 

history, J the Ecole Polytechnique massacre in 1989, a university shooting targeting female students, J and 
the Oka Crisis of 1990, J the first of a number of violent confrontations between the government and 
Aboriginal groups. J Canada also joined the Gulf War in 1990 as part of a US-led coalition force, and was 
active in several peacekeeping missions in the late 1990s. J Canada sent troops to Afghanistan in 2001, but 
declined to send forces to Iraq when the US invaded in 2003. J In 2011, Canadian forces participated in the 
NATO-led intervention into the Libyan civil war. J 

Geography 

Main article: Geography of Canada 

Canada occupies a major northern portion of North America, sharing the land borders with the contiguous United 
States to the south and the US state of Alaska to the northwest. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the 
east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean. ^ ^ J By total area (including its 
waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. By land area alone, Canada ranks 
fourth. [77] 



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The country lies between latitudes 41° and 84°N, and longitudes 52° 
and 141 °W. Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the 

Arctic between 60° and 141 °W longitude, J but this claim is not 
universally recognized. Canada is home to the world's northernmost 
settlement, Canadian Forces Station Alert, on the northern tip of 
Ellesmere Island - latitude 82.5 °N - which lies 817 kilometres 
(508 mi) from the North Pole P 9 ^ Much of the Canadian Arctic is 
covered by ice and permafrost. Canada has the longest coastline in 

the world, with a total length of 202,080 kilometres (125,570 mi); [77] 
additionally, its border with the United States is the world's longest 
land border, stretching over 8,890 kilometres (5,520 mi). 




[80] 




A satellite composite image of Canada. 
Boreal forests prevail on the rocky Canadian 
Shield, while ice and tundra are prominent 
in the Arctic. Glaciers are visible in the 
Canadian Rockies and Coast Mountains. 
The flat and fertile prairies facilitate 
agriculture. The Great Lakes feed the St. 
Lawrence River in the southeast, where 
lowlands host much of Canada's population. 

[83] 



The Horseshoe Falls in Niagara Falls, 
Ontario, is one of the world's most 
voluminous waterfalls, J renowned 
both for its beauty and as a source of 
hydroelectric power. 



blocked the flow of the Nass River. 



[85] 



Since the end of the last 
glacial period, Canada has 
consisted of eight distinct 
forest regions, including 
extensive boreal forest on the 

Canadian Shield. [82] Canada 
has more lakes than any 

other country, containing much of the world's fresh water. l ° J] There are 
also fresh- water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies and the Coast 
Mountains. Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and 
potentially active volcanoes, notably Mount Meager, Mount Garibaldi, 
Mount Cay ley, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex.^ J The volcanic 
eruption of the Tseax Cone in 1775 was among Canada's worst natural 
disasters, killing 2,000 Nisga'a people and destroying their village in the 
Nass River valley of northern British Columbia. The eruption produced a 
22.5-kilometre (14.0 mi) lava flow, and, according to Nisga'a legend, 



Canada's population density, at 3.3 inhabitants per square kilometre (8.5 /sq mi), is among the lowest in the 
world. The most densely populated part of the country is the Quebec City - Windsor Corridor, situated in 



Southern Quebec and Southern Ontario along the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. 



[86] 



Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary from region to region. Winters can be harsh 
in many parts of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental 
climate, where daily average temperatures are near -15 °C (5 °F), but can drop below -40 °C (-40 °F) with 
severe wind chills. J In noncoastal regions, snow can cover the ground for almost six months of the year, while 
in parts of the north snow can persist year-round. Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate, with a mild 
and rainy winter. On the east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s 
°F), while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F), with 



temperatures in some interior locations occasionally exceeding 40 °C (104 °F). 



[88] 



Government and politics 

Main articles: Government of Canada and Politics of Canada 

See also: Elections in Canada and List of political parties in Canada 



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Canada has a strong democratic tradition, upheld through a parliamentary 
system within the context of a constitutional monarchy, the monarchy of 
Canada being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial 
branches. ^ ^ ^ J The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who also 
serves as head of state of 15 other Commonwealth countries and each of 
Canada's ten provinces and resides predominantly in the United 
Kingdom. As such, the Queen's representative, the Governor General of 
Canada (presently David Lloyd Johnston), carries out most of the federal 
royal duties in Canada. ^ J 




Parliament Hill in Canada's capital 
city, Ottawa 



The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal figures in areas of 

governance is limited, ^ ^ J in practice, their use of the executive 

powers is directed by the Cabinet, a committee of ministers of the Crown 

responsible to the elected House of Commons and chosen and headed by the Prime Minister of Canada 

(presently Stephen Harper J ), the head of government, though the governor general or monarch may in certain 

crisis situations exercise their power without ministerial advice. J To ensure the stability of government, the 
governor general will usually appoint as prime minister the person who is the current leader of the political party 

that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Commons. J The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) is 
thus one of the most powerful institutions in government, initiating most legislation for parliamentary approval 
and selecting for appointment by the Crown, besides the aforementioned, the governor general, lieutenant 

governors, senators, federal court judges, and heads of Crown corporations and government agencies. J The 
leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition 
(presently Nycole Turmel) and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in 

check. [99] 




Each of the 308 Members of Parliament in the House of Commons is 
elected by simple plurality in an electoral district or riding. General 
elections must be called by the governor general, on the advice of the 
prime minister, within four years of the previous election, or may be 

triggered by the government losing a confidence vote in the House. J 
The 105 members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a 
regional basis, serve until age 75. J Five parties had representatives 
elected to the federal parliament in the 2011 elections: the Conservative 
Party of Canada (governing party), the New Democratic Party (the 
Official Opposition), the Liberal Party of Canada, the Bloc Quebecois, 
and the Green Party of Canada. The list of historical parties with elected 
representation is substantial. 

Canada's federal structure divides government responsibilities between the federal government and the ten 
provinces. Provincial legislatures are unicameral and operate in parliamentary fashion similar to the House of 
Commons. J Canada's three territories also have legislatures, but these are not sovereign and have fewer 
constitutional responsibilities than the provinces and with some structural differences. ^ J 



The Senate chamber within the Centre 
Block on Parliament Hill 



Law 



Main article: Law of Canada 
See also: Court system of Canada 



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The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law of the country, and consists of written text and unwritten 
conventions. The Constitution Act, 1867 (known as the British North America Act prior to 1982) affirmed 
governance based on parliamentary precedent and divided powers between the federal and provincial 
governments; the Statute of Westminster 1931 granted full autonomy; and the Constitution Act, 1982, ended all 
legislative ties to the UK, added a constitutional amending formula, and added the Canadian Charter of Rights 
and Freedoms, which guarantees basic rights and freedoms that usually cannot be overridden by any government 
- though a notwithstanding clause allows the federal parliament and provincial legislatures to override certain 
sections of the Charter for a period of five years. J 



The Indian Chiefs Medal, presented to 
commemorate the Numbered Treaties 



Although not without conflict, European Canadians' early interactions 

with First Nations and Inuit populations were relatively peaceful. The 

Crown and Aboriginal peoples began interactions during the European 

colonialization period. Numbered Treaties, the Indian Act, the 

Constitution Act of 1982, and case laws were established. J A series of 

eleven treaties were signed between Aboriginals in Canada and the 

reigning Monarch of Canada from 1871 to 1921. J These treaties are 

agreements with the Government of Canada administered by Canadian 

Aboriginal law and overseen by the Minister of Indian Affairs and 

Northern Development. The role of the treaties was reaffirmed by 

Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982, which "recognizes and 

affirms existing Aboriginal and treaty rights". J These rights may include provision of services such as health 

care, and exemption from taxation. J The legal and policy framework within which Canada and First Nations 

operate was further formalized in 2005, through the First Nations-Federal Crown Political Accord. ^ 

Canada's judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has the 
power to strike down laws that violate the Constitution. The Supreme 
Court of Canada is the highest court and final arbiter and has been led by 
the Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin, P.C. (the first female Chief 
Justice) since 2000. J Its nine members are appointed by the governor 
general on the advice of the Prime Minister and Minister of Justice. All 
judges at the superior and appellate levels are appointed after 
consultation with nongovernmental legal bodies. The federal cabinet also 

The Supreme Court of Canada in appoints justices to superior courts at the provincial and territorial 

r 1091 

Ottawa, west of Parliament Hill levels . 




Common law prevails everywhere except in Quebec, where civil law 

predominates. Criminal law is solely a federal responsibility and is uniform throughout Canada. J Law 
enforcement, including criminal courts, is a provincial responsibility, but in rural areas of all provinces except 
Ontario and Quebec, policing is contracted to the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police. J 

Foreign relations and military 

Main articles: Foreign relations of Canada and Military history of Canada 

Canada and the United States share the world's longest undefended border, co-operate on military campaigns and 

exercises, and are each other's largest trading partner. J Canada nevertheless has an independent foreign 
policy, most notably maintaining full relations with Cuba and declining to officially participate in the 2003 
invasion of Iraq. Canada also maintains historic ties to the United Kingdom and France and to other former 
British and French colonies through Canada's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the 



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Francophonie. J Canada is noted for having a positive relationship 
with the Netherlands, owing, in part, to its contribution to the Dutch 
liberation during World War II. J 

Canada currently employs a professional, volunteer military force of over 
67,000 regular personnel and approximately 43,000 reserve personnel, 
including supplementary reserves. J The unified Canadian Forces (CF) 
comprise the Royal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian 
Air Force. 




Prime Minister Stephen Harper 
meeting President of the United States 
BarackObamain2009. 



Canada's strong attachment to the British Empire and Commonwealth led 

to major participation in British military efforts in the Second Boer War, 

World War I and World War II. Since then, Canada has been an advocate for multilateralism, making efforts to 

resolve global issues in collaboration with other nations. ^ J Canada was a founding member of the United 
Nations in 1945 and of NATO in 1949. During the Cold War, Canada was a major contributor to UN forces in the 
Korean War and founded the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in cooperation with the 

United States to defend against potential aerial attacks from the Soviet Union. ^ ^ 

During the Suez Crisis of 1956, future Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson 
eased tensions by proposing the inception of the United Nations 
Peacekeeping Force, for which he was awarded the 1957 Nobel Peace 
Prize. J As this was the first UN peacekeeping mission, Pearson is 
often credited as the inventor of the concept. Canada has since served in 
50 peacekeeping missions, including every UN peacekeeping effort until 

1989, J and has since maintained forces in international missions in 
Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and elsewhere; Canada has sometimes 
faced controversy over its involvement in foreign countries, notably in 
the 1993 Somalia Affair. [119] 




Canadian Army soldiers from the 
Royal 22nd Regiment deploying 
during UNITAS exercises in April 
2009. 



Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and 
hosted the OAS General Assembly in Windsor, Ontario, in June 2000 and 
the third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City in April 2001 \ 120 ^ 

Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic 

Cooperation forum (APEC). [121] 

In 2001, Canada had troops deployed to Afghanistan as part of the US 
stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-commanded 
International Security Assistance Force. Starting in July 2011, Canada 
began withdrawing its troops from Afghanistan. The mission had cost 158 
soldiers, one diplomat, two aid workers, and one journalist their 
lives, J with an approximate cost of C$11.3 billion. J Canada and 
the US continue to integrate state and provincial agencies to strengthen 
security along the Canada-United States border through the Western 
Hemisphere Travel Initiative . *■ J 




In February 2007, Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom, Norway, and 
Russia announced their joint commitment to a $1.5-billion project to help 
develop vaccines for developing nations, and called on other countries to 
join them. J In August 2007, Canada's territorial claims in the Arctic 



The Halifax-class frigate HMCS 
Regina, a warship of the Royal 
Canadian Navy, during the 2004 
RIMPAC exercises. 



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were challenged after a Russian underwater expedition to the North Pole; Canada has considered that area to be 
sovereign territory since 1925. J In July 2010, the federal government announced the largest purchase in 
Canadian military history - the acquisition of 65 F-35 Lightning II jet fighters, totalling C$9 billion. J Between 
March and October 2011, Canadian forces participated in a UN-mandated NATO intervention into the 2011 
Libyan civil war. J 

Provinces and territories 

Main article: Provinces and territories of Canada 
See also: Canadian federalism 

Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories. In turn, these may be grouped into 
regions: Western Canada, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, and Northern Canada (Eastern Canada refers to 
Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together). Provinces have more autonomy than territories. The provinces 
are responsible for most of Canada's social programs (such as health care, education, and welfare) and together 
collect more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations in the world. 
Using its spending powers, the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the 
Canada Health Act; the provinces can opt out of these, but rarely do so in practice. Equalization payments are 
made by the federal government to ensure that reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept 
between the richer and poorer provinces. J 

A clickable map of Canada exhibiting its ten provinces and three territories, and their capitals. 



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Economy 



Main article: Economy of Canada , 



Canada is one of tjje world's wealthiest nations, with a 2011 nominal 

GDP of approximately US$1.75 trillion, 1 J and a very, high per-capita 
income. It is& member of the. Organisation for Economic Co-operation 
and Development (OECD) and the G8, and is one of the world's top ten 
trading fiatiftftShi™, > Canada is\a mixed economy, ranking above the US 
and moslj^estern j Etiix!)0©aa^ations ^Jl?j e a I^p{ a g e FoundatitttfS^ndex 
of economic freedom. " T^Qi^gest -foreign importers of Canadian ^ 



goods are the United ^States, the United /Kingdom, and Japan. J "■' 



/ftntish 










In the past^htflr^rie growth of CanatdaVnianufacturing, mining, and 
service sectors has #%$£$$£& the ntation from a largely rural economy 
to an advanced, urbanized, industrial 6^ rlt^P^ny other First World 
nations, the Canadian economy, ^dorfiinated by 'the service industr^, uetaec 

whichj&mptdy^bout 'three-qi^&rters ojf the country's workforce. J However, 
developed countnes4fr4ieimj^^ in which {jh|J< 




^rnments of 
nited States 
ree Trade 
92. 



two of the most prominent element 



134] •> 



w. 




untei!Kj|l among 
roletitoiiidustries are 



Brurp^X 



Canada is oiuf8flMJfe fS^d^eloped nations that are net exporters of energy/ 1 ^Atlantic Canada possesses vast 
offshore dgjgQjifts of natural gas, 'and Albert^ also hosts large oil and gas resources. The immense Athabasca oil 

sands give*<^inada the world's: second-largest proves oil reserves, after Saudi Arabia. J Canada is additionally 

one of the world's largest suppliers of agricultural products; the Canadian Prairies are one of the most important 

^^ IT371 

global producers of wheat, canola, and other grains. J Canada is the largest producer of zinc and uranium, and 

is a leading exporter of many other natural resources, such as gold, nickel, aluminum, and lead. J Many towns 
in northern Canada, where agriculture is difficult, are sustainable because of nearby mines or sources of timber. 
Canada also has a sizable manufacturing sector centred in southern Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and 

aeronautics representing particularly important industries. J 

Canada's economic integration with the United States has increased 
significantly since World War II. The Automotive Products Trade 
Agreement of 1965 opened the country's borders to trade in the 
automobile manufacturing industry. In the 1970s, concerns over energy 
self-sufficiency and foreign ownership in the manufacturing sectors 
prompted Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's Liberal government to enact 
the National Energy Program (NEP) and the Foreign Investment Review 

Agency (FIRA). [139] In the 1980s, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney's 
Progressive Conservatives abolished the NEP and changed the name of 
FIRA to "Investment Canada", in order to encourage foreign 

investment. J The Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement 
(FTA) of 1988 eliminated tariffs between the two countries, while the 
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) expanded the 

free-trade zone to include Mexico in 1994. J In the mid-1990s, the 




The Canadian economy is dominated 
by the service industry, which employs 
about three-quarters of the national 
workforce. 



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Liberal government under Jean Chretien began to post annual budgetary surpluses, and steadily paid down the 
national debt. [141] 

In 2008, Canada's imported goods were worth over $442.9 billion, of which $280.8 billion originated from the 
United States, $11.7 billion from Japan, and $11.3 billion from the United Kingdom. [132] The country's 2009 
trade deficit totaled C$4.8 billion, compared with a C$46.9 billion surplus in 2008. [142] 

The global financial crisis of 2008 caused a major recession, which led to rising unemployment in Canada. J 
As of October 2009, Canada's national unemployment rate stands at 8.6 percent. Provincial unemployment rates 
vary from a low of 5.8 percent in Manitoba to a high of 17 percent in Newfoundland and Labrador.^ J Between 
October 2008 and October 2010, the Canadian labour market lost 162,000 full-time jobs and a total of 224,000 
permanent jobs. J Canada's federal debt is estimated to total $566.7 billion for the 2010-11 fiscal year, up 
from $463.7 billion in 2008-09. [146] Canada's net foreign debt rose by $41 billion to $194 billion in the first 
quarter of 2010. [147] 

Science and technology 

Main article: Science and technology in Canada 

Canada is an industrialized nation, with one of the world's most highly- 
developed science and technology sectors. In 2011, nearly 1.88% of 
Canada's GDP was allocated to research and development (R&Dv 
The country has produced ten Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry and 
medicine, J and is home to a number of leading global technology 
firms, such as smartphone maker Research In Motion. * Canada ranks 
twelfth in the world for Internet users as a proportion of the population, 

with 28 million users (equivalent to 84.3% of its total population).^ ^ 




The Canadarm robotic manipulator in 
action on Space Shuttle Discovery 
during the STS-116 mission in 2006. 



The Canadian Space Agency operates one of the world's most active 

space programs, conducting space, planetary, and aviation research, and 

developing rockets and satellites. In 1984, Marc Garneau became 

Canada's first astronaut, serving as pay load specialist on the STS-41-G Space Shuttle mission. As of 2012, nine 

Canadians have flown into space, over the course of fifteen manned missions. J 

Canada is a participant in the International Space Station, and is a pioneer in space robotics, having constructed 
the Canadarm, Canadarm2 and Dextre robotic manipulators. Since the 1960s, Canada's aerospace industry has 
designed and built 10 marques of satellite, including Radarsat-1, Radarsat-2 and MOST/ J Canada has also 
produced a successful and widely-used sounding rocket, the Black Brant; over 1,000 Black Brants have been 
launched since the rocket's introduction in 1961. J In addition, Canadian universities are working on the first 
domestic landing spacecraft, the Northern Light, which is designed to search for life on Mars and investigate the 

Martian atmosphere and electromagnetic radiation environment. J 



Demographics 



Main article: Demographics of Canada 
See also: Ethnic origins of people in Canada 



Historical populations 
Year Pop. ±% 



1851 



2,415,000 — 



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1861 


3,174,000 


+31.4% 


1871 


3,689,000 


+ 16.2% 


1881 


4,325,000 


+ 17.2% 


1891 


4,833,000 


+ 11.7% 


1901 


5,371,000 


+ 11.1% 


1911 


7,207,000 


+34.2% 


1921 


8,788,000 


+21.9% 


1931 


10,377,000 


+18.1% 


1941 


11,507,000 


+10.9% 


1951 


14,009,000 


+21.7% 


1961 


18,238,000 


+30.2% 


1971 


21,962,000 


+20.4% 


1981 


24,820,000 


+ 13.0% 


1991 


28,031,000 


+ 12.9% 


2001 


31,021,000 


+ 10.7% 


2011 


33,476,000 


+7.9% 



Canada - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada 

The 2011 Canadian census counted a total population of 33,476,688, an 
increase of around 5.9% over the 2006 figure. [6][157] Between 1990 and 
2008, the population of Canada increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 
20.4% growth, compared to 21.7% growth in the United States and 
31.2% growth in Mexico over the same period. According to 
OECD/World Bank population statistics, the world population grew by 

27%, or 1.423 billion people, between 1990 and 2008. [158] The main 
drivers of population growth in Canada are immigration and, to a lesser 
extent, natural growth. About four- fifths of Canada's population lives 

within 150 kilometres (93 mi) of the United States border. J The 

majority of Canadians (approximately 80%) live in urban areas 

concentrated in the Quebec City - Windsor Corridor, the BC Lower 

Mainland, and the Calgary-Edmonton Corridor in Alberta. J In 

common with many other developed countries, Canada is experiencing a 

demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and 

fewer people of working age. In 2006, the average age of the population 

was 39.5 years. J M , nrn 

Source: Statistics Canada Li:)0JL0J 

According to the 2006 census, the country's largest self-reported ethnic 

origin is Canadian (accounting for 32% of the population), followed by English (21%), French (15.8%), Scottish 
(15.1%), Irish (13.9%), German (10.2%), Italian (4.6%), Chinese (4.3%), First Nations (4.0%), Ukrainian 
(3.9%), and Dutch (3.3%). J There are 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands encompassing 
1,172,790 people. [163] 

Canada's aboriginal population is growing at almost twice the national rate, and 3.8% of Canada's population 
claimed aboriginal identity in 2006. Another 16.2% of the population belonged to a non-aboriginal visible 

minority. J The largest visible minority groups in Canada are South Asian (4.0%), Chinese (3.9%) and Black 
(2.5%). Between 2001 and 2006, the visible minority population rose by 27.2%. [165] In 1961, less than 2% of 
Canada's population (about 300,000 people) could be classified as belonging to a visible minority group, and less 

than 1% as aboriginal. J As of 2007, almost one in five Canadians (19.8%) were foreign-born. Nearly 60% of 
new immigrants come from Asia (including the Middle East). J The leading emigrating countries to Canada 
were China, Philippines and India. J By 2031, one in three Canadians could belong to a visible minority 
group" 69 ] 

Canada has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world, J driven by economic policy and 
family reunification, and is aiming for between 240,000 and 265,000 new permanent residents in 2012, J the 
same number of immigrants as in recent years. J In 2010, a record 280,636 people immigrated to Canada. J 
New immigrants settle mostly in major urban areas like Toronto and Vancouver. J Canada also accepts large 
numbers of refugees. J The country resettles over one in 10 of the world's refugees. J 

According to the 2001 census, 77.1% of Canadians identify as being Christians; of this, Catholics make up the 
largest group, accounting for 43.6% of the population. The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church 
of Canada (accounting for 9.5% of Canadians), followed by Anglicans (6.8%), Baptists (2.4%), Lutherans (2%), 
and other Christian denominations (4.4%). About 16.5% of Canadians declare no religious affiliation, and the 
remaining 6.3% are affiliated with non-Christian religions, the largest of which are Islam (2.0%) and Judaism 

(i.i%). [177] 



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Canadian provinces and territories are responsible for education. Each system is similar, while reflecting regional 
history, culture and geography. The mandatory school age ranges between 5-7 to 16-18 years, J contributing 
to an adult literacy rate of 99%. J In 2002, 43% of Canadians aged 25 to 64 possessed a post- secondary 
education; for those aged 25 to 34, the rate of post-secondary education reached 51%. J 





Largest metropolitan areas in Canada by population (2011 Census) 




Name 


Province 


Population 


Name 


Province 


Population 


Toronto 


Ontario 


5,583,064 


London 


Ontario 


474,786 


Montreal 


Quebec 


3,824,221 


St. Catharines- 
Niagara 


Ontario 


392,184 


Vancouver 


British 
Columbia 


2,313,328 


Halifax 


Nova Scotia 


390,328 


Ottawa-Gatineau 


Ontario- 
Quebec 


1,236,324 


Oshawa 


Ontario 


356,177 


Calgary 


Alberta 


1,214,839 


Victoria 


British Columbia 


344,615 


Edmonton 


Alberta 


1,159,869 


Windsor 


Ontario 


319,246 


Quebec 


Quebec 


765,706 


Saskatoon 


Saskatchewan 


260,600 


Winnipeg 


Manitoba 


730,018 


Regina 


Saskatchewan 


210,556 


Hamilton 


Ontario 


721,053 


Sherbrooke 


Quebec 


201,890 


Kitchener-Cambridge- 


Ontario 


477,160 


St. John's 


Newfoundland and 


196,966 


Waterloo 








Labrador 





Language 

Main article: Languages of Canada 













In 2006, about 17.4% of the 
population were reportedly bilingual, 
being able to conduct a conversation in 
both official languages. 

English -57.8% 

English and French (Bilingual) 
-17.4% 



Canada's two official languages are Canadian English and Canadian 
French. Official bilingualism is defined in the Canadian Charter of Rights 
and Freedoms, the Official Languages Act, and Official Language 
Regulations', it is applied by the Commissioner of Official Languages. 
English and French have equal status in federal courts, Parliament, and in 
all federal institutions. Citizens have the right, where there is sufficient 
demand, to receive federal government services in either English or 
French, and official-language minorities are guaranteed their own schools 



[180] 



in all provinces and territories. 



English and French are the first languages of 59.7% and 23.2% of the 
population respectively. Approximately 98% of Canadians speak English 
or French: 57.8% speak English only, 22.1% speak French only, and 

17.4% speak botlJ J English and French Official Language 
Communities, defined by First Official Language Spoken, constitute 73.0 

and 23.6% of the population respectively. J 

The Charter of the French Language makes French the official language 



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French -22.1% 



Sparsely populated area ( < 0.4 



persons per km ) 



in Quebec. J Although more than 85% of French-speaking Canadians 
live in Quebec, there are substantial Francophone populations in Ontario, 
Alberta, and southern Manitoba; Ontario has the largest French-speaking 

population outside Quebec. J New Brunswick, the only officially 
bilingual province, has a French-speaking Acadian minority constituting 

33% of the population. There are also clusters of Acadians in southwestern Nova Scotia, on Cape Breton Island, 

and through central and western Prince Edward Island. J 

Other provinces have no official languages as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and 
for other government services, in addition to English. Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec allow for both English and 
French to be spoken in the provincial legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages. In Ontario, French has 

some legal status, but is not fully co-official. J There are 11 Aboriginal language groups, composed of more 
than 65 distinct dialects. J Of these, only the Cree, Inuktitut and Ojibway languages have a large enough 
population of fluent speakers to be considered viable to survive in the long term. J Several aboriginal 
languages have official status in the Northwest Territories. J Inuktitut is the majority language in Nunavut, and 
is one of three official languages in the territory. ^ J 

In 2005, over six million people in Canada listed a non-official language as their mother tongue. Some of the 
most common non-official first languages include Chinese (mainly Cantonese; 1,012,065 first-language 

speakers), Italian (455,040), German (450,570), Punjabi (367,505) and Spanish (345,345). [191] English and 
French are the most-spoken home languages, being spoken at home by 68.3% and 22.3% of the population 
respectively. J 

Culture 

Main article: Culture of Canada 

See also: Canadian art, Music of Canada, Sports in Canada, and National symbols of Canada 

Canadian society is often depicted as being "very progressive, diverse, 

and multicultural". J Canada's culture draws influences from its broad 
range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote 
multiculturalism are constitutionally protected. J In Quebec, cultural 
identity is strong, and many French-speaking commentators speak of a 

culture of Quebec that is distinct from English Canadian culture. J 
However, as a whole, Canada is in theory a cultural mosaic - a collection 

of several regional, aboriginal, and ethnic subcultures. J Government 
policies such as publicly-funded health care, higher taxation to distribute 
wealth, outlawing capital punishment, strong efforts to eliminate poverty, 
an emphasis on multiculturalism, stricter gun control, and legalization of 
same-sex marriage are social indicators of Canada's political and cultural 
values. [197] 

Historically, Canada has been influenced by British, French, and aboriginal cultures and traditions. Through their 
language, art and music, aboriginal peoples continue to influence the Canadian identity. J Many Canadians 

value multiculturalism and see Canada as being inherently multicultural. J American media and entertainment 
are popular, if not dominant, in English Canada; conversely, many Canadian cultural products and entertainers 
are successful in the United States and worldwide. J Many cultural products are marketed toward a unified 




Bill Reid's 1980 sculpture Raven and 
The First Men. The Raven is a figure 
common to many of Canada's 
Aboriginal mythologies. 



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"North American" or global market. The preservation of a distinctly Canadian culture is supported by federal 
government programs, laws, and institutions such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National 

Film Board of Canada, and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. J 

Canadian visual art has been dominated by figures such as Tom Thomson 
- the country's most famous painter - and by the Group of Seven. 
Thomson's career painting Canadian landscapes spanned just a decade up 
to his death in 1917 at age 39. ^ The Group were painters with a 
nationalistic and idealistic focus, who first exhibited their distinctive 
works in May 1920. Though referred to as having seven members, five 
artists - Lawren Harris, A. Y. Jackson, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. 
MacDonald, and Frederick Varley - were responsible for articulating the 
Group's ideas. They were joined briefly by Frank Johnston, and by 
commercial artist Franklin Carmichael. A. J. Casson became part of the 
Group in 1926. J Associated with the Group was another prominent 
Canadian artist, Emily Carr, known for her landscapes and portrayals of 




the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast 



[203] 



The Jack Pine, by Tom Thomson. Oil 
on canvas, 1916, in the collection of 
the National Gallery of Canada. 



The Canadian music industry has produced internationally renowned 
composers, musicians and ensembles. J Music broadcasting in the 

country is regulated by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). The 
Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences presents Canada's music industry awards, the Juno Awards, 
which were first awarded in 1970. * The national anthem of Canada O Canada adopted in 1980, was 
originally commissioned by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, the Honourable Theodore Robitaille, for the 
1880 St. Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony. J Calixa Lavallee wrote the music, which was a setting of a patriotic 
poem composed by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The text was originally only in French, 

before it was translated to English in 1906. J 

Canada's official national sports are ice hockey and lacrosse. J Hockey 
is a national pastime and the most popular spectator sport in the country. 
It is also the sport most played by Canadians, with 1.65 million 
participants reported in 2004. Seven of Canada's eight largest 
metropolitan areas - Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, 
Edmonton and Winnipeg - have franchises in the National Hockey 
League (NHL), and there are more Canadian players in the NHL than 
from all other countries combined. Other popular spectator sports include 
A scene at the 2010 Winter Olympics curling and football; the latter is played professionally in the Canadian 

in Vancouver, seconds after Team Football League (CFL). Golf, baseball, skiing, soccer, cricket, volleyball, 

Canada won a gold medal in men's ice m ^ lea § ue and basketball are widely played at youth and amateur 

hockey. levels, but professional leagues and franchises are not widespread. J 




Canada has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, 
including the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, and the 2007 FIFA 
U-20 World Cup. Canada was the host nation for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver and Whistler, British 
Columbia. [210] 

Canada's national symbols are influenced by natural, historical, and Aboriginal sources. The use of the maple leaf 
as a Canadian symbol dates to the early 18th century. The maple leaf is depicted on Canada's current and 

previous flags, on the penny, and on the Arms of Canada. J Other prominent symbols include the beaver, 



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Canada Goose, Common Loon, the Crown, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, J and more recently, the 
totem pole and Inuksuk.^ ^ 

See also 

■ Outline of Canada 

■ Index of Canada-related articles 



Notes 

1. A See Note 1 at Queen's Privy Council for Canada. 

References 

1. A Department of Canadian Heritage. "Royal anthem 'God Save The Queen'" (http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem- 
cced/symbl/godsave-eng.cfm) . Queen's Printer, http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/symbl/godsave-eng.cfm. 
Retrieved 2011-05-23. 

2. A Kallmann, Helmut. "National and royal anthems" (http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE& 
Params=UlARTU0002533) . In Marsh, James Harley. Encyclopedia of Music in Canada. Historica-Dominion. 
http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=UlARTU0002533. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 

3. A Official Languages Act (http://www.nwtlanguagescommissioner.ca/pdf/Official_Languages_act.pdf) . Territorial 
Printer. 2004. p. 4. http://www.nwtlanguagescommissioner.ca/pdf/Official_Languages_act.pdf. 

4. A a Hail, M; Lange, S (February 25, 2010). "Federalism and Representation in the Theory of the Founding Fathers: 
A Comparative Study of US and Canadian Constitutional Thought". Publius: the Journal of Federalism 40 (3): 
366-388. doi:10.1093/publius/pjq001 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1093%2Fpublius%2Fpjq001) . 

5. A "Canada's population clock" (http://www.statcan.gc.ca/ig-gi/pop-ca-eng.htm) . Statistics Canada. 
http://www.statcan.gc.ca/ig-gi/pop-ca-eng.htm. Retrieved 2012-03-21. 

6. A a b c "2011 Census: Population and dwelling counts" (http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/120208/dql20208a- 
eng.htm?WT.mc_id=twtB2000) . Statistics Canada. February 8, 2012. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien 
/120208/dql20208a-eng.htm?WT.mc_id=twtB2000. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 

7. * abcde "Canada" (http://www.iirrf.org/extemal/pubs/ft/weo/2011/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2009&ey=2016^ 
scsm=l&ssd=l&sort=country&ds=.&br=l&c=156&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP& 
grp=0&a=&prl.x=94&prl.y=17) . International Monetary Fund, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011 
/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2009&ey=2016&scsm=l&ssd=l&sort=country&ds=.&br=l&c=156& 
s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&prl.x=94&prl.y=17. Retrieved 
2011-11-05. 

8. A "Distribution of family income - Gini index" (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields 
/2172.html) . World Factbook. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2172.html. 
Retrieved 2009-09-01. 

9. A "Human Development Report 2011" (http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Tablel.pdf) . United Nations. 
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Tablel.pdf. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 

10. A "Origin of the Name, Canada" (http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/symbl/o5-eng.cfm) . Canadian Heritage. 
2008. http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/symbl/o5-eng.cfm. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 

11. A a Maura, Juan Francisco (2009). "Nuevas aportaciones al estudio de la toponimia iberica en la America 
Septentrional en el siglo XVI". Bulletin of Spanish Studies 86 (5): 577-603. doi: 10. 1080/14753820902969345 
(http://dx.doi.org/10. 1080%2F14753820902969345) . 

12. A Rayburn, Alan (2001). Naming Canada: Stories of Canadian Place Names (2nd ed.). University of Toronto 
Press, pp. 1-22. ISBN 0-8020-8293-9. 

13. A O'Toole, Roger (2009). "Dominion of the Gods: Religious continuity and change in a Canadian context". In 



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History of Canada 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of Paleo- 
Indians thousands of years ago to the present day. Canada has been 
inhabited for millennia by distinctive groups of Aboriginal peoples, 
among whom evolved trade networks, spiritual beliefs, and social 
hierarchies. Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of 
the first European arrivals and have been discovered through 
archaeological investigations. Various treaties and laws have been 
enacted between European settlers and the Aboriginal populations. 

Beginning in the late 15th century, French and British expeditions 
explored, and later settled, along the Atlantic coast. France ceded 
nearly all of its colonies in North America to Britain in 1763 after the 
Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North 
American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a 
federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of 
provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from 
the British Empire, which became official with the Statute of 
Westminster of 1931 and completed in the Canada Act of 1982, which 
severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. 

Over centuries, elements of Aboriginal, French, British and more 
recent immigrant customs have combined to form a Canadian culture. 
Canadian culture has also been strongly influenced by that of its 
linguistic, geographic and economic neighbour, the United States. Since 
the conclusion of the Second World War, Canadians have supported 
multilateralism abroad and socioeconomic development domestically. 
Canada currently consists of ten provinces and three territories and is 
governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy 
with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. 



Contents 



1 Pre-colonization 

■ 1.1 European contact 

2 New France and colonization 1534-1763 

■ 2.1 Wars during the colonial era 

3 Canada under British rule (1763-1867) 

■ 3.1 American Revolution and Loyalists 

■ 3.2 War of 1812 

■ 3.3 Rebellions and the Durham Report 

■ 3.4 Pacific colonies 

■ 3.5 Confederation 

4 Post-Confederation Canada 1867-1914 

5 World Wars and Interwar Years 1914-1945 



History of Canada 




This article is part of a series 



Year List 

Pre-colonization 
1534-1763 
1764-1866 
1867-1914 
1914-1945 
1945-1960 
1960-1981 
1982-1992 
1992-present 

Topics 

Constitutional history 

Cultural history 

Economic history 

Former colonies & territories 

Immigration history 

Military history 

Monarchical history 

National Historic Sites 

Persons of significance 

Territorial evolution 

Bibliography 

History of Canada portal 



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■ 5.1 First World War 

■ 5.2 Interwar 

■ 5.3 Great Depression 

■ 5.4 Second World War 

■ 5.4.1 Mobilisation 

■ 5.4.2 Combat 

■ 5.4.3 Conscription 

6 Post-war Era 1945-1960 

7 1960-1981 

8 1982-1992 

9 Recent history: 1992-present 

10 See also 

11 References 

12 Further reading 

13 External links 




P re-colonization 

Main article: Pre-colonization history of Canada 
Further information: List of years in Canada 

According to orange elephants North American archeological and 
Aboriginal genetic evidence, North and South America were the last 
continents in the world with human habitation. ^ J During the 
Wisconsin glaciation, 50,000 - 17,000 years ago, falling sea levels 
allowed people to move across the Bering land bridge (Beringia) that 
joined Siberia to north west North America (Alaska). ^ J At that point, 
they were blocked by the Laurentide ice sheet that covered most of 
Canada, which confined them to Alaska for thousands of years. J 

Around 16,000 years ago, the glaciers began melting, allowing people to 

move south and east into Canada. J The exact dates and routes of the 

peopling of the Americas are the subject of an ongoing debate. ^ ^ ^ J 

The Queen Charlotte Islands, Old Crow Flats, and Bluefish Caves are 

some of the earliest archaeological sites of Paleo-Indians in Canada. 

^ ^ J Ice Age hunter-gatherers left lithic flake fluted stone tools and the remains of large butchered mammals. 

The North American climate stabilized around 8000 BCE (10,000 years ago). Climatic conditions were similar to 
modern patterns; however, the receding glacial ice sheets still covered large portions of the land, creating lakes 
of meltwater.^ ^ J Most population groups during the Archaic periods were still highly mobile hunter- 
gatherers. J However, individual groups started to focus on resources available to them locally; thus with the 
passage of time there is a pattern of increasing regional generalization (i.e.: Paleo-Arctic, Piano and Maritime 

Archaic traditions). J 

The Woodland cultural period dates from about 2000 BCE to 1000 CE and includes the Ontario, Quebec, and 

ri2i 
Maritime regions. J The introduction of pottery distinguishes the Woodland culture from the previous 



The Mi'kmaq on the Atlantic coast 
were among the first indigenous 
people encountered by Europeans. This 
1 857 photo shows a Mi'kmaq camp in 
Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. 



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Archaic -stage inhabitants. The Laurentian-related people of Ontario 



manufactured the oldest pottery excavated to date in Canada. 



[15] 



Great Lakes area of the Hopewell 
Interaction Area 

PP=Point Peninsula Complex S=Saugeen 
Complex L=Laurel Complex 



The Hopewell tradition is an Aboriginal culture that flourished along American 
rivers from 300 BCE to 500 CE. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell Exchange 
System connected cultures and societies to the peoples on the Canadian shores 
of Lake Ontario. Canadian expression of the Hopewellian peoples 

encompasses the Point Peninsula, Saugeen, and Laurel complexes. ^ ^ J 




Pre-Columbian distribution 
of Algonquian languages in 
North America. 



The eastern woodland areas of what became Canada were home to the 
Algonquian and Iroquoian peoples. The Algonquian language is believed to 
have originated in the western plateau of Idaho or the plains of Montana and 

moved eastward, J eventually extending all the way from Hudson Bay to what is today Nova Scotia in the east 

and as far south as the Tidewater region of Virginia. 

Speakers of eastern Algonquian languages included the Mi'kmaq and Abenaki of 
the Maritime region of Canada, and likely the extinct Beothuk of Newfoundland. 

^ ^ J The Ojibwa and other Anishinaabe speakers of the central Algonquian 
languages retain an oral tradition of having moved to their lands around the 
western and central Great Lakes from the sea, likely the east coast. According to 
oral tradition the Ojibwa formed the Council of Three Fires in 796 CE with the 
Odawa and the Potawatoirnv J 

The Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) were centered from at least 1000 CE in northern 
New York, but their influence extended into what is now southern Ontario and 
the Montreal area of modern Quebec. J The Iroquois Confederacy, according 

to oral tradition, was formed in 1142 CE. ^ J On the Great Plains the Cree or 
Nehilawe (who spoke a closely related Central Algonquian language, the plains 

Cree language) depended on the vast herds of bison to supply food and many of their other needs. J To the 
north west were the peoples of the Na-Dene languages, which include the Athapaskan-speaking peoples and the 
Tlingit, who lived on the islands of southern Alaska and northern British Columbia. The Na-Dene language group 

is believed to be linked to the Yeniseian languages of Siberia. J The Dene of the western Arctic may represent 

a distinct wave of migration from Asia to North America. * 

The Interior of British Columbia was home to the Salishan language groups such 
as the Shuswap (Secwepemc) and Okanagan and southern Athabaskan language 
groups, primarily the Dakelh (Carrier) and the Tsilhqot'in.^ J The inlets and 
valleys of the British Columbia Coast sheltered large, distinctive populations, 
such as the Haida, Kwakwaka'wakw and Nuu-chah-nulth, sustained by the 
region's abundant salmon and shellfish.^ J These peoples developed complex 
cultures dependent on the western red cedar that included wooden houses, 
seagoing whaling and war canoes and elaborately carved potlatch items and 
totem poles. J Defensive Salish trenchwork defences from the 16th century 
suggest a need for the southern Salish to take measures to protect themselves 
against their northern neighbours, who were known to mount raids into the Strait 
of Georgia and Puget Sound in historic times. J 




Pre-Columbian distribution 
of Na-Dene languages in 
North America 



In the Arctic archipelago, the distinctive Paleo-Eskimos known as Dorset 



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peoples, whose culture has been traced back to around 500 CE, were replaced by the ancestors of today's Inuit 
by 1500 CE. J This transition is supported by archaeological records and Inuit mythology that tells of having 

driven off the Tuniit or 'first inhabitants'. J Inuit traditional laws are anthropologically different from Western 

T321 
law. Customary law was non-existent in Inuit society before the introduction of the Canadian legal system. J 

European contact 







L'Anse aux Meadows on the island of 
Newfoundland, site of a Norsemen 
colony. 



Further information: Norse colonization of the Americas 

There are reports of contact made before the 1492 voyages of 

Christopher Columbus and the age of discovery between First Nations, 

Inuit and those from other continents. The earliest known documented 

European exploration of Canada is described in the Icelandic Sagas, 

which recount the attempted Norse colonization of the Americas. 

^ ^ J According to the Sagas, the first European to see Canada was 

Bjarni Herjolfsson, who was blown off course en route from Iceland to 

Greenland in the summer of 985 or 986 CE. [35] Around the year 1001 

CE, the Sagas then refer to Leif Ericson landing in three places to the 

west, J the first two being Helluland (possibly Baffin Island) and 

Markland (possibly Labrador). ^ J Leif s third landing was at a place 

he called Vinland (possibly Newfoundland). J Norsemen (often referred to as Vikings) attempted to colonize 

the new land; they were driven out by the local climate and harassment by the Indigenous populace. ^ J 
Archaeological evidence of a short-lived Norse settlement was found in L Anse aux Meadows, 

Newfoundland. [40] 

Based on the Treaty of Tordesillas, the Portuguese Crown claimed it had territorial rights in the area visited by 

John Cabot in 1497 and 1498 CE. J To that end, in 1499 and 1500, the Portuguese mariner Joao Fernandes 
Lavrador visited the north Atlantic coast, which accounts for the appearance of "Labrador" on topographical 

maps of the period. J Subsequently, in 1501 and 1502 the Corte-Real brothers explored Newfoundland and 

Labrador, claiming them as part of the Portuguese Empire. ^ J In 1506, King Manuel I of Portugal created 

taxes for the cod fisheries in Newfoundland waters. J Joao Alvares Fagundes and Pero de Barcelos established 
fishing outposts in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia around 1521 CE; however, these were later abandoned, with 

the Portuguese colonizers focusing their efforts on South America. J The extent and nature of Portuguese 

activity on the Canadian mainland during the 16th century remains unclear and controversial. ^ J 



New France and colonization 1534-1763 

Main articles: New France and Former colonies and territories in Canada 

French interest in the New World began with Francis I of France, who in 1524 sponsored Giovanni da 
Verrazzano to navigate the region between Florida and Newfoundland in hopes of finding a route to the Pacific 
Ocean. ^ J In 1534, Jacques Carrier planted a cross in the Gaspe Peninsula and claimed the land in the name of 

Francis I. J Despite initial French attempts at settling the region having ended in failure, French fishing fleets 
began to sail to the Atlantic coast and into the St. Lawrence River, trading and making alliances with First 
Nations. J In 1600, a trading post was established at Tadoussac by Frangois Grave Du Pont, a merchant, and 
Pierre de Chauvin de Tonnetuit, a captain of the French Royal Navy. J However, only five of the sixteen 



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Replica of Port Royal habitation, 
located at the Port-Royal National 
Historic Site of Canada, 



Nova-Scotia. 



[49] 



settlers (all male) survived the first winter and returned to France. J 

In 1604, a North American fur trade monopoly was granted to Pierre 

Dugua Sieur de Monts. J Dugua led his first colonization expedition to 
an island located near to the mouth of the St. Croix River. Among his 
lieutenants was a geographer named Samuel de Champlain, who 
promptly carried out a major exploration of the northeastern coastline of 
what is now the United States. J In the spring of 1605, under Samuel de 
Champlain, the new St. Croix settlement was moved to Port Royal 
(today's Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia) then abandoned in 1607. ^ J 



In 1608 Champlain founded what is now Quebec City, which would 
become the first permanent settlement and the capital of New France. He 
took personal administration over the city and its affairs, and sent out 
expeditions to explore the interior. Champlain himself discovered Lake 
Champlain in 1609. By 1615, he had travelled by canoe up the Ottawa River through Lake Nipissing and 
Georgian Bay to the center of Huron country near Lake Simcoe. J During these voyages, Champlain aided the 

Wendat (aka 'Hurons') in their battles against the Iroquois Confederacy. J As a result, the Iroquois would 
become enemies of the French and be involved in multiple conflicts (known as the French and Iroquois Wars) 

until the signing of the Great Peace of Montreal in 1701 . J 

The English, lead by Sir Humphrey Gilbert, had 
claimed St. John's, Newfoundland in 1583 as the 

first North American English colony by royal 

T571 
prerogative of Queen Elizabeth I. J The English 

would establish additional colonies in Cupids and 

Ferry land, Newfoundland beginning in 1610 and 

soon after founded the Thirteen Colonies to the 

south. [58] On the September 29, 1621, a charter for 

the foundation of a New World Scottish colony was 

granted by James VI of Scotland to Sir William 

Alexander. [59] In 1622, the first settlers left 

Scotland. They initially failed and permanent Nova 

Scotian settlements were not firmly established 

until 1629 during the end of the Anglo-French 

War. J These colonies did not last long: in 1631, 

under Charles I of England, the Treaty of Suza was signed, ending the war and returning Nova Scotia to the 
French. J New France was not fully restored to French rule until the 1632 Treaty of Saint-Germain- 
en-Laye. J This led to new French immigrants and the founding of Trois-Rivieres in 1634, the second 
permanent settlement in New France. ^ 

After Champlain's death in 1635, the Catholic Church and the Jesuit establishment became the most dominant 

force in New France and intended to establish a Utopian European and Aboriginal Christian community. J In 
1642, the Jesuit (Society of Jesus) sponsored a group of settlers, led by Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, who 

founded Ville-Marie, precursor to present-day Montreal. J The 1666 census of New France was conducted by 
France's intendant, Jean Talon, in the winter of 1665-1666. The census showed a population count of 3,215 

Acadians and habitants in the administrative districts of Acadia and Canada (New France). J The census also 




4 






Map of New France by Samuel de Champlain 

"Carte geographique de la Nouvelle France" c. 1612/13 . 



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revealed a great difference in the number of men at 2,034 versus 1,181 women. 
Wars during the colonial era 



[66] 



Further information: French and Indian Wars 
See also: Military history of Canada 







DONfl 




Ata-tc 
OCMfl 



Map of North America in 1702 showing forts, towns and 
areas occupied by European settlements. Britain (pink), 
France (blue), and Spain (orange) 



While the French settlers were established in modern 
Quebec and Nova Scotia, new arrivals stopped coming 
from France. By 1680 the French population was 

around ll,00(r J and the British vastly outnumbered 
them (by approximately 10:1) from the Thirteen 
Colonies to the south. From 1670, through the 
Hudson's Bay Company, the English also laid claim to 
Hudson Bay, and its drainage basin (known as Rupert's 
Land), and operated fishing settlements in 
Newfoundland. J La Salle's explorations gave France 
a claim to the Mississippi River Valley, where fur 
trappers and a few settlers set up scattered 

settlements. J French expansion challenged the 
Hudson's Bay Company claims, and in 1686 Pierre 
Troyes led an overland expedition from Montreal to 
the shore of the bay, where they managed to capture 
some areas. J 



There were four French and Indian Wars and two additional wars in Acadia and Nova Scotia (see Father Rale's 
War and Father Le Loutre's War) between the Thirteen American Colonies and New France from 1689 to 1763. 
During King William's War (1689 to 1697) military conflicts in Acadia included: Battle of Port Royal (1690); a 

naval battle in the Bay of Fundy (Action of July 14, 1696); and the Raid on Chignecto (1696) . J The Treaty of 

Ryswick in 1697 ended the war between the two colonial powers of England and France for a brief time. J 

During Queen Anne's War (1702 to 1713), the British Conquest of Acadia occurred in 1710. J Resulting in 
Nova Scotia, other than Cape Breton, being officially ceded to the British by the Treaty of Utrecht including 

Rupert's Land, that had been conquered by France in the late 17th century (Battle of Hudson's Bay). J As an 

immediate result of this setback, France founded the powerful Fortress of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island. J 

Louisbourg was intended to serve as a year-round military and naval 
base for France's remaining North American empire and to protect the 
entrance to the St. Lawrence River. Father Rale's War resulted in both 
the fall of New France influence in present-day Maine as well as 
recognition the Mi'kmaq in Nova Scotia. During King George's War 
(1744 to 1748), an army of New Englanders led by William Pepperrell 
mounted an expedition of 90 vessels and 4,000 men against 

Louisbourg in 1745. J Within three months the fortress surrendered. 

The return of Louisbourg to French control by the peace treaty 

prompted the British to found Halifax in 1749 under Edward St. John River Campaign: Raid on 

Cornwallis. [77] Despite the official cessation of war between the Grimrose (present day Gagetown, New 

British and French empires with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle; the Brunswick). This is the only 

conflict in Acadia and Nova Scotia continued on as the Father Le contemporaneous image of the Expulsion 




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Loutre's War. 



[78] 



of the Acadians 






The British ordered the Acadians expelled from their lands in 1755 

during the French and Indian War, an event called the Expulsion of the Acadians or le Grand Derangement. J 
The "expulsion" resulted in approximately 12,000 Acadians being shipped to destinations throughout Britain's 
North American and to France, Quebec and the French Caribbean colony of Saint-Domingue. ^ The first wave 
of the expulsion of the Acadians began with the Bay of Fundy Campaign (1755) and the second wave began 
after the final Siege of Louisbourg (1758). Many of the Acadians settled in southern Louisiana, creating the 

Cajun culture there. J Some Acadians managed to hide and others eventually returned to Nova Scotia, but they 
were far outnumbered by a new migration of New England Planters who were settled on the former lands of the 
Acadians and transformed Nova Scotia from a colony of occupation for the British to a settled colony with 
stronger ties to New England. J Britain eventually gained control of Quebec City and Montreal after the Battle 
of the Plains of Abraham and Battle of Fort Niagara in 1759, and the Battle of the Thousand Islands and Battle 

ofSainte-Foyinl760. [81] 



Canada under British rule (1763-1867) 

Main article: Canada under British rule (1763-1867) 

With the end of the Seven Years' War and the signing 
of the Treaty of Paris (1763), France ceded almost all 
of its territory in mainland North America, except for 
fishing rights off Newfoundland and two small islands 
where it could dry that fish. In turn France received 
the return of its sugar colony, Guadeloupe, which it 

considered more valuable than Canada. J 

The new British rulers retained and protected most of 
the property, religious, political, and social culture of 
the French-speaking habitants, guaranteeing the right 
of the Canadiens to practice the Catholic faith and to 
the use of French civil law (now Quebec law) through 
the Quebec Act of 1774. [83] The Royal Proclamation 
of 1763 had been issued in October, by King George 
III following Great Britain's acquisition of French 

territory. J The proclamation organized Great 

Britain's new North American empire and to stabilize 

relations between the British Crown and Aboriginal peoples through regulation of trade, settlement, and land 

purchases on the western frontier. J 




Map showing British territorial gains following the "Seven 
Years' War". Treaty of Paris gains in pink, and Spanish 
territorial gains after the Treaty of Fontainebleau in yellow. 



American Revolution and Loyalists 

Further information: Invasion of Canada (1775) 

During the American Revolution there was some sympathy for the American cause among the Canadiens and 

the New Englanders in Nova Scotia. * Neither party joined the rebels, although several hundred individuals 

joined the revolutionary cause. ^ J An invasion of Canada; by the Continental Army in 1775, to take Quebec 
from British control was halted at the Battle of Quebec, by Guy Carleton, with the assistance of local militias. 



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The defeat of the British army during the Siege of Yorktown in October 1781, signaled the end of Britain's 

struggle to suppress the American Revolution. J When the British evacuated New York City in 1783, they took 
many Loyalist refugees to Nova Scotia, while other Loyalists went to southwestern Quebec. So many Loyalists 
arrived on the shores of the St. John River that a separate colony — New Brunswick — was created in 1784;^ J 
followed in 1791 by the division of Quebec into the largely French-speaking Lower Canada (French Canada) 
along the St. Lawrence River and Gaspe Peninsula and an anglophone Loyalist Upper Canada, with its capital 

settled by 1796 in York, in present-day Toronto. J After 1790 most of the new settlers were American farmers 
searching for new lands; although generally favorable to republicanism, they were relatively non-political and 

stayed neutral in the War of 1812. 



[90] 



The signing of the Treaty of Paris 1783, formally ended the war. Britain made several concessions to the 
Americans at the expense of the North American colonies. J Notably, the borders between Canada and the 
United States were officially demarkated. J All land south of the Great Lakes, which was formerly a part of the 
Province of Quebec and included modern day Michigan, Illinois and Ohio, was ceded to the Americans. Fishing 
rights were also granted to the United States in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and on the coast of Newfoundland and 

the Grand Banks. J The British ignored part of the treaty and maintained their military outposts in the Great 
Lakes areas it ceded to the U.S., and continued to supply the Indians there with munitions. The British evacuated 
the outposts with the Jay Treaty of 1795, but the continued supply of munitions irritated the Americans in the 
run-up to the war of 1812. [92] 

War of 1812 



Main article: War of 1812 

The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and the British 
with the British North American colonies being heavily involved. * 
Greatly outgunned by the British Royal Navy, the American war plans 
focused on an invasion of Canada (especially what is today eastern 
and western Ontario). The American frontier states voted for war to 
suppress the First Nations raids that frustrated settlement of the 
frontier. J The war on the border with the U.S. was characterized by 
a series of multiple failed invasions and fiascos on both sides. 
American forces took control of Lake Erie in 1813, driving the British 
out of western Ontario, killing the Native American leader Tecumseh, 

and breaking the military power of his confederacy. J The war was 
overseen by Isaac Brock, with the assistance of First Nations and 
loyalist informants like Laura Secord. J 







F*HEJv!3 


K^j 


mi i«r r ■ J 




KwJ [ t^Wil 







Loyalist Laura Secord warning the British 
(Lieutenant - James FitzGibbon) and First 
Nations of an impending American attack 
at Beaver Dams June 1 8 1 3 . - by Lome 
Kidd Smith, c. 1920 



The War ended with the Treaty of Ghent of 1814, and the Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817. J A demographic result 
was the shifting of American migration from Upper Canada to Ohio, Indiana and Michigan. J After the war, 
supporters of Britain tried to repress the republicanism in Canada, that was common among American 
immigrants to Canada. J The troubling memory of the war and the American invasions etched itself into the 
consciousness of Canadians as distrust of the intentions of the United States towards the British presence in 
North America. [96] PP' 254 - 255 

Rebellions and the Durham Report 



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Further information: Rebellions of 1837 

The rebellions of 1837 against the British colonial government took place in both Upper and Lower Canada. In 
Upper Canada, a band of Reformers under the leadership of William Lyon Mackenzie took up arms in a 
disorganized and ultimately unsuccessful series of small-scale skirmishes around Toronto, London, and 
Hamilton. [97] 

In Lower Canada, a more substantial rebellion occurred against British 
rule. Both English- and French-Canadian rebels, sometimes using bases 
in the neutral United States, fought several skirmishes against the 
authorities. The towns of Chambly and Sorel were taken by the rebels, 
and Quebec City was isolated from the rest of the colony. Montreal rebel 
leader Robert Nelson read the "Declaration of Independence of Lower 
Canada" to a crowd assembled at the town of Napierville in 1838. ^ 
The rebellion of the Patriote movement were defeated after battles 

across Quebec. Hundreds were arrested, and several villages were burnt 

The Burning of the Parliament . . - rQ81 

in reprisal. J 
Buildings in Montreal -1 849, Joseph 

Legare, c.1849 British Government then sent Lord Durham to examine the situation, he 

stayed in Canada only five months before returning to Britain, and 
brought with him, his Durham Report which strongly recommended responsible government. J A less well 
received recommendation was the amalgamation of Upper and Lower Canada for the deliberate assimilation of 
the French-speaking population. The Canadas were merged into a single colony, United Province of Canada, by 
the 1840 Act of Union, with responsible government achieved in 1848, a few months after it was granted to 
Nova Scotia. * The parliament of United Canada in Montreal was set on fire by a mob of Tories in 1849 after 
the passing of an indemnity bill for the people who suffered losses during the rebellion in Lower Canada. J 

Between the Napoleonic Wars and 1850 some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North 
America, mainly from the British Isles as part of the great migration of Canada. J These included Gaelic- 
speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia and Scottish and English settlers 
to the Canadas, particularly Upper Canada. The Irish Famine of the 1840s significantly increased the pace of 
Irish Catholic immigration to British North America, with over 35,000 distressed Irish landing in Toronto alone in 

1847 and 1848. [102] 

Pacific colonies 

Further information: History of British Columbia 

Spanish explorers had taken the lead in the Pacific Northwest coast, with the voyages of Juan Jose Perez 

Hernandez in 1774 and 1775. J By the time the Spanish determined to build a fort on Vancouver Island, the 
British navigator James Cook had visited Nootka Sound and charted the coast as far as Alaska, while British and 
American maritime fur traders had begun a busy era of commerce with the coastal peoples to satisfy the brisk 
market for sea otter pelts in China, thereby launching what became known as the China Trade. ^ 

In 1789 war threatened between Britain and Spain on their respective rights; the Nootka Crisis was resolved 
peacefully largely in favor of Britain, the much stronger naval power. In 1793 Alexander MacKenzie, a 
Canadian working for the North West Company, crossed the continent and with his Aboriginal guides and 
French-Canadian crew, reached the mouth of the Bella Coola River, completing the first continental crossing 

north of Mexico, missing George Vancouver's charting expedition to the region by only a few weeks. J In 

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1821, the North West Company and Hudson's Bay Company 
merged, with a combined trading territory that was extended by a 
licence to the North- Western Territory and the Columbia and New 
Caledonia fur districts, which reached the Arctic Ocean on the 

north and the Pacific Ocean on the west. J 

The Colony of Vancouver Island was chartered in 1849, with the 
trading post at Fort Victoria as the capital. This was followed by 
the Colony of the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1853, and by the 
creation of the Colony of British Columbia in 1858 and the Stikine 
Territory in 1861, with the latter three being founded expressly to 
keep those regions from being overrun and annexed by American 
gold miners. * The Colony of the Queen Charlotte Islands and 
most of the Stikine Territory were merged into the Colony of 
British Columbia in 1863 (the remainder, north of the 60th Parallel, 
became part of the North- Western Territory).^ ^ 

Confederation 



«'«0«N«.UIfl 



Oregon Country / 

Columbia District 

1818 1846 

Rupert's 
Land 
(British) 




«T MtWfl* Sift* dMT. 






Map of the Columbia District, also referred to 
as Oregon Country. 



Main article: Canadian Confederation 



"/J^OT^ 




Hit uii 


1 


IHhK)' 








^i*t^ 



1885 photo of Robert Harris' 1884 
painting, Conference at Quebec in 
1864, also known as The Fathers of 
Confederation. The scene is an 
amalgamation of the Charlottetown 
and Quebec City conference sites and 
attendees. 



The Seventy-Two Resolutions from the 1864 Quebec Conference and 
Charlottetown Conference laid out the framework for uniting British 

colonies in North America into a federation. J They had been adopted 
by the majority of the provinces of Canada and became the basis for the 
London Conference of 1866, which led to the formation of the Dominion 
of Canada on July 1, 1867. J The term dominion was chosen to 
indicate Canada's status as a self-governing colony of the British Empire, 
the first time it was used about a country.^ J With the coming into force 
of the British North America Act (enacted by the British Parliament), the 
Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia became a 
federated kingdom in its own right. [110][111][112] 



Federation emerged from multiple impulses: the British wanted Canada 
to defend itself; the Maritimes needed railroad connections, which were 
promised in 1867; British-Canadian nationalism sought to unite the lands 
into one country, dominated by the English language and British culture; 
many French-Canadians saw an opportunity to exert political control within a new largely French-speaking 
Quebec^ Jpp ' ~ and fears of possible U.S. expansion northward. J On a political level, there was a 
desire for the expansion of responsible government and elimination of the legislative deadlock between Upper 
and Lower Canada, and their replacement with provincial legislatures in a federation. J This was especially 
pushed by the liberal Reform movement of Upper Canada and the French-Canadian Parti rouge in Lower 
Canada who favored a decentralized union in comparison to the Upper Canadian Conservative party and to 

some degree the French-Canadian Parti bleu, which favored a centralized union. ^ J 



Post-Confederation Canada 1867-1914 



Main article: Post-Confederation Canada (1867-1914) 



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Further information: Territorial evolution of Canada 

In 1866, the Colony of British Columbia and the Colony of Vancouver 
Island merged into a single Colony of British Columbia, until their 
incorporation into the Canadian Confederation in 1871. J In 1873, 
Prince Edward Island, the Maritime colony that had opted not to join 
Confederation in 1867, was admitted into the country.^ ^ That year, 
John A. Macdonald (First Prime Minister of Canada) created the 
North- West Mounted Police (now the Royal Canadian Mounted 

Police) to help police the Northwest Territories. J Specifically the 
Mounties were to assert Canadian sovereignty over possible American 

encroachments into the sparsely populated land. J 




The Battle of Fish Creek, fought April 24, 
1885, at Fish Creek, Saskatchewan, was a 
major Metis victory over the Dominion of 
Canada forces attempting to quell Louis 
Riel's North- West Rebellion. 



The Mounties first large scale mission was to suppress the second 
independence movement by Manitoba's Metis, a mixed blood people 
of joint First Nations and European descent, who originated in the 

mid- 17th century. J The desire for independence erupted in the Red River Rebellion in 1869 and the later 
North- West Rebellion in 1885 led by Louis Riel. [115][117] In 1905 when Saskatchewan and Alberta were 
admitted as provinces, they were growing rapidly thanks to abundant wheat crops that attracted immigration to 
the plains by Ukrainians and Northern and Central Europeans and by settlers from the United States, Britain and 

eastern CanadaJ 118 " 119 ] 

The Alaska boundary dispute, simmering since the Alaska purchase of 
1867, became critical when gold was discovered in the Yukon during the 
late 1890s, with the U.S. controlling all the possible ports of entry. 
Canada argued its boundary included the port of Skagway. The dispute 
went to arbitration in 1903, but the British delegate sided with the 
Americans, angering Canadians who felt the British had betrayed 
Canadian interests to curry favour with the U.S. J 













«-■-* : ~ 


pi 




H,Vli,*i& 


f 


T .'w\ 




~» 


"m 




. . 1 


-*LV» 



A photochrome postcard showing 
downtown Montreal, circa 1910. 
Canada's population became urbanized 
during the 20th century. 



In 1893, legal experts codified a framework of civil and criminal law, 
culminating in the Criminal Code of Canada. This solidified the liberal 
ideal of "equality before the law" in a way that made an abstract 
principle into a tangible reality for every adult Canadian.^ J Wilfrid 
Laurier who served 1896-1911 as the Seventh Prime Minister of Canada 
felt Canada was on the verge of becoming a world power, and declared 

that the 20th century would "belong to Canada" [122] 

Laurier signed a reciprocity treaty with the U.S. that would lower tariffs in both directions. Conservatives under 
Robert Borden denounced it, saying it would integrate Canada's economy into that of the U.S. and loosen ties 
with Britain. Conservatives win the Canadian federal election, 1911. J 

World Wars and Interwar Years 1914-1945 

Main article: Canada in the World Wars and Interwar Years 
First World War 



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7*w 






f*^^^^ \ r 







i/ictory 
▼Bonds 



World War I poster for 1 9 1 8- 
Canadian victory bond drive, 
depicts three French women 
pulling a plow. 



The Canadian Forces and civilian participation in the First World War helped to 
foster a sense of British-Canadian nationhood. The highpoints of Canadian 
military achievement during the First World War came during the Somme, Vimy, 
Passchendaele battles and what later became known as "Canada's Hundred 

Days". J The reputation Canadian troops earned, along with the success of 
Canadian flying aces including William George Barker and Billy Bishop, helped 

to give the nation a new sense of identity. J The War Office in 1922 reported 

approximately 67,000 killed and 173,000 wounded during the war.^ J This 

excludes civilian deaths in war time incidents like the Halifax Explosion. J 

Support for Great Britain during the First World War caused a major political 
crisis over conscription, with Francophones, mainly from Quebec, rejecting 

national policies. J During the crisis large numbers of enemy aliens (especially 

Ukrainians and Germans) were put under government controls. J The Liberal 
party was deeply split, with most of its Anglophone leaders joining the unionist 
government headed by Prime Minister Robert Borden, the leader of the 
Conservative party. J The Liberals regained their influence after the war under 
the leadership of William Lyon Mackenzie King, who served as prime minister 



with three separate terms between 1921 and 1949. J 



Interwar 

As a result of the First World War, Canada became more assertive and less deferential to British authority; it 
became an independent member of the League of Nations. In 1923 British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, 
appealed repeatedly for Canadian support in the Chanak crisis, in which a war threatened between Britain and 

Turkey. Canada refused. J The Department of External Affairs, which had been founded in 1909, was 
expanded and promoted Canadian autonomy as Canada reduced its reliance on British diplomats and used its 
own foreign service. J Thus began the careers of such important diplomats as Norman Robertson and Hume 
Wrong, and future prime minister Lester Pearson. J 

In 1921 to 1926, William Lyon Mackenzie King's Liberal government pursued a conservative domestic policy 
with the object of lowering wartime taxes and, especially, cooling wartime ethnic tensions, as well as defusing 
postwar labour conflicts. The Progressives refused to join the government, but did help the Liberals defeat 
non-confidence motions. King faced a delicate balancing act of reducing tariffs enough to please the 
Prairie-based Progressives, but not too much to alienate his vital support in industrial Ontario and Quebec, which 
needed tariffs to compete with American imports. King and Conservative leader Arthur Meighen sparred 
constantly and bitterly in Commons debates. J The Progressives gradually weakened. Their effective and 
passionate leader, Thomas Crerar, resigned to return to his grain business, and was replaced by the more placid 
Robert Forke. The socialist reformer J.S. Woodsworth gradually gained influence and power among the 

Progressives, and he reached an accommodation with King on policy matters. J 

In 1926 Prime Minister Mackenzie King advised the Governor General, Lord Byng, to dissolve Parliament and 
call another election, but Byng refused, the first and only time that the Governor General has exercised such a 
power. Instead Byng called upon Meighan, the Conservative Party leader, to form a government. Meighen 
attempted to do so, but was unable to obtain a majority in the Commons and he, too, advised dissolution, which 
this time was accepted. The episode, the King-Byng Affair, marks a constitutional crisis that was resolved by a 
new tradition of complete non-interference in Canadian political affairs on the part of the British government. 



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In 1931 the Statute of Westminster gave each dominion (which included Canada and Newfoundland) the 

opportunity for almost complete legislative independence from the Parliament of the United Kingdom. J 
While Newfoundland never adopted the statute, for Canada the Statute of Westminster has been called its 
declaration of independence. J 

Great Depression 

Main article: Great Depression in Canada 

Canada was hard hit by the worldwide Great Depression that began in 1929. 
Between 1929 and 1933, the gross national product dropped 40% (compared to 
37% in the US). Unemployment reached 27% at the depth of the Depression in 
1933. Many businesses closed, as corporate profits of $396 million in 1929 
turned into losses of $98 million in 1933. Canadian exports shrank by 50% from 
1929 to 1933. Construction all but stopped (down 82%, 1929-33), and wholesale 
prices dropped 30%. Wheat prices plunged from 78c per bushel (1928 crop) to 
29c in 1932. [138] 

Urban unemployment nationwide was 19%; Toronto's rate was 17%, according to 
the census of 1931. Farmers who stayed on their farms were not considered 

unemployed. J By 1933, 30% of the labour force was out of work, and one 
Unemployed men march in fifth of the population became dependent on government assistance. Wages fell 

Toronto as did prices. Worst hit were areas dependent on primary industries such as 

farming, mining and logging, as prices fell and there were few alternative jobs. 
Most families had moderate losses and little hardship, though they too became 
pessimistic and their debts become heavier as prices fell. Some families saw most or all of their assets disappear, 
and suffered severely. [140][141] 

In 1930 in the first stage of the long depression, Prime Minister Mackenzie King believed that the crisis was a 
temporary swing of the business cycle and that the economy would soon recovery without government 
intervention. He refused to provide unemployment relief or federal aid to the provinces, saying that if 
Conservative provincial governments demanded federal dollars he would not give them "a five cent piece. "^ * 
His blunt wisecrack was used to defeat the Liberals in the 1930 election. The main issue was the rapid 
deterioration in the economy and whether the prime minister was out of touch with the hardships of ordinary 

people. ^ J The winner of the 1930 election was Richard Bedford Bennett and the Conservatives. Bennett 
had promised high tariffs and large scale spending, but as deficits increased he became wary and cut back 
severely on Federal spending. With falling support and the depression only getting worse Bennett attempted to 
introduce policies based on the New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) in the United States, but he 
got little passed. Bennett's government became a focus of popular discontent. For example, auto owners saved 
on gasoline by using horses to pull their cars, dubbing them Bennett Buggies. The Conservative failure to restore 
prosperity led to the return of Mackenzie King's Liberals in the 1935 election. L J 

In 1935 the Liberals used the slogan "King or Chaos" to win a landslide in the 1935 election.^ J Promising a 
much-desired trade treaty with the U.S., the Mackenzie King government passed the 1935 Reciprocal Trade 
Agreement. It marked the turning point in Canadian- American economic relations, reversing the disastrous trade 

war of 1930-31, lowering tariffs, and yielding a dramatic increase in trade. J 

The worst of the Depression had passed by 1935, as Ottawa launched relief programs such as the National 
Housing Act and National Employment Commission. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation became a crown 

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corporation in 1936. Trans-Canada Airlines (the precursor to Air Canada) was 
formed in 1937, as was the National Film Board of Canada in 1939. In 1938, 
Parliament transformed the Bank of Canada from a private entity to a crown 
corporation.^ J 

One political response was a highly restrictive immigration policy and a rise in 

T1491 
natvism. 1 J 

Times were especially hard in western Canada, where a full recovery did not 
occur until the Second World War began in 1939. One response was the creation 
of new political parties such as the Social Credit movement and the Cooperative 
Commonwealth Federation, as well as popular protest in the form of the On-to- 
OttawaTrek. [150] 




Second World War 




Mobilisation 

Canada's involvement in the Second World War began when Canada declared 
war on Nazi Germany on September 10, 1939, delaying it one week after Britain 
acted to symbolically demonstrate independence. The war restored Canada's 
economic health and its self-confidence, as it played a major role in the Atlantic 
and in Europe. During the war Canada became more closely linked to the U.S. 
The Americans took virtual control of the Yukon in order to build the Alaska 
Highway, and was a major presence in the British colony of Newfoundland with 

major airbases. J 

Mackenzie King — and Canada — were largely ignored by Winston Churchill 
and the British government despite Canada's major role in supplying food, raw 
materials, munitions and money to the hard-pressed British economy, training 
airmen for the Commonwealth, guarding the western half of the North Atlantic 
Ocean against German U-boats, and providing combat troops for the invasions of 
Italy, France and Germany in 1943-45. The government successfully mobilized 
the economy for war, with impressive results in industrial and agricultural output. 
The depression ended, prosperity returned, and Canada's economy expanded 

significantly. On the political side, Mackenzie King rejected any notion of a government of national unity. J 
The Canadian federal election, 1940 was held as normally scheduled, producing another majority for the 
Liberals. 

Building up the Royal Canadian Air Force was a high priority; it was kept separate from Britain's Royal Air 
Force. The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan Agreement, signed in December, 1939, bound Canada, 
Britain, New Zealand, and Australia to a program that eventually trained half the airmen from those four nations 

in the Second World War. [153] 

After the start of war with Japan in December 1941 the government, in cooperation with the U.S., began the 
Japanese-Canadian internment, which sent 22,000 British Columbia residents of Japanese descent to relocation 
camps far from the coast. The reason was intense public demand for removal and fears of espionage or 

sabotage. J The government ignored reports from the RCMP and Canadian military that most of the Japanese 
were law-abiding and not a threat. ^ 



Canadian crew of a Sherman 
tank in Vaucelles, France, 
after D-day south of Juno 
Beach, June 1944 



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Combat 



The Battle of the Atlantic began immediately, and from 1943 to 1945 was led by 
Leonard W. Murray, from Nova Scotia. German U-boats operated in Canadian 
and Newfoundland waters throughout the war, sinking many naval and merchant 

vessels, as Canada took charge of the defenses of the western Atlantic. J The 
Canadian army was involved in the failed defence of Hong Kong, the 
unsuccessful Dieppe Raid in August 1942, the Allied invasion of Italy, and the 

highly successful invasion of France and the Netherlands in 1944-45. J 
Conscription 




William Mackenzie King 
voting in the plebiscite on the 
introduction of conscription 
for overseas military service 



The Conscription Crisis of 1944 greatly affected unity between French and 

English-speaking Canadians, though was not as politically intrusive as that of the 

First World War. J Of a population of approximately 11.5 million, 1.1 million 

Canadians served in the armed forces in the Second World War. Many thousands more served with the Canadian 

Merchant Navy. [159] In all, more than 45,000 died, and another 55,000 were wounded. [160][161] 



Post-war Era 1945-1960 

Main article: History of Canada (1945-1960) 

Prosperity returned to Canada during the Second World War and continued in the proceeding years, with the 
development of universal health care, old-age pensions, and veterans' pensions. ^ J The financial crisis of 
the Great Depression had led the Dominion of Newfoundland to relinquish responsible government in 1934 and 
become a crown colony ruled by a British governor. * In 1948, the British government gave voters three 
Newfoundland Referendum choices: remaining a crown colony, returning to Dominion status (that is, 
independence), or joining Canada. Joining the United States was not made an option. After bitter debate 
Newfoundlanders voted to join Canada in 1949 as a province. J 

The foreign policy of Canada during the Cold War was closely tied to 
that of the United States. Canada was a founding member of NATO 
(which Canada wanted to be a transatlantic economic and political union 

as weir J ). In 1950 Canada sent combat troops to Korea during the 
Korean War as part of the United Nations forces. The federal 
government's desire to assert its territorial claims in the Arctic during the 
Cold War manifested with the High Arctic relocation, in which Inuit were 
moved from Nunavik (the northern third of Quebec) to barren Cornwallis 

The Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow Island, J this project was later the subject of a long investigation by 

(Recreation). the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. * 




In 1956, the United Nations responded to the Suez Crisis by convening a 
United Nations Emergency Force to supervise the withdrawal of invading forces. The peacekeeping force was 
initially conceptualized by Secretary of External Affairs and future Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson. * 
Pearson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for his work in establishing the peacekeeping 

operation. J Throughout the mid-1950s Louis St. Laurent (12th Prime Minister of Canada) and his successor 
John Diefenbaker attempted to create a new, highly advanced jet fighter, the Avro Arrow. J The controversial 



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aircraft was cancelled by Diefenbaker in 1959. Diefenbaker instead purchased the BOMARC missile defense 
system and American aircraft. In 1958 Canada established (with the United States) the North American 

Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) J 171 ^ 

1960-1981 




The Canadian flag, flying in Vanier 
Park, near downtown Vancouver 



r 



Main article: History of Canada (1960-1981) 

In the 1960s, what became known as the Quiet Revolution took place in Quebec, overthrowing the old 

establishment which centered on the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec and led to modernizing of the 

ri72i 
economy and society. J Quebecois nationalists demanded independence, and tensions rose until violence 

erupted during the 1970 October Crisis. J In 1976 the Parti Quebecois was elected to power in Quebec, with a 
nationalist vision that included securing French linguistic rights in the province and the pursuit of some form of 
sovereignty for Quebec. This culminated in the 1980 referendum in Quebec on the question of sovereignty- 
association, which was turned down by 59% of the voters. J 

In 1965, Canada adopted the maple leaf flag, although not without 
considerable debate and misgivings among large number of English 
Canadians. J The World's Fair titled Expo 67 came to Montreal, 
coinciding with the Canadian Centennial that year. The fair opened April 
28, 1967, with the theme "Man and his World" and became the best 
attended of all BIE-sanctioned world expositions until that time. J 

Legislative restrictions on Canadian immigration that had favoured 
British and other European immigrants were amended in the 1960s, 

opening the doors to immigrants from all parts of the world. J While 
the 1950s had seen high levels of immigration from Britain, Ireland, Italy, 

and northern continental Europe, by the 1970s immigrants increasingly came from India, China, Vietnam, 

ri77i 
Jamaica and Haiti. J Immigrants of all backgrounds tended to settle in the major urban centres, particularly 

Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.^ J 

During his long tenure in the office (1968-79, 1980-84), Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau made social and cultural 
change his political goals, including the pursuit of official bilingualism in Canada and plans for significant 
constitutional change. J The west, particularly the petroleum-producing provinces like Alberta, opposed many 
of the policies emanating from central Canada, with the National Energy Program creating considerable 
antagonism and growing western alienation. J Multiculturalism in Canada was adopted as the official policy of 
the Canadian government during the prime ministership of Pierre Trudeau. J 

1982-1992 

Main article: History of Canada (1982-1992) 

In 1982, the Canada Act was passed by the British parliament and granted Royal Assent by Queen Elizabeth II 
on March 29, while the Constitution Act was passed by the Canadian parliament and granted Royal Assent by 
the Queen on April 17, thus patriating the Constitution of Canada. J Previously, the constitution has existed 
only as an act passed of the British parliament, and was not even physically located in Canada, though it could 
not be altered without Canadian consent. ^ At the same time, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms was added 



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in place of the previous Bill of Rights. J The patriation of the constitution was Trudeau's last major act as 
Prime Minister; he resigned in 1984. 

On June 23, 1985, Air India Flight 182 was destroyed above the Atlantic 
Ocean by a bomb on board exploding; all 329 on board were killed, of 
whom 280 were Canadian citizens. * The Air India attack is the largest 
mass murder in Canadian history. J 

The Progressive Conservative (PC) government of Brian Mulroney began 
efforts to gain Quebec's support for the Constitution Act 1982 and end 
western alienation. In 1987 the Meech Lake Accord talks began between 
the provincial and federal governments, seeking constitutional changes 
favourable to Quebec. J The constitutional reform process under 
Prime Minister Mulroney culminated in the failure of the Charlottetown 
Accord which would have recognized Quebec as a "distinct society" but 




was rejected in 1992 by a narrow margin. 



[188] 



Pte. Patrick Cloutier, a 'Van Doo' 
perimeter sentry, and Mohawk Warrior 
Brad Larocque, a University of 
Saskatchewan economics student, face 
off during the Oka Crisis (Image: 
Shaney Komulainen of Canadian 
Press, September 1, 1990) [184] 



Under Brian Mulroney, relations with the United States began to grow 
more closely integrated. In 1986, Canada and the U.S. signed the "Acid 
Rain Treaty" to reduce acid rain. In 1989, the federal government 

adopted the Free Trade Agreement with the United States despite significant animosity from the Canadian public 
who were concerned about the economic and cultural impacts of close integration with the United States. J 
On July 11, 1990, the Oka Crisis land dispute began between the Mohawk people of Kanesatake and the 
adjoining town of Oka, Quebec. J The dispute was the first of a number of well-publicized conflicts between 
First Nations and the Canadian government in the late 20th century. In August 1990, Canada was one of the first 
nations to condemn Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, and it quickly agreed to join the U.S.-led coalition. Canada 
deployed destroyers and later a CF-18 Hornet squadron with support personnel, as well as a field hospital to deal 

with casualties. J 



Recent history: 1992-present 

Main article: History of Canada (1992-present) 

Following Mulroney 's resignation as prime minister in 1993, Kim Campbell took office and became Canada's 
first female prime minister. J Campbell remained in office only for a few months: the 1993 election saw the 
collapse of the Progressive Conservative Party from government to two seats, while the Quebec-based 
sovereigntist Bloc Quebecois became the official opposition. * Prime Minister Jean Chretien of the Liberals 
took office in November 1993 with a majority government and was re-elected with further majorities during the 
1997 and 2000 elections. [194] 

In 1995, the government of Quebec held a second referendum on sovereignty that was rejected by a margin of 
50.6% to 49.4%. J In 1998, the Canadian Supreme Court ruled unilateral secession by a province to be 
unconstitutional, and Parliament passed the Clarity Act outlining the terms of a negotiated departure. J 
Environmental issues increased in importance in Canada during this period, resulting in the signing of the Kyoto 
Accord on climate change by Canada's Liberal government in 2002. The accord was in 2007 nullified by the 

present government, which has proposed a "made-in-Canada" solution to climate change. J 

Canada became the fourth country in the world and the first country in the Americas to legalize same-sex 



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marriage nationwide with the enactment of the Civil Marriage 

Act. J Court decisions, starting in 2003, had already legalized 
same-sex marriage in eight out of ten provinces and one of three 
territories. Before the passage of the Act, more than 3,000 same-sex 

couples had married in these areas. J 

The Canadian Alliance and PC Party merged into the Conservative 
Party of Canada in 2003, ending a 13 -year division of the 
conservative vote. The party was elected twice as a minority 
government under the leadership of Stephen Harper in the 2006 

federal election and 2008 federal election.^ J Harper's 
Conservative Party won a majority in the 2011 federal election with 
the New Democratic Party forming the Official Opposition for the 

first time. [199] 

Under Harper, Canada and the United States continue to integrate 
state and provincial agencies to strengthen security along the 
Canada-United States border through the Western Hemisphere 

Travel Initiative. J From 2002 to 2011, Canada was involved in 

the Afghanistan War as part of the U.S. stabilization force and the NATO-commanded International Security 
Assistance Force. In July 2010 the largest purchase in Canadian military history, totalling C$9 billion for the 
acquisition of 65 F-35 fighters, was announced by the federal government. J Canada is one of several nations 
that assisted in the development of the F-35 and has invested over C$168 million in the program. J 




Political shift in Canada in the first decade 
of the 2 1st century 



See also 



Events of National Historic Significance (Canada) 

History of the Americas 

History of Montreal 

History of North America 

History of Ottawa 

History of Quebec City 

History of Toronto 

History of Vancouver 

History of Winnipeg 

National Historic Sites of Canada 

Persons of National Historic Significance 




History by province or territory 



-j 

- * J 

- 

YT - 




References 



1. A "Atlas of the Human Journey-The Genographic Project" (https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/genographic 
/atlas. html?era=e003) . National Geographic Society.. 1996-2008. https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com 
/genograpMc/atlas.html?era=e003. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 

"Alternate Migration Corridors for Early Man in North America" (http://archaeology.about.eom/gi/o. htm?zi=l 
/XJ&zTi= 1 &sdn=archaeology &cdn=education&tm=25 &f=00&tt= 1 3 &bt= 1 &bts= 1 &zu=http%3 A//www. j stor. org 



2 A « b 



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Queen of Canada 

MONARCHY 
FEDERAL 




Royal coat of arms of Canada 



Monarchy of Canada 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

The monarchy of Canada is the core of both Canada's 
federalism and its Westminster-style parliamentary 

democracy, J being the foundation of the executive, 
legislative, and judicial branches of the Canadian 

government and each provincial government. ^ ^ J The 
monarchy has been headed since 6 February 1952 by 
Queen Elizabeth II, who as sovereign is shared equally 
with fifteen other countries within the Commonwealth of 
Nations, all being independent and the monarchy of each 
legally distinct. For Canada, the monarch is officially 
titled Queen of Canada (French: Reine du Canada), and 
she, her consort, and other members of the Canadian 
Royal Family undertake various public and private 
functions across the country and on its behalf abroad. 
However, the Queen is the only member of the Royal 
Family with any constitutional role. While several powers 
are the sovereign's alone, because she lives predominantly 
in the United Kingdom, most of the royal governmental 
and ceremonial duties in Canada are carried out by the 
Queen's representative, the governor general. In each of 
Canada's provinces, the monarch is represented by a 
lieutenant governor, while the territories are not sovereign 
and thus do not have a viceroy. 

Per the Canadian constitution, the responsibilities of the 

sovereign and/or governor general include summoning 

and dismissing parliament, calling elections, and 

appointing governments. Further, Royal Assent and the 

royal sign-manual are required to enact laws, letters 

patent, and orders in council. But the authority for these 

acts stems from the Canadian populace and, ^ ^ J 

within the conventional stipulations of constitutional 

monarchy, the sovereign's direct participation in any of 

these areas of governance is limited, with most related 

powers entrusted for exercise by the elected and 

appointed parliamentarians, the ministers of the Crown 

generally drawn from amongst them, and the judges and 

justices of the peace. J The Crown today primarily 

functions as a guarantor of continuous and stable 

governance and a nonpartisan safeguard against the abuse 

of power, L ^ ^ J the sovereign acting as a custodian of the Crown's democratic powers and a representation of 

the "power of the people above government and political parties. ^ J 

The historical roots of the Canadian monarchy date back to approximately the turn of the 16th century, ^ J 
L JL JL J w h en European kingdoms made the first claims to what is now Canadian territory. Monarchical 






Incumbent: 






Elizabeth H 






since 6 February 1952 




Style: 


Her Majesty 




Heir 


Charles, Prince of Wales 




apparent: 






First 


Victoria 




monarch: 






Formation: 


1 July 1867 




Residence: 


Rideau Hall, Ottawa 





Website: 



www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/ 

(http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/fr-rf/index- 

eng.cfm) 



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governance thenceforth evolved under a continuous succession of French and British sovereigns, and eventually 
the legally distinct Canadian monarchy, ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ J which is sometimes colloquially referred to as the 
Maple Crown [n2][15][26] 



Contents 



1 International and domestic aspects 

■ 1.1 Succession and regency 

2 Federal and provincial aspects 

3 Personification of the Canadian state 

■ 3.1 Head of state 

4 Federal constitutional role 

■ 4.1 Executive (Queen-in-Council) 

■ 4.2 Parliament (Queen-in-Parliament) 

■ 4.3 Courts (Queen-on-the-Bench) 

5 Cultural role 

■ 5.1 Royal presence and duties 

■ 5.2 Symbols, associations, and awards 

6 Canadian Royal Family 

7 Federal residences and royal household 

8 History 

9 Debate 

10 See also 

11 Notes 

12 Citations 

13 References 

14 Further information 

■ 14.1 Reading 

■ 14.2 Viewing 

15 External links 



International and domestic aspects 

Further information: Commonwealth realm > Relationship of the realms 

Canada shares equally the same sovereign with fifteen other monarchies in the fifty-four-member 
Commonwealth of Nations, a grouping known informally as the Commonwealth realms, with the monarch 
residing predominantly in the oldest and most populous realm, the United Kingdom, and viceroys acting as the 
sovereign's representatives in Canada. The emergence of this arrangement paralleled the fruition of Canadian 
nationalism following the end of the First World War and culminated in the passage of the Statute of Westminster 
in 1931. Since then, the pan-national Crown has had both a shared and separate character and the sovereign's 
role as monarch of Canada has been distinct to his or her position as monarch of any other realm, ^ J 
including the United Kingdom. ^ ^ ^ J Only Canadian federal ministers of the Crown may advise the 
sovereign on all matters of the Canadian state, ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ of which the sovereign, when not in 
Canada, is kept abreast by weekly communications with the federal viceroy. J The monarchy thus ceased to be 
an exclusively British institution and in Canada became a Canadian,^ ^ ^ ^ ^ or "domesticated", ^ 



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The personal Canadian royal standard 
of Prince William, Duke of 
Cambridge, for use in Canada and 
when representing Canada abroad 



establishment, though it is still often denoted as "British" in both legal and common language, J for reasons 
historical, political, and of convenience. 

This division is illustrated in a number of ways: The sovereign, for 
example, holds a unique Canadian title and, when she and other members 
of the Royal Family are acting in public specifically as representatives of 

Canada, they will use, J where possible, Canadian symbols, including 
the country's national flag, unique royal symbols, armed forces uniforms, 
L JL JL JL J anc j fa e m^ as we vj as Canadian Forces aircraft or other 

Canadian-owned vehicles for travel. J Once in Canadian airspace, or 
arrived at a Canadian event taking place abroad, the Canadian Secretary 
to the Queen, officers of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and other 
Canadian officials will take over from whichever of their other realms' 
counterparts were previously escorting the Queen or other member of the 
Royal Family. [46][47] 

The sovereign similarly only draws from Canadian coffers for support in the performance of her duties when in 
Canada or acting as Queen of Canada abroad; Canadians do not pay any money to the Queen or any other 
member of the Royal Family, either towards personal income or to support royal residences outside of Canada. 
L ^ J Normally, tax dollars pay only for the costs associated with the governor general and ten lieutenant 
governors as instruments of the Queen's authority, including travel, security, residences, offices, ceremonies, and 
the like. J In the absence of official reports on the full cost of the monarchy, the Monarchist League of Canada 
regularly issues a survey based on various federal and provincial budgets, expenditures, and estimates; the 2009 
edition found that the institution cost Canadians roughly $50 million in 2008. ^ 

Succession and regency 

Succession is by male-preference primogeniture governed by both the Act of Settlement, 1701, and Bill of 
Rights, 1689, legislation that limits the succession to the natural (i.e. non-adopted), legitimate descendants of 
Sophia of Hanover and stipulates that the monarch cannot be a Roman Catholic, nor married to one, and must be 
in communion with the Church of England upon ascending the throne; these particular clauses have prompted 
legal challenge. Though, via adopting the Statute of Westminster, these constitutional laws as they apply to 
Canada now lie within the full control of the Canadian parliament, ^ J Canada also agreed not to change its 
rules of succession without the unanimous consent of, and a parallel change of succession in, the other realms, 
unless explicitly leaving the shared monarchy relationship; a situation that applies symmetrically in all the other 

realms and has been likened to a treaty amongst these countries. ^ J Thus, Canada's line of succession 
remains identical to that of the United Kingdom. However, there is no provision in Canadian law requiring that 
the king or queen of Canada must be the same person as the king or queen of the United Kingdom; if the UK 
were to breach the convention set out in the preamble to the Statute of Westminster and unilaterally change the 
line of succession to the British throne, the alteration would have no effect on the reigning sovereign of Canada 

or his or her heirs and successors. ^ J As such, the rules for succession are not fixed, but may be changed by 
a constitutional amendment. In 2011, the Prime Minister of Canada, along with the prime ministers of the other 
Commonwealth realms, gave support to a proposed change of primogeniture governing the line of succession 
from agnatic to absolute cognatic. J 

Upon a demise of the Crown (the death or abdication of a sovereign), the late sovereign's heir immediately and 
automatically succeeds, without any need for confirmation or further ceremony — hence arises the phrase "The 
King is dead. Long live the King!". ^ J It is customary, though, for the accession of the new monarch to be 



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publicly proclaimed by the governor general on behalf of the Queen's 
Privy Council for Canada, which meets at Rideau Hall after the 
accession. J Following an appropriate period of mourning, the monarch 
is also crowned in the United Kingdom in an ancient ritual, but one not 
necessary for a sovereign to reign. J By the Interpretation Act of 2005, 
no incumbent appointee of the Crown is affected by the death of the 

monarch, nor are they required to take the Oath of Allegiance again, J 
and all references in legislation to previous monarchs, whether in the 
masculine (e.g. His Majesty) or feminine (e.g. the Queen), continue to 
mean the reigning sovereign of Canada, regardless of his or her 
gender.^ J After an individual ascends the throne, he or she typically 
continues to reign until death, being unable to unilaterally abdicate per 
the tenets of constitutional monarchy.^ 11 * 

Canada has no laws allowing for a regency, should the sovereign be a 

minor or debilitated, J none have been passed by the Canadian 
parliament and it was made clear by successive Cabinets since 1937 that 

the United Kingdom's Regency Act had no applicability to Canada, J as 
the Canadian Cabinet had not requested otherwise when the act was 
passed that year and again in 1943 and 1953. As the 1947 Letters Patent issued by King George VI permit the 
Governor General of Canada to exercise almost all of the monarch's powers in respect of Canada, the viceroy is 
expected to continue to act as the personal representative of the monarch, and not any regent, even if the 

monarch is a child or incapacitated. ^ ^ J It is unclear, however, how those duties that are the sole domain 
of the monarch would be carried out at such a time. 




Charles, Prince of Wales, is the heir 
apparent to the Canadian throne 



Federal and provincial aspects 

Further information: Monarchy in the Canadian provinces 

Conceived by the Fathers of Confederation as a bulwark against any potential fracturing of the Canadian 
federation, J the Canadian monarchy is a federal one in which the Crown is unitary throughout all jurisdictions 
in the country,^ * the sovereignty of the different administrations being passed on through the overreaching 
Crown itself as a part of the executive, legislative, and judicial operations in each of the federal and provincial 
spheres and the headship of state being a part of all equally. J However, though the singular Crown links the 
various governments into a federal state, J it is also "divided" into eleven legal jurisdictions, or eleven 
"crowns" — one federal and ten provincial J — with the monarch taking on a distinct legal persona in 
each. J|n J As such, the constitution instructs that any change to the position of the monarch or his or her 
representatives in Canada requires the consent of the Senate, the House of Commons, and the legislative 
assemblies of all the provinces. J 

The monarch is personally represented in each area by a viceroy who carries out the majority of the Queen's 
duties on her behalf: that in the federal sphere being titled Governor General of Canada and appointed by the 
Queen on the advice of her federal prime minister, and those in the provincial spheres being called Lieutenant 
Governor and appointed by the governor general on the advice of the federal prime minister, with input from the 
relevant provincial premier. The commissioners of Canada's territories are appointed by the federal Governor- 
in-Council, at the recommendation of the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development; but, as the 
territories are not sovereign entities, the commissioners are not personal representatives of the sovereign. 



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Personification of the Canadian state 



As the living embodiment of the Crown, ^ J the sovereign is regarded as 
the personification of the Canadian stated »][10][34][77][78][79][80] the 
body of the reigning sovereign thus holding two distinct personas in 
constant coexistence: that of a natural-born human being and that of the 
state as accorded to him or her through law, J even in private, the 

monarch is always "on duty". J The state is therefore referred to as Her 

Majesty The Queen in Right of Canada (French: Sa Majeste la Reine du 

T831 
chef du Canada), J or The Crown in Right of Canada, and the 

monarch's legal personality is sometimes referred to simply as Canada. 
[79] [84] 

As such, the king or queen of Canada is the employer of all government 
staff (including the viceroys, judges, members of the Canadian Forces, 

police officers, and parliamentarians), J the guardian of foster children 
{Crown wards), as well as the owner of all state lands {Crown land), 
buildings and equipment {Crown held property), J state owned 
companies {Crown corporations), and the copyright for all government 
publications {Crown copyright)} J This is all in his or her position as 
sovereign, and not as an individual; all such property is held by the 
Crown in perpetuity and cannot be sold by the sovereign without the 
proper advice and consent of his or her ministers. 




Queen Elizabeth II wearing the 
Vladimir Tiara, as well as the 
Sovereign's insignia of the Order of 
Canada and the Order of Military Merit 



As the embodiment of the state, the monarch tops the Canadian 

order of precedence, and is also the locus of oaths of 

allegiance, [n 14 ][ 73 ][ 79 ][ 89 ][ 9 °] required of many employees of the 

Crown, as well as by new citizens, as per the Oath of Citizenship 

laid out in the Citizenship Act. This is done in reciprocation to the sovereign's Coronation Oath, J wherein he 

or she promises "to govern the Peoples of... Canada... according to their respective laws and customs. " L J 



The Crown is an integral part of a practical 
form of government, and as such it has a 
direct and substantive part to play in the 
lives of all Canadians} J 

David E. Smith, The Invisible Crown, 1995 



[82] 



Head of state 

Though it has been argued that the term head of state is a republican one inapplicable in a constitutional 
monarchy such as Canada, where the monarch is the embodiment of the state and thus cannot be head of it, 
the sovereign is regarded by official government sources, ^ ^ J judges, J constitutional scholars, ^ J 
and pollsters as the head of state, J while the governor general and lieutenant governors are all only 
representatives of, and thus equally subordinate to, that figure. J Some governors general, their staff, 
government publications, J and constitutional scholars like Edward McWhinney and C. E. S. Franks 
have, ^ J however, referred to the position of governor general as that of Canada's head of state, ^ J 
though sometimes qualifying the assertion with de facto or effective, ^ ^ J Franks has hence 
recommended that the governor general be named officially as the head of state. J Since 1927, governors 
general have been received on state visits abroad as though they were heads of state. J 

Officials at Rideau Hall have pointed to the Letters Patent of 1947 as justification for describing the governor 
general as head of state, but others countered that the document makes no such distinction, either literally or 



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implicitly, * nor does it effect an abdication of the sovereign's powers in favour of the viceroy. * Michael D. 
Jackson, former protocol officer for Saskatchewan, pointed out that Rideau Hall had been attempting to "recast" 
the governor general as head of state since the 1970s and that doing so preempted both the Queen and all of the 
lieutenant governors, J the latter causing not only "precedence wars" at provincial events (where the governor 
general usurped the lieutenant governor's proper spot as most senior official in attendance), ^ J but also 
constitutional issues by "unbalancing[...] the federalist symmetry."^ ^ J This has been regarded as both a 
natural evolution and as a dishonest effort to alter the constitution without public scrutiny. ^ J Still others 
view the role of head of state as being shared by both the sovereign and her viceroys. ^ ^ J 

In a poll conducted by Ipsos-Reid following the first prorogation of the 40th parliament on 4 December 2008, it 
was found that 42% of the sample group thought the prime minister was head of state, while 33% felt it was the 
governor general. Only 24% named the Queen as head of state, J a number up from 2002, when the results of 
an EKOS Research Associates survey showed only 5% of those polled knew the Queen was head of state (69% 
answered that it was the prime minister). J 



Federal constitutional role 

Canada's constitution is based on the Westminster parliamentary model, 
wherein the role of the Queen is both legal and practical, but not 
political. J The sovereign is vested with all the powers of state, 
collectively known as the Royal Prerogative, J which stems from the 

people, ^ J who are thus considered subjects of the Crown. J 
However, as the monarch is a constitutional one, he or she does not rule 
alone, as in an absolute monarchy. Instead, the Crown is regarded as a 
corporation, with the monarch being the centre of a construct in which 
the power of the whole is shared by multiple institutions of 
government — the executive, legislative, and judicial J — acting under 
the sovereign's authority, ^ J which is entrusted for exercise by the 
politicians (the elected and appointed parliamentarians and the ministers 
of the Crown generally drawn from amongst them) and the judges and 
justices of the peace. J The monarchy has thus been described as the 
underlying principle of Canada's institutional unity and the monarch as a 
"guardian of constitutional freedoms"^ ^ J whose "job is to ensure that 
the political process remains intact and is allowed to function."^ J 




King George VI, king of Canada (left), 
and William Lyon Mackenzie King, 
Prime Minister of Canada (right), 
share a moment of levity, 1 1 May 1937 



The Crown also sits at the pinnacle of the Canadian Forces, with the 

constitution placing the monarch in the position of commander-in-chief 

of the entire force, though the governor general carries out the duties 

attached to the position and also bears the title of Commander-in-Chief 

in and over Canada} J Further, included in Canada's constitution are the various treaties between the Crown 

and Canadian First Nations, Inuit, and Metis peoples, who view these documents as agreements directly and only 

between themselves and the reigning monarch, illustrating the relationship between sovereign and aboriginals. 
[121][122][123] 

Executive (Queen-in-Council) 

The government of Canada — formally termed Her Majesty's Government J — is defined by the constitution 



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as the Queen acting on the advice of her Privy Council, ^ ^ ^ * what is technically known as the 

Queen-in-Council} J or sometimes the Governor-in-Council} J referring to the governor general as the 
Queen's stand-in. One of the main duties of the Crown is to "ensure that a democratically elected government is 

always in place, " L J which means appointing a prime minister to thereafter head the Cabinet^ J — a 
committee of the Privy Council charged with advising the Crown on the exercise of the Royal Prerogative. J 
The Queen is informed by her viceroy of the swearing-in and resignation of prime ministers and other members 

of the ministry, J remains fully briefed through regular communications from her Canadian ministers, and 
holds audience with them whenever possible. * 

In the construct of constitutional monarchy and responsible government, 

the ministerial advice tendered is typically binding, J meaning the 
monarch reigns but does not rule, the Cabinet ruling "in trust" for the 

monarch. J This has been the case in Canada since the Treaty of Paris 
ended the reign of the territory's last absolute monarch, King Louis XV. 
However, the Royal Prerogative belongs to the Crown and not to any of 

the ministers, ^ ^ J and the royal and viceroy al figures may 
Governor General Michaelle Jean with unilaterally use these powers in exceptional constitutional crisis 

situations,* 15][59][119][132][133][134][135] thefeby aUowing ^ monarch 
to make sure "that the government conducts itself in compliance with the 

constitution."^ J There are also a few duties which must be specifically 
performed by, or bills that require assent by, the Queen; these include applying the royal sign-manual and Great 

Seal of Canada to the appointment papers of governors general, the issuance of Letters Patent, J the 

confirmation of awards of Canadian honours, the approval of any change in her Canadian title, J and the 

creation of new senate seats. J 

The Royal Prerogative also extends to foreign affairs: the sovereign or governor general negotiates and ratifies 
treaties, alliances, and international agreements, all on the advice of the Cabinet, and the governor general, on 
behalf of the Queen, both accredits Canadian high commissioners and ambassadors and receives similar 
diplomats from foreign states. These tasks were solely in the domain of the monarch until the 1970s, J when 
Queen Elizabeth II, on the advice of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, allowed the governor general to perform 

these duties on her behalf. J In 2005, the letters of credence and recall were altered so as to run in the name 
of the incumbent governor general, instead of following the usual international process of the letters being from 

one head of state to another. J In addition, the issuance of passports falls under the Royal Prerogative 

and, J as such, all Canadian passports are issued in the monarch's name and remain her property. J 

Parliament (Queen-in-Parliament) 

All laws in Canada are the monarch's and the sovereign is one of the three components of parliament^ ^ ^ — 

T31 
formally called the Queen-in-Parliament 1 J — but the monarch and viceroy do not participate in the legislative 

process save for the granting of Royal Assent, which is necessary for a bill to be enacted as law. Either figure or 
a delegate may perform this task, and the viceroy has the option of deferring assent to the sovereign, as per the 
constitution. J The governor general is further responsible for summoning the House of Commons, while 
either the viceroy or monarch can prorogue and dissolve the legislature, after which the governor general usually 
calls for a general election. The new parliamentary session is marked by either the monarch, governor general, or 
some other representative reading the Speech from the Throne; as the sovereign is traditionally barred from the 
House of Commons, this ceremony, as well as the bestowing of Royal Assent, takes place in the Senate 



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King George VI, with Queen 
Elizabeth, grants Royal Assent to bills 
in the Canadian Senate, 1939 



chamber. * Despite this exclusion, members of the commons must still 
express their loyalty to the monarch and defer to her authority, as the 
Oath of Allegiance must be recited by all new parliamentarians before 
they may take their seat, and the official opposition is traditionally 

dubbed as Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition. m][U6][U1] 

The monarch does not have the prerogative to impose and collect new 
taxes without the authorization of an Act of Parliament. The consent of 
the Crown must, however, be obtained before either of the houses of 
parliament may even debate a bill affecting the sovereign's prerogatives 
or interests, and no act of parliament binds the Queen or her rights unless 

the act states that it does. J 
Courts (Queen-on-the-Bench) 

The sovereign is responsible for rendering justice for all her subjects, and 

is thus traditionally deemed the fount of justice} J her position in the 

Canadian courts formally dubbed the Queen on the Bench} J Though the 
monarch does not personally rule in judicial cases, this function of the 

Royal Prerogative instead performed in trust and in the Queen's name by officers of Her Majesty's court, J 
common law holds the notion that the sovereign "can do no wrong"; the monarch cannot be prosecuted in her 
own courts, judged by herself, for criminal offences. Civil lawsuits against the Crown in its public capacity (that 
is, lawsuits against the Queen-in-Council) are permitted, but lawsuits against the monarch personally are not 
cognizable. In international cases, as a sovereign and under established principles of international law, the Queen 

of Canada is not subject to suit in foreign courts without her express consent. J The monarch, and by 
extension the governor general, also grants immunity from prosecution, J exercises the Royal Prerogative of 
Mercy and may pardon offences against the Crown, ^ J either before, during, or after a trial. 

An image of the Queen and/or the Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada is always displayed in Canadian 
federal courtrooms. Itinerant judges will display an image of the Queen and the Canadian flag when holding a 
session away from established courtrooms; such situations occur in parts of Canada where the stakeholders in a 
given court case are too isolated geographically to be able to travel for regular proceedings. 

Cultural role 

Royal presence and duties 

Further information: List of Commonwealth visits made by Queen Elizabeth II 

Members of the Royal Family have been present in Canada since the late 18th century, their reasons including 
participating in military manoeuvres, serving as the federal viceroy, or undertaking official royal tours. A 
prominent feature of the latter are numerous royal walkabouts, the tradition of which was initiated in 1939 by 
Queen Elizabeth when she was in Ottawa and broke from the royal party to speak directly to gathered veterans. 

L ^ J Usually important milestones, anniversaries, or celebrations of Canadian culture will warrant the 
presence of the monarch, J while other royals will be asked to participate in lesser occasions. A household to 
assist and tend to the monarch forms part of the royal party. 

Official duties involve the sovereign representing the Canadian state at home or abroad, or her relations as 



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members of the Royal Family participating in government organized 
ceremonies either in Canada or elsewhere. [n 16 ][ 171 ][ 172 ][ 173 ]t 174 ] The 
advice of the Canadian Cabinet is the impetus for royal participation in 
any Canadian event, though, at present, the Chief of Protocol and his 
staff in the Department of Canadian Heritage are, as part of the State 
Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Program, ^ J responsible for 
orchestrating any official events in or for Canada that involve the Royal 
Family.^ J Conversely, unofficial duties are performed by Royal Family 
members on behalf of Canadian organizations of which they may be 
patrons, through their attendance at charity events, visiting with members 
of the Canadian Forces as colonel-in-chief, or marking certain key 

anniversaries. ^ J The invitation and expenses associated with these 
undertakings are usually borne by the associated organization. J In 

2005 members of the Royal Family were present at a total of 76 Canadian engagements, as well as several more 

through 2006 and 2007. [178] 

Apart from Canada, the Queen and other members of the Royal Family regularly perform public duties in the 
other fifteen nations of the Commonwealth in which the Queen is head of state. This situation, however, can 
mean the monarch and/or members of the Royal Family will be promoting one nation and not another; a 
situation that has been met with criticism.^ 11 ^ 



Prince Charles and Camilla, Duchess 
of Cornwall, arrive at The Carlu in 
Toronto, Ontario, November 2009 



Symbols, associations, and awards 



Main article: Canadian royal symbols 

The main symbol of the monarchy is the sovereign herself, described as 

"the personal expression of the Crown in Canada,"^ J and her image is 
thus used to signify Canadian sovereignty and government authority — 
her effigy, for instance, appearing on currency, and her portrait in 

government buildings. J The sovereign is further both mentioned in and 
the subject of songs, loyal toasts, and salutes. J A royal cypher, 
appearing on buildings and official seals, or a crown, seen on provincial 
and national coats of arms, as well as police force and Canadian Forces 
regimental and maritime badges and rank insignia, is also used to 
illustrate the monarchy as the locus of authority, ^ the latter without 
referring to any specific monarch. 

Since the days of King Louis XIV, J the monarch is the fount of all 
honours in Canada and new orders, ^ J decorations, and medals, 

which form "an integral element of the Crown, " L J may only be created 

with the approval of the sovereign through letters patent. Hence, the 

insignia and medallions for these awards bear a crown, cypher, and/or 

effigy of the monarch. Similarly, the country's heraldic authority was 

created by the Queen and, operating under the authority of the governor 

general, grants new coats of arms, flags, and badges in Canada. Use of 

the royal crown in such symbols is a gift from the monarch showing royal support and/or association, and 

requires her approval before being added. J 




The badge of the Royal Canadian 
Navy, bearing at its apex a St. Edward's 
Crown, indicating the sovereign as the 
navy's source of authority 



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An equestrian statue of Edward VII in 
Queen's Park, Toronto 



Members of the Royal Family also act as ceremonial Colonels-in-Chief of 
various military regiments, reflecting the Crown's relationship with the 
armed forces through participation in events both at home and 
abroad. * The monarch also serves as the Honorary Commissioner of 
the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. J 

A number of Canadian civilian organizations have association with the 
monarchy, either through their being founded via a royal charter, having 
been granted the right to use the prefix royal before their name, or 
because at least one member of the Royal Family serves as a patron. 
Some charities and volunteer organizations have also been founded as 
gifts to, or in honour of, some of Canada's monarchs or members of the 
Royal Family, such as the Victorian Order of Nurses (a gift to Queen 
Victoria for her Diamond Jubilee in 1897), the Canadian Cancer Fund 
(set up in honour of King George V's Silver Jubilee in 1935), and the 
Queen Elizabeth II Fund to Aid in Research on the Diseases of Children. 
A number of awards in Canada are likewise issued in the name of 
previous or present members of the Royal Family. Further, organizations 
will give commemorative gifts to members of the Royal Family to mark a 
visit or other important occasion. 



Canadian Royal Family 

The Canadian Royal Family is a group of people related to the monarch of Canada. J There is no strict legal 
or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the group, though the Department of Canadian Heritage 
maintains a list of immediate members and the Department of National Defence stipulates that those in the direct 

line of succession who bear the style of Royal Highness (Altesse Roy ale) are subjects of, ^ J and owe their 
allegiance to, the reigning sovereign specifically as king or queen of Canada. J This entitles them to Canadian 
consular assistance and to the protection of the Queen's armed forces of Canada when they are outside of the 
Commonwealth realms and in need of protection or aid. J 

Given the shared nature of the Canadian monarch, most members of the 
Canadian Royal Family are also members of the British Royal Family, 
and thus the House of Windsor. As such, they are the distant relations of 
the Belgian, Danish, Greek, Norwegian, Spanish, and Swedish Royal 
Families, and bear lineage from, amongst others, Arab, Armenian, 
Cuman, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Mongolian, Norwegian, 

Portuguese, Serbian, and Swedish ethnicities, J as well as, according to 
Moroccan and Chinese officials, respectively, being directly descended 
from the Prophet Muhammad and Tang Dynasty Chinese Emperors. * 
However, because Canada and the UK are independent of one another, it 
is incorrect to refer in the Canadian context to the family of the monarch 

as the "British Royal Family"^ J — as is frequently done by Canadian 
and other media ^ ^ * — and there exist some differences between 
the official lists of each: for instance, while he never held the style His 
Royal Highness, Angus Ogilvy was included in the Department of 

Canadian Heritage's royal family list, but was not considered a member of the British Royal Family. J 
Additionally, unlike in the United Kingdom, the monarch is the only member of the Royal Family in Canada with 




The Canadian Royal Family gathers in 
Brome Lake, Quebec, 1976 (left to 
right: the Duke of Edinburgh, Princess 
Anne, Mark Phillips, Prince Edward, 
the Queen, Prince Andrew, and 
Charles, Prince of Wales 



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Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, 
and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, 
at the Canada Day celebrations in 
Ottawa, 1 July 20 11 



a title established through law; it would be possible for others to be granted distinctly Canadian titles (as is the 
case for the Duke of Rothesay in Scotland), but they have always been, and continue to only be, accorded the 
use of a courtesy title, which is that they have been granted via letters patent in the United Kingdom, though 
they are also in Canada translated to French.^ 11 J 

Though the group is predominantly based in the United Kingdom, the 
sovereign and those amongst her relations who do not meet the 
requirements of Canadian citizenship law are still considered Canadian; 

^ ^ J as early as 1959, it was recognized that the Queen was "equally 
at home in all her realms. " L J Rather, as legal subjects of the country's 

monarch, J the Royal Family holds a unique position reflected in the 
confusion that sometimes arises around the awarding of honours to 
them.^ n J There are three Canadian citizens within the Canadian Royal 
Family: Two married into it: In 1988, Sylvana Jones (nee Tomaselli in 
Placentia, Newfoundland) wed the Earl of St. Andrews, a great-grandson 
of King George V, and, on 18 May 2008, Autumn Kelly, originally from 
Montreal, married Queen Elizabeth II's eldest grandson, Peter 

Phillips. J In December 2010, Autumn Phillips gave birth to a daughter 
who held dual Canadian and British citizenship and was, at the time, 12th 
in line to the throne. ^ Beyond legalities, members of the Royal Family 

have also, on occasion, declared themselves to be Canadian, J|n J 
and some past members have lived in Canada for extended periods as 

viceroy or for other reasons. J Still, the existence of a Canadian Royal Family is contested, mostly by 
individuals in Canada's republican movement, but also by former Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia Iona 

Campagnolo. J Poet George Elliott Clarke publicly mused about a fully First Nations royal family for 

Canada. [212] 

According to the Canadian Royal Heritage Trust, Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn — due 
to his having lived in Canada between 1791 and 1800, and fathering Queen Victoria — is the "ancestor of the 
modern Canadian Royal Family."^ J Nonetheless, the concept of the Canadian Royal Family did not emerge 
until after the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, when Canadian officials only began to overtly 
consider putting the principles of Canada's new status as an independent kingdom into effect. J At first, the 
monarch was the only member of the Royal Family to carry out public ceremonial duties solely on the advice of 
Canadian ministers; King Edward VIII became the first to do so when in July 1936 he dedicated the Canadian 
National Vimy Memorial in France — one of his few obligations performed during his short reign. J Over the 
decades, however, the monarch's children, grandchildren, cousins, and their respective spouses began to also 
perform functions at the direction of the Canadian Crown-in-Council, representing the monarch within Canada 
or abroad. By the 1960s, loyal societies in Canada recognized the Queen's cousin, Princess Alexandra, The 
Honourable Lady Ogilvy, as a "Canadian princess", J but, it was not until October 2002 when the term 
Canadian Royal Family was first used publicly and officially by one of its members: in a speech to the Nunavut 
legislature at its opening, Queen Elizabeth II stated: "I am proud to be the first member of the Canadian Royal 
Family to be greeted in Canada's newest territory."^ * At the time of the 2011 royal tour of Prince William, 
Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, both Michael Valpy, writing for the CBC, and The 
Globe and Mail referred to William as "a prince of Canada"^ ^ J and both Canadian and British media were 
referring to "Canada's royal family" or the "Canadian royal family ". [218][219][220] 

The press frequently follows the movements of the Royal Family, and can, at times, affect the group's popularity, 



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which has fluctuated over the years. Mirroring the mood in the United Kingdom, the family's lowest approval 
was during the mid-1980s to 1990s, when the children of the monarch were enduring their divorces and were the 

targets of negative tabloid reporting. J 

Federal residences and royal household 

Main article: Government Houses of Canada 

A number of buildings across Canada are reserved by the Crown for the 
use of the monarch and her viceroys. The sovereign's principal official 
residence, as well as that primarily used by the governor general, is 
Rideau HaU^ 222 " 223 " 224 " 225 " 226 " 227 ] located in Ottawa, Ontario^ 228 ] 
and another residence of the governor general is the Citadelle, in Quebec 
City. Each of these royal seats holds pieces from the Crown 
Collection. J Further, though neither was ever used for their intended 
purpose, Hatley Castle in British Columbia was purchased in 1940 by 

King George VI in Right of Canada to use as his home during the course 

T2301 
of World War II, L J and the Emergency Government Headquarters, 

built in 1959 at CFS Carp and decommissioned in 1994, included a 

residential apartment for the sovereign or governor general in the case of 

a nuclear attack on Ottawa. [231][232] 

Monarchs and members of their family have also owned in a private 
capacity homes and land in Canada: King Edward VIII owned 

Bedingfield Ranch, near Pekisko, Alberta, J The Marquess of Lome 
and Princess Louise owned a cottage on the Cascapedia River in 

Quebec, J and Princess Margaret owned Portland Island between its 
gifting to her by the Crown in Right of British Columbia in 1958 and her 
death in 2002, though she offered it back to the Crown on permanent 
loan in 1966 and the island and surrounding waters eventually became 

The governor general's residence at La Princess Margaret Marine Park. ^ ^ J 

Citadelle 




Rideau Hall, the monarch's principal 
Canadian residence, though foremostly 
that of the governor general 




To assist the Queen in carrying out her official duties on behalf of 
Canada, she appoints various people to her Canadian household. Along 
with the Canadian Secretary to the Queen, J the monarch's entourage includes two ladies-in-waiting, the 
Canadian Equerry-in- Waiting to the Queen, the Queen's Police Officer, the Duke of Edinburgh's Police 
Officer,^ J the Queen's Honorary Physician, the Queen's Honorary Dental Surgeon, and the Queen's Honorary 
Nursing Officer J — the latter three being drawn from the Canadian Forces. J There are also three 
household regiments specifically attached to the Royal Household (the Governor General's Foot Guards, the 
Governor General's Horse Guards, and the Canadian Grenadier Guards), as well as two chapels royal in 
Ontario. [239] 



History 

Main article: History of monarchy in Canada 
The Canadian monarchy can trace its ancestral lineage back to the kings of the Angles and the early Scottish 



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Francis I of France; established 
colonies in Acadia and Canada, 1534 



kings, through centuries since parts of the territories that today comprise 
Canada were claimed by King Henry VII in 1497 and others by King 
Francis I in 1534; both being blood relatives of the current Canadian 
monarch. Prime Minister Stephen Harper said of the Crown that it "links 
us all together with the majestic past that takes us back to the Tudors, the 
Plantagenets, the Magna Carta, habeas corpus, petition of rights, and 
English common law."^ J Though the first French and British colonizers 
of Canada interpreted the hereditary nature of some indigenous North 
American chieftainships as a form of monarchy, ^ ^ J it is 
generally accepted that Canada has been a territory of a monarch or a 
monarchy in its own right only since the establishment of New France in 
the early 17th century, J according to historian Jacques Monet, the 
Canadian Crown is one of the few that have survived through 
uninterrupted succession since before its inception. J 

After the Canadian colonies of France were, via war and treaties, ceded 
to the British Crown, and the population was greatly expanded by those 
loyal to George III fleeing north from persecution during and following 
the American Revolution, British North America was in 1867 
confederated by Queen Victoria to form Canada as a kingdom in its own 

right. ^ ^ J By the end of the First World War, the increased fortitude of Canadian nationalism inspired the 
country's leaders to push for greater independence from the King in his British Council, resulting in the creation 
of the uniquely Canadian monarchy through the Statute of Westminster, which was granted Royal Assent in 

1931. ^ J Only five years later, Canada had three successive kings in the space of one year, with the death 
of George V, the accession and abdication of Edward VIII, and his replacement by George VI. 

The latter became in 1939 the first reigning monarch of Canada to tour the country (though previous kings had 
done so before their accession). As the ease of travel increased, visits by the sovereign and other Royal Family 
members became more frequent and involved, seeing Queen Elizabeth II officiate at various moments of 
importance in the nation's history, one being when she proclaimed the country to be fully independent, via 

constitutional patriation, in 1982. J That act is said to have entrenched the monarchy in Canada, J due to 

the stringent requirements, as laid out in the amending formula, that must be met in order to alter the monarchy 

[70] 
in any way. L J 

Through the 1960s and 1970s, the rise of Quebec nationalism and changes in Canadian identity created an 
atmosphere where the purpose and role of the monarchy came into question. Some references to the monarch 
and the monarchy were removed from the public eye and moves were made by the federal government to 
constitutionally alter the Crown's place and role in Canada, first by explicit legal amendments and later by subtle 
attrition impelled by elements of the public service, the Cabinet, and governors general and their staff alike. 

^ ^ J But, provincial and federal ministers, along with loyal national citizen's organizations, ensured that the 

system remained the same in essence. J By 2002, the royal tour and associated fetes for the Queen's Golden 

Jubilee proved popular with Canadians across the country, ^ ^ J though Canada's first republican 
organization since the 1830s was also founded that year. Planning began in 2010 for the celebrations to mark 

Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee in 2012, ^ J the first such event in Canada since 1897, when Victoria 
marked her 60th year on the throne. 

Debate 



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To date, outside of academic circles, there has been little national debate on the Canadian monarchy, a subject of 

which most Canadians are generally unaware. J Out of Canada's three most prominent political parties, 
neither the Liberal Party nor the Conservative Party is officially in favour of abolishing the monarchy (though 
the latter makes support for constitutional monarchy a founding principle in its policy declaration^ J ) and the 
New Democratic Party (NDP) has no official position on the role of the Crown. Only some Members of 
Parliament belonging to these parties and the leaders of the Bloc Quebecois have made any statements 
suggesting abolition of the monarchy. ^ ^ J Canada has two special-interest groups representing the 
debate, who frequently argue the issue in the media: the Monarchist League of Canada and Citizens for a 
Canadian Republic. ^ J There are also other organizations that support and advocate for the monarchy, 
such as the United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada, J the Canadian Royal Heritage Trust, J the 
Orange Order in Canada, J and the Friends of the Canadian Crown. J 

The idea of a uniquely Canadian monarch has been proffered as an alternative, J either one descended from 
the present queen or coming from a First Nations royal house, ^ ^ ^ J however, there has been no 
popular or official support for such a change. 

See also 

■ List of Canadian monarchs 

■ Current Commonwealth realms 

■ States headed by Elizabeth II 

■ Monarchies in the Americas 

■ List of monarchies 



Notes 



1. A The date of the first establishment a monarchical 
form of government in parts of the territory which 

now forms Canada varies: some sources give the 5. 

year as 1497, when King Henry VII claimed parts of 
Newfoundland, [12][13] while others put it at 1534, 
when New France was founded in the name of King 
Francis I. [14][15][16][17][18] 

2. A The term was first coined by Governor General 
The Lord Grey in 1905, when he stated in a telegram 
to King Edward VII regarding the inauguration of 
Alberta and Saskatchewan into Confederation: "[each 
one] a new leaf in Your Majesty's Maple Crown". ] 

3. A a On a number of occasions, the sovereign has 
carried out foreign relations as the representative 
uniquely of Canada, such as the visits to the United 
States by King George VI in 1939 and Queen 
Elizabeth H in 1957. 

4. A The English Court of Appeal ruled in 1982, while 

"there is only one person who is the Sovereign within 7. 

the British Commonwealth... in matters of law and 
government the Queen of the United Kingdom, for 



6. 



example, is entirely independent and distinct from the 

Queen of Canada. " [28] 

A In 1997, then Prime Minister of the United 

Kingdom Tony Blair intended to offer a life peerage 

to Canadian businessman Conrad Black. However, 

citing the 1919 Nickle Resolution, the Canadian 

Cabinet advised the Queen not to grant Black such 

an honour. If Blair had not yielded, the Queen would 

have been in the situation of having to grant an 

honour on the advice of her British prime minister 

and to object to the same as Queen of Canada on the 

advice of then Canadian Prime Minister Jean 

Chretien. 

A Ted McWhinney theorized that failure to make this 

proclamation would result in an empty throne for 

Canada, leaving the governor general as full head of 

state. J The proposal was met with criticism from 

legal experts. J 

A For example, Edward VQI was never crowned, yet 

was undoubtedly king during his short time on the 

throne. 

A The only Canadian monarch to abdicate, Edward 



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Grenada 



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

Grenada (4 i^SXi^eids/) is an island country and 
Commonwealth realm consisting of the island of Grenada 
and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines 
in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. Grenada is located 
northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, northeast of Venezuela, 
and southwest of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. 

Grenada is also known as the "Island of Spice" because of 
the production of nutmeg and mace crops of which Grenada 
is one of the world's largest exporters. Its size is 344 square 
kilometres (133 sq mi), with an estimated population of 
110,000. Its capital is St. George's. The national bird of 
Grenada is the critically endangered Grenada Dove. 



Contents 


■ 1 History 


■ 1.1 Pre-history and early European contacts 


■ 1.2 French colony (1649-1763) 


■ 1.3 British colony (1763-1950) 


■ 1.4 Towards independence (1950-1974) 


■ 1.5 Independence and revolution 


(1974-1983) 


■ 1.6 Invasion by the United States 


■ 1.7 Grenada since 1983 


■ 2 Geography 


■ 3 Parishes 


■ 4 Politics 


■ 5 Economy and tourism 


■ 6 Demographics 


■ 6.1 Religion 


■ 7 Culture 


■ 8 See also 


■ 9 Notes 


■ 10 References 


■ 1 1 External links 



History 

Main article: History of Grenada 
Pre-history and early European contacts 



Grenada 





Flag 



Coat of arms 



Motto: "Ever Conscious of God We Aspire, Build 
and Advance as One People"! 1 ] 



Anthem: Hail Grenada 
Royal anthem: God Save the Queen 




Capital 

(and largest city) 



St. George's 

12 o 03'N61 o 45W 



Official language(s) English 



Ethnic groups 



82% black, 13% mixed black 
and European, 5% European 
and East Indian, and trace of 
Arawak/Carib [2] 



Demonym 
Government 



- Monarch 

- Governor General 

- Prime Minister 



Grenadian 



Parliamentary democracy 
under constitutional monarchy 

Elizabeth H 
Carlyle Glean 
Tillman Thomas 



Legislature 

- Upper house 

- Lower house 



Parliament 

Senate 

House of Representatives 



Independence 

- from the United 
Kingdom 



February 7, 1974 



Area 



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Grenada was first sighted by Europeans in 1498 during the 
third voyage of Christopher Columbus to the new world. At 
the time the indigenous Island Caribs (Kalinago) who lived 
there called it Camahogne. The Spaniards did not 
permanently settle on Camahogne. The English failed in 
their attempt at settlement in 1609. 

French colony (1649-1763) 

On March 17, 1649, a French expedition of 203 men from 
Martinique led by Jacques du Parquet founded a permanent 
settlement on Grenada. Within months this led to conflict 
with the local islanders which lasted until 1654 when the 
island was completely subjugated by the French. J Those 
indigenous islanders who survived either left for neighboring 
islands or retreated to remoter parts of Grenada where they 
were marginalised — the last distinct communities 
disappeared during the eighteenth century. Warfare 
continued during the seventeenth century between the 
French on Grenada and the Caribs of present day Dominica 
and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The French named the 
new French colony La Grenade, and the economy was 
initially based on sugar cane and indigo. The French 
established a capital known as Fort Royal (later St. George). 
To shelter from hurricanes the French navy would often take 
refuge in the capital's natural harbour, as no nearby French 
islands had a natural harbour to compare with that of Fort 
Royal. The British captured Grenada during the Seven Years' 
War in 1762. 



British colony (1763-1950) 

Grenada was formally ceded to Britain by the Treaty of Paris in 1763. The French re-captured the island during 
the American War of Independence, after Comte d'Estaing won the bloody land and naval Battle of Grenada in 
July 1779. However the island was restored to Britain with the Treaty of Versailles in 1783. Britain was hard 
pressed to overcome a pro-French revolt in 1795-1796 led by Julien Fedon. 

Nutmeg was introduced to Grenada in 1843 when a merchant ship called in on its way to England from the East 
Indies. The ship had a small quantity of nutmeg trees on board which they left in Grenada, and this was the 
beginning of Grenada's nutmeg industry that now supplies nearly forty percent of the world's annual crop. J 

In 1877 Grenada was made a Crown colony. Theophilus A. Marry show founded the Representative Government 
Association (RGA) in 1917 to agitate for a new and participative constitutional dispensation for the Grenadian 
people. Partly as a result of Marry show's lobbying, the Wood Commission of 1921-1922 concluded that 
Grenada was ready for constitutional reform in the form of a 'modified' Crown colony government. This 
modification granted Grenadians the right to elect 5 of the 15 members of the Legislative Council, on a restricted 



- Total 

- Water (%) 


344 km 2 (203rd) 
132.8 sq mi 
1.6 


Population 

- July 12, 
2005 estimate 

- Density 


110,000 (185th) 

319.8/km 2 (45th) 
828.3/sqmi 


GDP (PPP) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2010 estimate 
$1,098 billion [3] 
$10,657 [3] 


GDP (nominal) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2010 estimate 
$674 million [3] 

$6,542 [3] 


HDI(2007) 


A 0.813 (high) (74th) 


Currency 


East Caribbean dollar (xcd) 


Time zone 

- Summer (DST) 


(UTC-4) 
(UTC-4) 


Drives on the 


left 


ISO 3166 code 


GD 


Internet TLD 


•gd 


Calling code 


+ 1-473 


a 2002 estimate. 



property franchise enabling the wealthiest 4% of adult Grenadians to vote. 
Towards independence (1950-1974) 



[6] 



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In 1950 Eric Gairy founded the Grenada United Labour Party, initially as 
a trades union, which led the 1951 general strike for better working 
conditions. This sparked great unrest — so many buildings were set ablaze 
that the disturbances became known as the 'red sky' days — and the 
British authorities had to call in military reinforcements to help regain 
control of the situation. On October 10, 1951, Grenada held its first 
general elections on the basis of universal adult suffrage *■ - Eric Gairy 's 

Grenada United Labour Party won 6 of the 8 seats contested. J From 
1958 to 1962 Grenada was part of the Federation of the West Indies. 

On March 3, 1967, Grenada was granted full autonomy over its internal 
affairs as an Associated State. Herbert Blaize was the first Premier of the Associated State of Grenada from 
March to August 1967. Eric Gairy served as Premier from August 1967 until February 1974. 

Independence and revolution (1974-1983) 

Independence was granted in 1974 under the leadership of the Premier, Sir Eric Matthew Gairy, who became the 
first Prime Minister of Grenada. 

Civil conflict gradually broke out between Eric Gairy's government and some opposition parties including the 
New Jewel Movement (NJM). Gairy's party won elections in 1976, but the opposition did not accept the result, 
accusing it of fraud. In 1979 the New Jewel Movement under Maurice Bishop launched a paramilitary attack on 
the government resulting in its overthrow. 

The constitution was suspended and Bishop's "People's Revolutionary Government" ruled subsequently by 
decree. Cuban doctors, teachers, and technicians were invited in to help develop health, literacy, and agriculture 
over the next few years. Agrarian reforms started by the Gairy government were continued and greatly expanded 
under the revolutionary government of Maurice Bishop. 



Invasion by the United States 

Main article: Invasion of Grenada 




Members of the Eastern Caribbean 
Defence Force during the Invasion of 
Grenada 



Some years later a dispute developed between Bishop and certain 
high-ranking members of the NJM. Though Bishop cooperated with Cuba 
and the USSR on various trade and foreign policy issues, he sought to 
maintain a "non-aligned" status. Bishop had been taking his time making 
Grenada wholly socialist, encouraging private- sector development in an 
attempt to make the island a popular tourist destination. Hardline Marxist 
party members, including Communist Deputy Prime Minister Bernard 
Coard, deemed Bishop insufficiently revolutionary and demanded that he 
either step down or enter into a power-sharing arrangement. 



On October 19, 1983, Bernard Coard and his wife Phyllis, backed by the 
Grenadian Army, led a coup against the government of Maurice Bishop 
and placed Bishop under house arrest. These actions led to street 
demonstrations in various parts of the island. Bishop had enough support from the population that he was 
eventually freed after a demonstration in the capital. When Bishop attempted to resume power, he was captured 
and executed by soldiers along with seven others, including government cabinet ministers. The Coard regime 
then put the island under martial law. 



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After the execution of Bishop, the People's Revolutionary Army formed a military government with General 
Hudson Austin as chairman. The army declared a four-day total curfew, during which (it said) anyone leaving 
their home without approval would be shot on sight. J 

The overthrow of a moderate government by one which was strongly pro-communist worried U.S. President 
Ronald Reagan. Particularly concerning was the presence of Cuban construction workers and military personnel 
who were building a 10,000-foot (3,000 m) airstrip on Grenada. Bishop had stated the purpose of the airstrip was 
to allow commercial jets to land, but U.S. military analysts argued that the only reason for constructing such a 
long and reinforced runway was so that it could be used by heavy military transport planes. The contractors, 
American and European companies, and the EEC, which provided partial funding, all claimed the airstrip did not 

have military capabilities. J Reagan was worried that Cuba - under the direction of the Soviet Union - would 
use Grenada as a refueling stop for Cuban and Soviet airplanes loaded with weapons destined for Central 
American communist insurgents. J 

On October 25 combined forces from the United States and from the Regional Security System (RSS) based in 
Barbados invaded Grenada in an operation codenamed Operation Urgent Fury. The U.S. stated this was done at 
the behest of Dame Eugenia Charles of Dominica. While the Governor-General Sir Paul Scoon later stated that 
he had also requested the invasion, it was highly criticised by head of state HM Queen Elizabeth \^ cltatwn needed \ 
and the governments of Britain, Trinidad and Tobago and Canada. The United Nations General Assembly 
condemned it as "a flagrant violation of international law" by a vote of 108 in favor to 9, with 27 abstentions. 
^ ^ J The United Nations Security Council considered a similar resolution, which failed to pass when vetoed by 
the United S t a tes. [citation needed] 

After the invasion of the island nation, the pre-revolutionary Grenadian constitution came into operation once 
again. Eighteen members of the PRG and the PRA (army) were arrested after the invasion on charges related to 
the murder of Maurice Bishop and seven others. The eighteen included the top political leadership of Grenada at 
the time of the execution as well as the entire military chain of command directly responsible for the operation 
that led to the executions. Fourteen were sentenced to death, one was found not guilty and three were sentenced 
to forty-five years in prison. The death sentences were eventually commuted to terms of imprisonment. Those in 
prison have become known as the Grenada 17. 

Grenada since 1983 

When U.S. troops withdrew from Grenada in December 1983, Nicholas Brathwaite of the National Democratic 
Congress was appointed prime minister of an interim administration by the Scoon until elections could be 
organized. The first democratic elections since 1976 were held in December 1984 and were won by the Grenada 
National Party under Herbert Blaize who served as prime minister until his death in December 1989. Ben Jones 
succeeded Blaize as prime minister and served until the March 1990 election, which was won by the National 
Democratic Congress under Nicholas Brathwaite who returned as prime minister for a second time until he 
resigned in February 1995. He was succeeded by George Brizan who served until the June 1995 election which 
was won by the New National Party under Keith Mitchell who went on to win the 1999 and 2003 elections and 
served for a record 13 years until 2008. 

In 2000-2002, much of the controversy of the late 1970s and early 1980s was once again brought into the public 
consciousness with the opening of the truth and reconciliation commission. The commission was chaired by a 
Roman Catholic priest, Father Mark Haynes, and was tasked with uncovering injustices arising from the PRA, 
Bishop's regime, and before. It held a number of hearings around the country. Brother Robert Fanovich, head of 
Presentation Brothers' College (PBC) in St. George's tasked some of his senior students with conducting a 

research project into the era and specifically into the fact that Maurice Bishop's body was never discovered. J 



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grenada 



Paterson also uncovered that there was still a lot of resentment in Grenadian society resulting from the era and a 
feeling that there were many injustices still unaddressed. 

On September 7, 2004, after being hurricane-free for forty-nine years, the island was directly hit by Hurricane 
Ivan. Ivan struck as a Category 3 hurricane and caused 90% of the homes to be damaged or destroyed. On July 
14, 2005, Hurricane Emily, a Category 1 hurricane at the time, struck the northern part of the island with 80-knot 
(150 km/h; 92 mph) winds, causing an estimated USD $110 million (EC$ 297 million) worth of damage. By 
December 2005, 96% of all hotel rooms were to be open for business and to have been upgraded in facilities and 
strengthened to an improved building code. ltatwn nee e J The agricultural industry and in particular the nutmeg 
industry suffered serious losses, but that event has begun changes in crop management and it is hoped that as 
new nutmeg trees gradually mature, the industry will return to its pre-Ivan position as a major supplier in the 
Western world. Ration needed] 

In April 2007, Grenada jointly hosted (along with several other Caribbean nations) the 2007 Cricket World Cup. 
The island's prime minister was CARICOM Representative on cricket and was instrumental in having the World 
Cup Games brought to the region. After Hurricane Ivan, the government of the People's Republic of China 
(PRC) paid for the new $40 million national stadium and provided the aid of over 300 laborers to build and 
repair it. J During the opening ceremony, the anthem of the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan) was accidentally 
played instead of the PRC's anthem, leading to the firing of top officials. ^ J 

The 2008 election was won by the National Democratic Congress under Tillman Thomas. 

Geography 

Main article: Geography of Grenada 




A view of Carriacou. Other Grenadine 
islands in distance 



The island Grenada is the 
largest island in the 
Grenadines; smaller islands 
are Carriacou, Petit 
Martinique, Ronde Island, 
Caille Island, Diamond 
Island, Large Island, Saline 
Island, and Frigate Island. 
Most of the population lives 
on Grenada, and major towns 
there include the capital, St. 
George's, Grenville and 
Gouyave. The largest 
settlement on the other islands is Hillsborough on Carriacou. 

The islands are of volcanic origin with extremely rich soil. Grenada's 

interior is very mountainous with Mount St. Catherine being the 

highest at 840 m. Several small rivers with beautiful waterfalls flow 

into the sea from these mountains. The climate is tropical: hot and 

humid in the rainy season and cooled by the trade winds in the dry season. Grenada, being on the southern edge 

of the hurricane belt, has suffered only three hurricanes in fifty years. 

Hurricane Janet passed over Grenada on September 23, 1955, with winds of 185 km/h, causing severe damage. 
The most recent storms to hit have been Hurricane Ivan on September 7, 2004, causing severe damage and 



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Grenada - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grenada 

thirty-nine deaths and Hurricane Emily on July 14, 2005, causing serious damage in Carriacou and in the north of 
Grenada which had been relatively lightly affected by Hurricane Ivan. 

Parishes 

Main article: Parishes of Grenada 
Grenada is divided into 6 parishes: 

o 






O 




o 

Carriacou and Petite Martinique, two of the Grenadines, have the status of dependency. 

Politics 

Main article: Politics of Grenada 

As a Commonwealth realm, Queen Elizabeth II is Queen of Grenada and Head of State. The Crown is 
represented by a Governor-General, who is currently Carlyle Glean. Day-to-day executive power lies with the 
Head of Government, the Prime Minister. Although appointed by the Governor-General, the Prime Minister is 
usually the leader of the largest party in the Parliament. 

The Parliament consists of a Senate (thirteen members) and a House of Representatives (fifteen members). The 
senators are appointed by the government and the opposition, while the representatives are elected by the 
population for five-year terms. With 51% of the votes and eleven seats in the 2008 election, the National 
Democratic Congress won the July 8, 2008 election. The opposition New National Party won the remaining four 
seats. 

Grenada is a full and participating member of both the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the Organisation 
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of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS). 

The military of Grenada comprises two branches: 

■ Royal Grenada Police Force, which includes a Special Service Unit 

■ Coast Guard 



Economy and tourism 




Nutmeg fruit in mace. 



Main article: Economy of Grenada 

Economic progress in fiscal reforms and prudent macroeconomic management have 
boosted annual growth to 5%-6% in 1998-99; the increase in economic activity has 
been led by construction and trade. Tourist facilities are being expanded; tourism is 
the leading foreign exchange earner. Major short-term concerns are the rising fiscal 
deficit and the deterioration in the external account balance. Grenada shares a 
common central bank and a common currency (the East Caribbean dollar) with 

seven other members of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)^ J 

Grenada is a leading producer of several different spices. Cinnamon, cloves, ginger, mace, allspice, orange/citrus 
peels, wild coffee used by the locals, and especially nutmeg, providing 20% of the world supply, are all important 
exports. The nutmeg on the nation's flag represents the economic crop of Grenada; the nation is the world's 
second largest producer of nutmeg (after Indonesia). 

Tourism is Grenada's main economic force. Conventional beach and 
water-sports tourism is largely focused in the southwest region around St 
George, the airport and the coastal strip; however, ecotourism is growing 
in significance. Most of these small ecofriendly guesthouses are located in 
the Saint David and Saint John parishes. You will find a lot of different 
accommodations from luxury like the Spice Island Beach Resort 
(http://www.spiceislandbeachresort.com) to small cottages resorts like 
Mango Bay Cottages (http://www.mangobaygrenada.com) .The tourism 
industry is increasing dramatically with the construction of a large cruise 
ship pier and esplanade. Up to 4 cruise ships per day were visiting St. 
Georges in 2007-2008 during the cruise ship season. 

The island has also pioneered the cultivation of organic cocoa which is 
also processed into finished bars by the Grenada Chocolate Company. 

Tourism is concentrated in the southwest of the island, around St. George, 
Grand Anse, Lance Aux Epines, and Point Salines. Grenada has many 
idyllic beaches around its coastline including the 3 km (1.9 mi) long 
Grand Anse Beach in St George which is considered to be one of the 
finest beaches in the world and often appears in countdowns of the 

world's top 10 beaches. J 
Grand Anse Beach, St. George 



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Devastation caused by Hurricane Ivan 
in Grenada. 




Flights at the Maurice Bishop International Airport connect with other 
Caribbean islands, the United States, and Europe. There is also a daily fast ferry service between St. George and 
Hillsborough. Beginning in October 2009 new passenger ferry service between Grenada, Barbados, St. Vincent, 
St. Lucia, and Trinidad provided by Grenada-based BEDY Ocean Line is scheduled to begin. 



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Grenada - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grenada 



Demographics 



Main article: Demographics of Grenada 

A majority of the citizens are descendants of the African slaves brought by the English and French; few of the 
indigenous Carib and Arawak population survived the French purge at Sauteurs. A small percentage of 
descendants of indentured workers from India were brought to Grenada mainly from the North Indian states of 
Bihar and Uttar Pradesh between May 1, 1857 - January 10, 1885. Today, Grenadians of Indian descent 
comprise the second largest ethnic group (i.e. after Afro-Grenadians). There is also a small community of French 
and English descendants. The rest of the population is of mixed descent. 

Grenada, like many of the Caribbean islands is subject to a large amount 
of migration, with a large number of young people wanting to leave the 
island to seek life elsewhere. With 110,000 people living in Grenada, 
estimates and census data suggest that there are at least that number of 
Grenadian-born people in other parts of the Caribbean (such as Barbados 
and Trinidad) and at least that number again in First World countries. 
Popular migration points for Grenadians further north include New York 
City, Toronto, the United Kingdom (London and Yorkshire predominantly 
— see Grenadians in the UK) and sometimes Montreal, or as far south as 
Australia. This means that probably around a third of those born in 
Grenada still live there. 




A school on Grand Anse beach 



The official language, English, is used in the government, but Grenadian Creole is considered the lingua franca of 
the island. French Patois (Antillean Creole) is also spoken by about 10%-20% the population. Some 
Hindi/Bhojpuri terms are still spoken amongst the Indian descendants, mostly those pertaining to the kitchen; 
such as aloo, geera, karela, seim, chownkay, and baylay. The term bhai 9 which means 'brother' in Urdu and 
Hindi, is a common form of greeting amongst Indo-Grenadians males of equal status. 

Religion 



Religion 


1 
Percentage 

[citation needed] 


Roman Catholic 


53 


Anglican 


14 


Other Protestant 


33 


Rastafari/Spiritist 


1.3 


Hindu 


0.7 


Muslim 


0.3 


Buddhist 


0.2 


Baha'i 


0.2 



Including a small community of Rastafarians living in Grenada, most of the population belong to Christian 
churches. About half of the population are Roman Catholic; while the largest Protestant denomination is 
Anglican, with Presbyterian and Seventh Day Adventist taking up much of the remainder. Most churches have 
denomination-based schools but are open to all. There are a small Hindu and Muslim populations descended 
mostly from Gujarati Indian immigrants who came during the colonial period and set up merchant shops. 



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1965 carnival 



Culture 

Main articles: Culture of Grenada and Music of Grenada 
See also: Cricket in the West Indies 

Although French influence on Grenadian culture is much less visible than 
on other Caribbean islands, surnames and place names in French remain, 
and the every day language is laced with French words and the local 
dialect or Patois. Stronger French influence is found in the well seasoned 
spicy food and styles of cooking similar to those found in New Orleans, 
and some French architecture has survived from the 1 8th century. Island 
culture is heavily influenced by the African roots of most of the 
Grenadians, but Indian and Carib Amerindian influence is also seen with 
dhal puri, rotis, Indian sweets, cassava and curries in the cuisine. 

The "oildown" is considered to be the national dish. The phrase 

"oil-down" refers to a dish cooked in coconut milk until all the milk is 

absorbed, leaving a bit of coconut oil in the bottom of the pot. Early 

recipes call for a mixture of salted pigtail, pigs feet (trotters), salt beef 

and chicken, dumplings made from flour, provision: breadfruit, green banana, yam and potatoes. Callaloo leaves 

are some times used to retain the steam and for extra flavour. J 

Soca, calypso, and reggae set the mood for Grenada's annual Carnival activities. Over the years rap music 
became famous among Grenadian youths, and there have been numerous young rappers emerging in the islands 
underground rap scene. Zouk is also being slowly introduced onto the island. The islanders' African and Carib 
Amerindian heritage plays an influential role in many aspects of Grenada's culture. 

As with other islands from the Caribbean, cricket is the national and most popular sport and is an intrinsic part of 
Grenadian culture. 

An important aspect of Grenadian culture is the tradition of story telling, with folk tales bearing both African and 
French influences. The character, Anancy, a spider god who is a trickster, originated in West Africa and is 
prevalent on other Caribbean islands as well. French influence can be seen in La Diablesse, a well-dressed 
she-devil, and Ligaroo (from Loup Garoux), a werewolf. 

See also 

■ Outline of Grenada 

■ Index of Grenada-related articles 

■ Caribbean Sea 

■ International rankings of Grenada 

■ Windward Islands 

Member of 

■ Commonwealth of Nations 

■ United Nations 



Notes 



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Grenada - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grenada 

1. A "Government of Grenada Website" (http://www.gov.gd) . http://www.gov.gd. Retrieved 2007-11-01. 

2. A "Grenada factbook" (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gj.html) . Cia.gov. 
https ://www. cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gj . html. Retrieved 20 1 2-03 -19. 

3. * abcd "Grenada" (http://www.iirrf.org/extemal/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&^ 
scsm=l&ssd=l&sort=country&ds=.&br=l&c=328&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP& 
grp=0&a=&pr.x=22&pr.y=6) . International Monetary Fund, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011 
/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2011&scsm=l^ 
s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=22&pr.y=6. Retrieved 2011-04-21. 

4. A Grenada. A History of its People. Steele, Beverley A. 2003.Macmillan Publishers Limited. ISBN 0-333-93053-3, 
pp.35-44 

5. A "Grenada Nutmeg - GCNA - Organic Nutmeg Producers, Nutmeg Oil - Nutmeg trees - Nutmeg farming in 
Grenada" (http://www.travelgrenada.com/gcna.htm) . Travelgrenada.com. http://www.travelgrenada.com/gcna.htm. 
Retrieved 2012-03-19. 

6. A "From Old Representative Sytemto Crown Colony" (http://www.bigdmrrmation.org/comments/crowncolony.html) . 
Bigdrumnation.org. 2008-07-01. http://www.bigdmrrmation.org/comments/crowncolony.html. Retrieved 2012-03-19. 

7. A a "1951 and Coming of General Elections" (http://www.bigdmrrmation.org/comments/lstgeneralelection.html) . 
BigDrumNation. http://www.bigdmrrmation.org/comments/lstgeneralelection.html. Retrieved 2012-03-19. 

8. A Anthony Payne, Paul Sutton and Tony Thorndike (1984). "Grenada: Revolution and Invasion" 
(http://books. google. com/books ?id=3agOAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=&f=false) . Croom 
Helm. http://books. google. com/books ?id=3agOAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
Retrieved 2009-09-10. 

9. A Gailey, Phil; Warren Weaver Jr. (March 26, 1983). "Grenada" (http://select.nytimes.com 
/gst/abstract.html?res=F30C12F6385D0C758EDDAA0894DB484D81&scp=20&sq=grenada&st=nyt) . New York 
Times. http://select.nytimes.coir^gst/abstract.htird?res=F30C12F6385D0C758EDDAA0894DB484D81&scp=20& 
sq=grenada&st=nyt. Retrieved accessdate=2010-07-ll. 

10. A Julie Wolf (1999-2000). "The Invasion of Grenada" (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/reagan/peopleevents 
/pande07.html) . PBS - The American Experience (Reagan), http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/reagan/peopleevents 
/pande07.html. Retrieved 2009-09-10. 

11. A "United Nations General Assembly resolution 38/7" (http://www.un.org/Depts/dhl/res/resa38.htm) . United 
Nations. November 2, 1983. http://www.un.org/Depts/dhl/res/resa38.htm. 

12. A "Assembly calls for cessation of "armed intervention" in Grenada" (http://findarticles.eom/p/articles/mi_ml309 
/is_v21/ai_3073305) . UN Chronicle. 1984. http://findarticles.coin/p/articles/mi_ml309/is_v21/ai_3073305. 

13. A See Maurice Paterson's book, published before this event, called Big Sky Little Bullet 

14. A "Grenada: Bandleader looses Job in Chinese Anthem Gaffe" (http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/08/world/americas 
/08briefs-grenadagaffe.html) . New York Times. Associated Press. February 8, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com 
/2007/02/08/world/americas/08briefs-grenadagaffe.html. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 

15. A "BBCCaribbean.com I Grenada goofs: anthem mix up" (http://www.bbc.co.uk/caribbean/news/story/2007/02 
/070205_grendiplomatic2.shtml) . Bbc.co.uk. 2007-02-05. http://www.bbc.co.uk/caribbean/news/story/2007/02 
/070205_grendiplomatic2.shtml. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 

16. A Font size Print E-mail Share 7 Comments By Scott Conroy (2007-02-03). "Taiwan Anthem Played For China 
Officials" (http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/02/04/world/main2429938.shtml) . CBS News. 

http ://www. cbsnews . com/stories/2007/02/04/world/main242993 8 . shtml. Retrieved 20 1 0-06-28 . 

17. A "Welcome to the OECS" (http://www.oecs.org/) . Oecs.org. http://www.oecs.org/. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 

18. A "The 10 Best Beaches in the World" (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/core/Slideshow 
/slideshowContentFrameFragXL.jhtml?xml=/travel/slideshow/bestbeaches/pixbestbeachesl.xr^ . The Daily 
Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/core/Slideshow 
/slideshow/bestbeaches/pixbestbeaches 1 .xml&site-. 

19. A "Oil down - National Dish of Grenada" (http://www.gov.gd/articles/grenada_oil_down.html) . Gov.gd. 2010-03-05. 
http://www.gov.gd/articles/grenada_oil_down.html. Retrieved 2012-03-19. 

References 

■ Adkin, Mark. 1989. Urgent Fury: The Battle for Grenada: The Truth Behind the Largest U.S. Military 
Operation Since Vietnam. Trans- Atlantic Publications. ISBN 0-85052-023-1 

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History of Grenada - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http : //en. wikipedi a. org/ wiki/Hi s tory_of_Grenada 



History of Grenada 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

The recorded history of the Caribbean island of Grenada begins in the early 17th century. First settled by 
indigenous peoples, by the time of European contact it was inhabited by the Caribs. French colonists drove most 
of the Caribs off the island and established plantations on the island, eventually importing African slaves to work 
on sugar plantations. 

Control of the island was disputed by Great Britain and France in the 1 8th century, with the British ultimately 
prevailing. A 1795 slave rebellion inspired by the Haitian Revolution very nearly succeeded, and was crushed 
with significant military intervention. Slavery was abolished in the 1830s. In 1885 the island became the capital 
of the British Windward Islands. 

Grenada achieved independence from Britain in 1974. Following a leftist coup in 1983, the island was invaded 
by U. S. troops and a democratic government was reinstated. The island's major crop, nutmeg, was significantly 
damaged by Hurrican Ivan in 2004. 



Contents 



1 Early history 

2 17th century 

■ 2.1 English attempted settlement 

■ 2.2 French settlement and conquest 

■ 2.3 French administration 

3 18th century 

■ 3.1 French colony 

■ 3.2 British colony 

■ 3.3 Fedons Rebellion 

4 19th century 

■ 4.1 Early 19th century 

■ 4.2 Late 19th century 

5 Last colonial years 1900-1974 

■ 5.1 Early 20th century 

■ 5.2 Towards independence: 1950- 1974 

6 Independence, Revolution and US invasion: 1974-1983 

■ 6.1 Independence 

■ 6.2 The 1979 coup and revolutionary government 

■ 6.3 The 1983 coups 

■ 6.4 Invasion 

7 Democracy restored: 1983 to present day 

■ 7.1 Post liberation politics 

■ 7.2 Truth and reconciliation commission 

■ 7.3 Hurricane Ivan 

8 See also 

9 References 

■ 9.1 Notes 

■ 9.2 Bibliography 

10 Further reading 



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http : //en. wikipedi a. org/ wiki/Hi s tory_of_Grenada 



1 1 External links 



Early history 

About 2 million years ago Grenada was formed as an underwater volcano. Before the arrival of Europeans, 
Grenada, was inhabited by Carib Indians who had driven the more peaceful Arawaks from the island. Columbus 
sighted Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage to the new world. He named the island "Concepcion." The 
origin of the name "Grenada" is obscure, but it is likely that Spanish sailors renamed the island for the city of 
Granada. By the beginning of the 18th century, the name "Grenada", or "la Grenade" in French, was in common 
use. Partly because of the Caribs, Grenada remained uncolonized for more than one hundred years after its 
discovery. 



17th century 

English attempted settlement 



In April 1609 the first attempt at settlement by Europeans was made by an English expedition of 204 
adventurers led by Messrs Godfrey, Hall, Lull, and Robinson, who arrived in the ships Diana, the Penelope, and 
the Endeavour. The settlement was attacked and destroyed by the indigenous islanders and many killed. The few 



survivors were evacuated when the ships returned on 15 December 1609. 



[1] 



French settlement and conquest 

On 17 March 1649 a French expedition of 203 men from Martinique, led by Jacques Dyel du Parquet who had 
been the Governor of Martinique on behalf of the Compagnie des lies de lAmerique (Company of the Isles of 
America) since 1637, landed at St. Georges Harbour and constructed a fortified settlement, which they named 
Fort Annunciation. J A treaty was swiftly agreed between du Parquet and the indigenous Chief Kairouane to 
peacefully partition the island between the two communities. J Du Parquet returned to Martinique leaving his 
cousin Jean Le Comte as Governor of Grenada. J Conflict broke out between the French and the indigenous 
islanders in November 1649 and fighting lasted for five years until 1654, when the last opposition to the French 
on Grenada was crushed - although the island continued for some time after to suffer raids by war canoe parties 
from St. Vincent, who had aided the local Grenadan islanders in their struggle and continued to oppose the 



French. 



[5] 



French administration 

On 27th Sep 1650 du Parquet bought Grenada, Martinique, and St. Lucia from the Compagnie des lies de 
lAmerique (Company of the Isles of America), as it was dissolved, for the equivalent of £1160. J In 1657 du 
Parquet sold Grenada to the Comte de Cerrillac for the equivalent of £1890. J In 1664 King Louis XIV bought 
out the independent island owners and established the French West India Company. * In 1674 the French West 
India Company was dissolved and Grenada became a French Colony rather than a piece of private property in 
the hands of Companies of Frenchmen. J 

In 1675 Grenada was captured by Dutch Privateers, but luckily for the French, a French man-of-war arrived 
unexpectedly, and the island was recaptured. J 



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18th century 

French colony 

In 1700 Grenada had a population of 257 whites, 53 coloureds, and 525 slaves. There were 3 sugar estates, 52 
indigo plantations, 64 horses, and 569 head of cattle. J Between 1705 and 1710 the French built Fort Royal at 
St. George's which is now know as Fort George. J The collapse of the sugar estates and the introduction of 
cocoa and coffee in 1714 encouraged the development of smaller land holdings, and the island developed a 
land-owning yeoman farmer class. ^ In 1738 the first hospital was constructed^ ^ 

British colony 

Grenada was captured by the British during the Seven Years' War on 4 March 1762 by Commodore Swanton 
without a shot being fired. Grenada was formally ceded to the Britain by the Treaty of Paris on 10 February 
1763. In 1766 the island was rocked by a severe earthquake. In 1767 a slave uprising had to be put down. In 
1771 and again in 1775 the town of St. George, which was constructed solely of wood, was burnt to the ground - 
after which it was sensibly rebuilt using stone and brick. J France recaptured Grenada during the American 
War of Independence, after Comte d'Estaing stormed Hospital Hill, and held off British relief in the naval Battle 
of Grenada from 2-6 July 1779. However the island was restored to Britain with the Treaty of Versailles four 
years later on 3 September 1783. In 1784 the first newspaper, the Grenada Chronicle, began publication.^ J 

Fedons Rebellion 

Julien Fedon, a mixed race owner of the Belvedere estate in the St. John Parish, launched a rebellion against 
British rule on the night of 2nd March 1795, with coordinated attacks on the towns of Grenville, La Baye and 
Gouyave. Fedon was clearly influenced by the ideas emerging from the French Revolution especially the 
Convention's abolition of slavery in 1794 - he stated that he intended to make Grenada a "Black Republic just 
like Haiti". Fedon and his troops controlled all of Grenada except the parish of St George's, the seat of 
government, between March 1795 and June 1796. During those insurgent months 14,000 of Grenada's 28,000 
slaves joined the revolutionary forces in order to write their own emancipation and transform themselves into 

"citizens"; some 7,000 of these self-liberated slaves would perish in the name of freedom.^ ^ Fedon's forces 
were defeated by the British in late 1796, but Fedon himself was never caught and his fate is unknown. 



19th century 

Early 19th century 

In 1833, Grenada became part of the British 
Windward Islands Administration and 
remained so until 1958. Slavery was 
abolished in 1834. Nutmeg was introduced in 
1843, when a merchant ship called in on its 
way to England from the East Indies. J 

Late 19th century 

In 1857 the first East Indian immigrants 




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arrived. ^ In 1871 Grenada was connected St. George, Grenada. 1890s 

to the telegraph. In 1872 the first secondary 
school was built.On 3 December 1877 

Grenada's old representative system of government was replaced by the pure Crown Colony model. J On the 
3rd of December 1882, the largest wooden jetty ever built in Grenada was opened in Gouyave. In 1885, after 
Barbados left the British Windward Islands, the capital of the colonial confederation was moved from 
Bridgetown to St. George on Grenada. From 1889-1894 the 340 foot Sendall Tunnel was built for horse 
carriages. 

Last colonial years 1900-1974 

Early 20th century 

Theophilus A. Marry show founded the Representative Government Association (RGA) in 1917 to agitate for a 
new and participative constitutional dispensation for the Grenadian people. Partly as a result of Marryshow's 
lobbying the Wood Commission of 1921-1922 concluded that Grenada was ready for constitutional reform in the 
form of a 'modified' Crown Colony government. This modification granted Grenadians from 1925 the right to 
elect 5 of the 15 members of the Legislative Council, on a restricted property franchise enabling the wealthiest 

4% of Grenadian adults to vote. J In 1928 electricity was installed in St. George's. J In 1943 Pearls Airport 
was opened. J On 5 August 1944 the Island Queen schooner disappeared with the loss of all 56 passengers and 
11 crew. [11] 

Towards independence: 1950-1974 

In 1950 Grenada had its constitution amended to increase the number of elected seats on the Legislative Council 
from 5 to 8, to be elected by full adult franchise at the 1951 election. In 1950 Eric Gairy founded the Grenada 
United Labour Party, initially as a trades union, which led the 1951 general strike for better working conditions, 
this sparked great unrest - so many buildings were set ablaze that the disturbances became known as the 'red sky' 
days - and the British authorities had to call in military reinforcements to help regain control of the situation. On 

10 October 1951 Grenada held its first general elections on the basis of universal adult suffrage^ - United 
Labour won 6 of the 8 elected seats on the Legislative Council in both the 1951 and 1954 elections. J However 
the Legislative Council had few powers at this time, with government remaining fully in the hands of the colonial 
authorities. 

On 22 September 1955 Hurricane Janet hit Grenada killing 500 people and destroying 75% of the nutmeg trees. 
A new political party, the Grenada National Party led by Herbert Blaize, contested the 1957 general election and 
with the cooperation of elected independent members took control of the Legislative Council from the Grenada 
United Labour Party. In 1958, the Windward Islands Administration was dissolved, and Grenada joined the 
Federation of the West Indies. 

In 1960 another constitutional evolution established the post of Chief Minister, making the leader of the majority 
party in the Legislative Council, which at that time was Herbert Blaize, effective head of government. In March 
1961 the Grenada United Labour Party won the general election and George E.D. Clyne became chief minister 
until Eric Gairy was elected in a by-election and took the role in August 1961. Also in 1961 the cruise liner 
MV Bianca C (2) sank off Point Salines, although thankfully there was only a single fatality. In April 1962 
Grenada's Administrator, the Queens representative on the island, James Lloyd suspended the constitution, 
dissolved the Legislative Council, and removed Eric Gairy as Chief Minister, following allegations concerning 
the Gairy 's financial impropriety. At the 1962 general election the Grenada National Party won a majority and 



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Herbert Blaize became Chief Minister for the second time. 

After the Federation of the West Indies collapsed in 1962, the British government tried to form a small 
federation out of its remaining dependencies in the Eastern Caribbean. Following the failure of this second 
effort, the British and the islanders developed the concept of "associated statehood". Under the Associated 
Statehood Act on 3 March 1967 Grenada was granted full autonomy over its internal affairs. Herbert Blaize was 
the first Premier of the Associated State of Grenada from March to August 1967. Eric Gairy served as Premier 
from August 1967 until February 1974, as the Grenada United Labour Party party won majorities in both the 
1967 and 1972 general elections. 

Independence, Revolution and US invasion: 1974-1983 

Independence 

On 7 February 1974 Grenada became a fully independent state. Grenada continued to practise a modified 
Westminster parliamentary system based on the British model with a governor general appointed by and 
representing the British monarch (head of state) and a prime minister who is both leader of the majority party 
and the head of government. Eric Gairy was independent Grenada's first prime minister serving from 1974 until 
his overthrow in 1979. Gairy won re-election in Grenada's first general election as an independent state in 1976; 
however, the opposition New Jewel Movement refused to recognize the result, claiming the poll was fraudulent, 
and so began working towards the overthrow of the Gairy regime by revolutionary means. 

The 1979 coup and revolutionary government 

On March 13, 1979, the New Jewel Movement launched an armed revolution which removed Gairy, suspended 
the constitution, and established a People's Revolutionary Government (PRG), headed by Maurice Bishop who 
declared himself prime minister. His Marxist-Leninist government established close ties with Cuba, Nicaragua, 
and other communist bloc countries. All political parties except for the New Jewel Movement were banned and 
no elections were held during the four years of PRG rule. 

The 1983 coups 

On 14 October 1983, a power struggle within the government resulted in the house arrest of Bishop at the order 
of his Deputy Prime Minister, Bernard Coard who became Head of Government. This coup resulted in 
demonstrations in various parts of the island which eventually led to Bishop being freed from arrest briefly, 
before being recaptured by the army and executed along with seven others, including members of the cabinet on 
19 October 1983. 

On 19 October 1983 the military under Hudson Austin took power in a second coup and formed a military 
government to run the country. A four-day total curfew was declared under which any civilian outside their 
home was subject to summary execution. 

Invasion 

Main article: Invasion of Grenada 

A U.S. -Caribbean force landed on Grenada on October 25, 1983 in an action called Operation Urgent Fury. 
This action was taken in response to an appeal obtained from the governor general and to a request for assistance 
from the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, without consulting the island's head of state, Queen Elizabeth 



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II, Commonwealth institutions or other usual diplomatic channels (as had been done in Anguilla). Furthermore, 
United States government military strategists feared that Soviet use of the island would enable the Soviet Union 
to project tactical power over the entire Caribbean region. U.S. citizens were evacuated, and constitutional 
government was resumed. 

Seventeen members of the PRG and the PRA (army) were convicted by a court. Fourteen were sentenced to 
death for actions related to the overthrow of the Bishop government and the murder of several persons including 
Bishop. The sentences were eventually commuted to life imprisonment after an international campaign. Another 
three were sentenced to forty five years in prison. These seventeen have become known as the Grenada 17, and 
are the subject of an ongoing international campaign for their release. In October 2003 Amnesty International 
issued a report which stated that their trial had been a miscarriage of justice. The seventeen have protested their 
sentences consistently since 1983. After the invasion, United States gave $48.4 million in economic assistance to 
Grenada in 1984. 

Democracy restored: 1983 to present day 

Post liberation politics 

When US troops withdew from Grenada in December 1983 Nicholas Braithwaite of the National Democratic 
Congress was appointed Prime Minister of an interim administration by the Governor General Sir Paul Scoon 
until elections could be organised. 

The first democratic elections since 1976 were held in December 1984 and were won by the Grenada National 
Party under Herbert Blaize who won 14 out of 15 seats in elections and served as Prime Minister until his death 
in December 1989. The NNP continued in power until 1989 but with a reduced majority. Five NNP 
parliamentary members, including two cabinet ministers, left the party in 1986-87 and formed the National 
Democratic Congress (NDC) which became the official opposition. In August 1989, Prime Minister Blaize broke 
with the GNP to form another new party, The National Party (TNP), from the ranks of the NNP. This split in the 
NNP resulted in the formation of a minority government until constitutionally scheduled elections in March 
1990. Prime Minister Blaize died in December 1989 and was succeeded as prime minister by Ben Jones until 
after the 1990 elections. 

The National Democratic Congress emerged from the 1990 elections as the strongest party, winning 7 of the 
fifteen available seats. Nicholas Brathwaite added 2 TNP members and 1 member of the Grenada United Labor 
Party (GULP) to create a 10-seat majority coalition. The governor general appointed him to be prime minister 
for a second time. Braithwaite resigned in Feb 1995 and was succeeded as Prime Minister by George Brizan who 
served until the Jun 1995 election. 

In parliamentary elections on 20 June 1995 the NNP won 8 of the 15 seats and formed a government headed by 
Keith Mitchell. The NNP maintained and affirmed its hold on power when it took all 15 parliamentary seats in 
the January 1999 elections. Mitchell went on to win the 2003 elections with a reduced majority of 8 of the 15 
seats and served as Prime Minister for a record 13 years until his defeat in 2008. 

The 2008 election was won by the National Democratic Congress under Tillman Thomas with 11 of the 15 

seats. [17] 

Truth and reconciliation commission 

In 2000-02 much of the controversy of the late 1970s and early 1980s was once again brought into the public 
consciousness with the opening of the truth and reconciliation commission. The commission was chaired by a 

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Catholic priest, Father Mark Haynes, and was tasked with uncovering injustices arising from the PRA, Bishop's 
regime, and before. It held a number of hearings around the country. The commission was formed, bizarrely, 
because of a school project. Brother Robert Fanovich, head of Presentation Brothers' College (PBC) in St. 
George's tasked some of his senior students with conducting a research project into the era and specifically into 
the fact that Maurice Bishop's body was never discovered. Their project attracted a great deal of attention, 
including from the Miami Herald and the final report was published in a book written by the boys called Big Sky, 
Little Bullet. It also uncovered that there was still a lot of resentment in Grenadian society resulting from the era, 
and a feeling that there were many injustices still unaddressed. The commission began shortly after the boys 
concluded their project. 

Hurricane Ivan 

On September 7, 2004, Grenada was hit directly by category four Hurricane Ivan. The hurricane destroyed about 
85% of the structures on the island, including the prison and the prime minister's residence, killed thirty nine 
people, and destroyed most of the nutmeg crop, Grenada's main economic mainstay. Grenada's economy was set 
back several years by Hurricane Ivan's impact. Hurricane Emily ravaged the island's north end in June 2005. 

See also 



British colonization of the 

Americas 

French colonization of the 

Americas 

History of the Americas 

History of the British West 



Indies 

History of North America 

History of the Caribbean 

List of heads of government 

of Grenada 

List of Governors of the 



British Windward Islands 

Politics of Grenada 

Spanish colonization of the 

Americas 

West Indies Federation 



References 



Notes 



1. A Steele, pages 35-36 

2. A Steele, page 38 

3. A Steele, page 39 

4. A a b Steele, page 40 

5. A Steele, page 44 

6. A Steele, page 52 

7. A a b Steele, page 54 

8. A Steele, page 55 

9. A Steele, page 59 

10. A [1] (http://www.forts.org/history.htm) 

11. A^bcdefg [2] (http://www.gov.gd 
/historical_facts.html) 

12. A Steele, page 72 

13. A [3] (http://bigdrumnation.org/notes 
/f edonrebellion. html) 

14. A [4] (http://www.travelgrenada.com/gcna.htm) 



15. 



16. 



17. 



. a b 



[ 5 ] (http ://www. bigdrumnation. org/comments 
/crowncolony. html) 

A http://www.bigdrumnation.org/comments 
/l stgeneralelectionhtml 
A "New Grenada prime minister vows to boost 
economy, lower cost of living" 
(http://web.archive.org/web/20080804055052/http: 
//www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/07/09/news/CB- 
POL-Grenada-Elections.php) . Associated Press via 
International Herald Tribune. July 9, 2008. 
Archived from the original (http://www.iht.com 
/articles/ap/2008/07/09/news/CB-POL-Grenada- 
Elections.php) on 2008-08-04. http://web.archive.org 
/web/20080804055052/http://www.iht.com/articles 
/ap/2008/07/09/news/CB-POL-Grenada- 
Elections.php. Retrieved 2011-07-31. 



Bibliography 

■ Steele, Beverley A. (2003). Grenada. A History of its People. Macmillan. ISBN 0201523965. 



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Monarchy of Grenada - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy_of_Grenada 



Monarchy of Grenada 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

The monarchy of Grenada (the Grenadian monarchy) 

is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch 
is the sovereign of the Grenadas. The present monarch of 
Grenada is Queen Elizabeth IP . Grenada share the 
Sovereign with a number of Commonwealth realms^ J 
The Queen's constitutional roles are mostly delegated to 
the Governor-General of Grenada. Royal succession is 
governed by the English Act of Settlement of 1701, which 
is part of constitutional law. 



Contents 




■ 1 International and domestic role 




■ 1.1 Development of shared 


monarchy 


■ 1.2 Title 




■ 2 Constitutional role 




■ 2.1 Duties 




■ 2.2 Succession 




■ 3 Legal role 




■ 4 1983 invasion of Grenada 




■ 5 See also 




■ 5.1 Other realms 




■ 5.2 Other 




■ 6 References 





Queen of Grenada 

MONARCHY 




Incumbent: 
Elizabeth H 



Style: 

Heir apparent: 

First monarch: 

Formation: 



Her Majesty 

Charles, Prince of Wales 

Elizabeth II 

February 7, 1974 



International and domestic role 

One of the most complicated features of the Grenadian Monarchy is that it is a shared monarchy. 

54 states are members of the Commonwealth of Nations. Sixteen of these countries are specifically 
Commonwealth realms who recognise, individually, the same person as their Monarch and Head of State; 
Grenada is one of these. J Despite sharing the same person as their respective national monarch, each of the 
Commonwealth realms — including Grenada — is sovereign and independent of the others. 

Development of shared monarchy 

The Balfour Declaration of 1926 provided the dominions the right to be considered equal to Britain, rather than 
subordinate; an agreement that had the result of, in theory, a shared Crown that operates independently in each 
realm rather than a unitary British Crown under which all the dominions were secondary. The Monarchy thus 
ceased to be an exclusively British institution, although it has often been called "British" since this time (in both 
legal and common language) for reasons historical, legal, and of convenience. The Royal and Parliamentary 
Titles Act 1927 was the first indication of this shift in law, further elaborated in the Statute of Westminster 1931. 



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Under the Statute of Westminster, Grenada has a common monarchy with Britain and the other Commonwealth 
realms, and though laws governing the line of succession to the Grenadian throne lie within the control of the 
Grenadian Parliament, Grenada cannot change the rules of succession without the unanimous consent of the 
other realms, unless explicitly leaving the shared monarchy relationship by means of a constitutional amendment. 
This situation applies symmetrically in all the other realms, including the UK. 

On all matters of the Grenadian State, the Monarch is advised solely by Grenadian ministers. 

Title 

In Grenada, the Queen's official title is: Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Grenada and Her other Realms and Territories, Head 
of the Commonwealth. 

This style communicates Grenada's status as an independent monarchy, highlighting the Monarch's role 
specifically as Queen of Grenada, as well as the shared aspect of the Crown throughout the realms. Typically, the 
Sovereign is styled "Queen of Grenada," and is addressed as such when in Grenada, or performing duties on 
behalf of Grenada abroad. 

Constitutional role 

The role of the Sovereign's representative, the Governor-general, is determined by the Constitution of Grenada 
(1973) and the constitutional conventions of the Westminster system of parliamentary government. J The 
Governor-general is appointed by the Monarch upon the advice of the Prime Minister of Grenada. The Monarch 
is informed of the Prime Minister's decision before the Governor General gives Royal Assent. The power to 
appoint the Prime Minister and other constitutional powers are exclusively vested in the Governor General and 
not the Queen herself. As such, the Queen herself does not excerise reserve powers. 

Duties 

Most of the Queen's domestic duties are performed by the Governor General. The Governor-General represents 
the Queen on ceremonial occasions such as the opening of Parliament, the presentation of honours and military 
parades. Under the Constitution, he is given authority to act in some matters, for example in appointing and 
disciplining officers of the civil service, in proroguing Parliament. As in the other Commonwealth realms, 
however, the Monarch's role, and thereby the vice-regent's role, is almost entirely symbolic and cultural, acting 
as a symbol of the legal authority under which all governments operate, and the powers that are constitutionally 
hers are exercised almost wholly upon the advice of the Cabinet, made up of Ministers of the Crown. It has been 
said since the death of Queen Anne in 1714, the last monarch to head the British cabinet, that the monarch 
"reigns" but does not "rule". In exceptional circumstances, however, the Monarch or vice-regal can act against 
such advice based upon his or her reserve powers. 

There are also a few duties which must be specifically performed by, or bills that require assent by the Queen. 
These include: signing the appointment papers of Governors General, the confirmation of awards of honours, and 
approving any change in her title. 

It is also possible that if the Governor General decided to go against the Prime Minister's or the government's 
advice, the Prime Minister could appeal directly to the Monarch, or even recommend that the Monarch dismiss 
the Governor General. 



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy_of_Grenada 



Succession 




Charles, Prince of Wales, 
the current heir to the 
throne of Grenada 



Succession to the throne is by male-preference primogeniture, and governed by the 
provisions of the Act of Settlement, as well as the English Bill of Rights. These 
documents, though originally passed by the Parliament of England, are now part of 
the Grenadian constitutional law, under control of the Grenadian parliament only. 

This legislation lays out the rules that the Monarch cannot be a Roman Catholic, nor 
married to one, and must be in communion with the Church of England upon 
ascending the throne. As Grenada's laws governing succession are currently 
identical to those of the United Kingdom (by the Statute of Westminster) see 
Succession to the British Throne for more information. 

The heir apparent is Elizabeth IPs eldest son, Charles, who has no official title 
outside of the UK, but is accorded his UK title, Prince of Wales, as a courtesy title. 



Legal role 

All laws in Grenada are enacted with the sovereign's, or the vice-regal's signature. The granting of a signature to 
a bill is known as Royal Assent; it and proclamation are required for all acts of Parliament, usually granted or 
withheld by the Governor General. The Vice-Regals may reserve a bill for the Monarch's pleasure, that is to say, 
allow the Monarch to make a personal decision on the bill. The Monarch has the power to disallow a bill (within 
a time limit specified by the constitution). 

The Sovereign is deemed the "fount of justice," and is responsible for rendering justice for all subjects. The 
Sovereign does not personally rule injudicial cases; instead, judicial functions are performed in his or her name. 
The common law holds that the Sovereign "can do no wrong"; the monarch cannot be prosecuted in his or her 
own courts for criminal offences. Civil lawsuits against the Crown in its public capacity (that is, lawsuits against 
the government) are permitted; however, lawsuits against the Monarch personally are not cognizable. The 
Sovereign, and by extension the Governor General, also exercises the "prerogative of mercy," and may pardon 
offences against the Crown. Pardons may be awarded before, during, or after a trial. 

In Grenada the legal personality of the State is referred to as "Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Grenada." For 
example, if a lawsuit is filed against the government, the respondent is formally described as Her Majesty the 
Queen in Right of Grenada. The monarch as an individual takes no more role in such an affair than in any other 
business of government. 

1983 invasion of Grenada 

Sir Paul Scoon was Governor General of Grenada from 1978 until 1992, a period which included the 1979 
Grenadian Revolution and the subsequent People's Revolutionary Government led by Maurice Bishop's New 
Jewel Movement from 1979 to 1983 which culminated in the 1983 American led invasion of Grenada. Operation 
Urgent Fury was launched by US forces in 1983 and deposed the radical elements of the New Jewel Movement 
which had detained and then killed Prime Minister Bishop and assumed control of the government under the 
leadership of Bernard Coard. Prior to the invasion Scoon communicated with the leaders of several other 
Caribbean nations, who had been encouraging the US to invade Grenada and depose Coard. Endorsing the move, 
Scoon also communicated with the British and American governments, though he was later criticized for having 
insufficient communication with the Margaret Thatcher administration in London, and Queen Elizabeth II, 
Grenada's head of state. 



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Jamaica - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamaica 



Jamaica 



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



Coordinates: 18°10'57"N77°19'18"W 



Jamaica 4 '/dSB'meika/ is an island nation of the Greater 
Antilles, 234 kilometres (145 mi) in length, up to 80 
kilometres (50 mi) in width and 10,990 square kilometres 
(4,243 sq mi) in area. It is situated in the Caribbean Sea, about 
145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres 
(119 mi) west of Hispaniola, the island harbouring the nation- 
states of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Its indigenous 
Arawakan-speaking Taino inhabitants named the island 
Xaymaca, meaning the "Land of Wood and Water", or the 
"Land of Springs". [4] 

Once a Spanish possession known as Santiago, in 1655 it 
became an English, and later a British, colony, known as 
"Jamaica". It achieved full independence on August 6, 

1962. J With 2.8 million people, it is the third most populous 
anglophone country in the Americas, after the United States 
and Canada. It remains a Commonwealth realm in concert 
with the Monarchy of Jamaica holding ultimate executive 
power, where Queen Elizabeth II is the current head of state 

and Queen of Jamaica. ^ ^ J Kingston is the country's 



largest city and the capital. 



[9] 



Contents 


■ 1 History 


■ 2 Government and politics 


■ 2.1 Parishes 


■ 2.2 Military 


■ 3 Geography and environment 


■ 3.1 Flora and fauna 


■ 4 Demographics 


■ 4.1 Ethnic origins 


■ 4.2 Language 


■ 4.3 Emigration 


■ 4.4 Crime 


■ 5 Religion 


■ 6 Culture 


■ 6.1 National symbols 


■ 7 Sport 


■ 8 Education 


■ 9 Economy 


■ 10 Infrastructure 


■ 10.1 Transport 


■ 10.1.1 Roadways 



Commonwealth of Jamaica 





Hag 



Coat of arms 



Motto: "Out of Many, One People" 



Anthem: "Jamaica, Land We Love" 
Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen" 


















- 



Capital 

(and largest city) 



Kingston 

17°59'N76 48'W 



Official language(s) 
Demonym 



English / Patois 



Jamaican 



Government 



- Monarch 

- Governor-General 

- Prime Minister 



Parliamentary democracy 
and Constitutional 
monarchy 

Elizabeth H 

Patrick Allen 

Portia Simpson-Miller 



Independence 

- from the United 
Kingdom 



6 August 1962 



Area 

- Total 

- Water (%) 



10,991 km z (166th) 

4,244 sq mi 

1.5 



Population 

- July 20 10 estimate 

- Density 



2,847,232 [1] (133rd) 

252/km 2 (49th) 
656/sq mi 



GDP (PPP) 



2010 estimate 



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■ 10.1.2 Railways 

■ 10.2 Air transport 

■ 10.2.1 Ports, shipping and lighthouses 

■ 10.3 Energy 

■ 10.4 Communication 

1 1 See also 

12 References 

13 Further reading 

14 External links 



History 

Main articles: History of Jamaica and Spanish 
occupation of Santiago (Jamaica) 

The Arawak and Taino indigenous people, originating in South 

America, settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC. [10] 

When Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were over 

200 villages ruled by caciques (chiefs of villages). The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated, especially 

around the area now known as Old Harbour. J The Tainos were still inhabiting Jamaica when the English took 

control of the island. J The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any 



- Total 

- Per capita 


$23,716 billion [2] 

$8,727 [2] 


GDP (nominal) 

- Total 

- Per capita 


2010 estimate 
$13,694 billion [2] 

$5,039 [2] 


Gini (2000) 


37.9 ( m) 


HDI(2010) 


A 0.688 [3] (high) (80th) 


Currency 


Jamaican dollar ( jmd) 


Time zone 


(UTC-5) 


Drives on the 


left 


ISO 3166 code 


JM 


Internet TLD 


jm 


Calling code 


+ 1-876 



evidence of the Taino/Arawaks. 



[11] 



Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494 and his probable landing point was 

ri2i 
Dry Harbour, now called Discovery Bay. J There is some debate as to whether he landed in St. Ann's Bay or in 

Discovery Bay. St. Ann's Bay was the "Saint Gloria" of Columbus who first sighted Jamaica at this point. One 

mile west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, Sevilla, which was established 

in 1509 and abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy. J The capital was moved to Spanish 

Town, then called "St. Jago de la Vega", around 1534 and is located in present day St. Catherine. J 

Out of all the British colonies in the Caribbean, Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral. J The Spanish were 
forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In 1655 the English, led by William Penn and General 

Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort in Jamaica. J The name of Montego Bay, the capital of the 
parish of St. James, was derived from the Spanish name manteca bahia (or Bay of Lard) for the large quantity of 
boar used for the lard-making industry. J 

In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 whites and 1,500 blacks, J 
but as early as the 1670s, blacks would form a majority of the population.^ J 



When the English captured Jamaica in 1655 the Spanish colonists fled after 
freeing their slaves. J The slaves fled into the mountains, joining those who had 
previously escaped from the Spanish to live with the Tainos. J These runaway 
slaves, who became known as the Jamaican Maroons, fought the British during 

the 18th century. J The name is still used today for their modern descendants. 
During the long years of slavery Maroons established free communities in the 
mountainous interior of Jamaica, maintaining their freedom and independence for 




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Henry Morgan was a famous 
Caribbean pirate and privateer 
who had arrived in the West 
Indies as an indentured 
servant, like many of the early 



L 



settlers. 



[17] 



generations. 

During its first 200 years of British rule, Jamaica became one of the world's 
leading sugar-exporting, slave-dependent nations, producing more than 77,000 
tons of sugar annually between 1820 and 1824. After the abolition of the slave 
trade in 1807, ^ the British imported Indian and Chinese workers as indentured 
servants to supplement the labour pool. Descendants of indentured servants of 
Indian and Chinese origin continue to reside in Jamaica today. 

By the beginning of the 19th century, Jamaica's heavy reliance on slavery resulted in blacks outnumbering whites 
by a ratio of almost 20 to 1. Even though England had outlawed the importation of slaves, some were still 
smuggled into the colonies. The British government drew up laws regimenting the abolition of slavery, but they 
also included instructions for the improvement of the slaves' way of life. These instructions included a ban of the 
use of whips in the field, a ban on the flogging of women, notification that slaves were to be allowed religious 
instruction, a requirement that slaves be given an extra free day during the week when they could sell their 
produce as well as a ban on Sunday markets. 

In Jamaica these measures were resisted by the House of Assembly. The 
Assembly claimed that the slaves were content and objected to 
Parliament's interference in island affairs, although many slave owners 
feared possible revolts. Following a series of rebellions and changing 
attitudes in Great Britain, the nation formally abolished slavery in 1834, 
with full emancipation from chattel slavery declared in 1838. The 
population in 1834 was 371,070 of whom 15,000 were white, 5,000 free 
black, 40,000 'coloured' or mixed race, and 311,070 slaves. [18] 



^ 



Map of Jamaica 



In the 19th century, the British established a number of botanical gardens. These included the Castleton Garden, 
set up in 1862 to replace the Bath Garden (created in 1779) which was subject to flooding. Bath Garden was the 
site for planting breadfruit brought to Jamaica from the Pacific by Captain William Bligh. Other gardens were the 
Cinchona Plantation founded in 1868 and the Hope Garden founded in 1874. In 1872, Kingston became the 
island's capital. 

In 1945, Sir Horace Hector Hearne became Chief Justice and Keeper of the Records in Jamaica. He headed the 
Supreme Court, Kingston between 1945 and 1950/1951. He then moved to Kenya where he was appointed Chief 
Justice. 

Jamaica slowly gained increasing independence from the United Kingdom and in 
1958, it became a province in the Federation of the West Indies, a federation 
among the British West Indies. Jamaica attained full independence by leaving the 
federation in 1962. 

Strong economic growth, averaging approximately 6% per annum, marked the 
first ten years of independence under conservative governments which were led 
successively by Prime Ministers Alexander Bustamante, Donald Sangster and 
Hugh Shearer. The growth was fuelled by strong investments in bauxite/alumina, 
tourism, manufacturing industry and, to a lesser extent, the agricultural sector. 

The optimism of the first decade was accompanied by a growing sense of 
inequality, and a sense that the benefits of growth were not being experienced by 
the urban poor. This, combined with the effects of a slowdown in the global 
economy in 1970, prompted the electorate to change government, electing the 




Jamaican Prime Minister 
Michael Manley and his wife 
with US president Jimmy 
Carter in 1977. 



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PNP (People's National Party) in 1972. Despite efforts to create more socially equitable policies in education 
and health, Jamaica continued to lag economically, with its gross national product having fallen in 1980 to some 
25% below the 1972 level. Rising foreign and local debt, accompanied by large fiscal deficits, resulted in the 
invitation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) financing from the United States and others, and the 
imposition of IMF austerity measures (with a greater than 25% interest rate per year). 

Economic deterioration continued into the mid-1980s, exacerbated by a number of factors; the first and third 
largest alumina producers, Alpart and Alcoa closed, and there was a significant reduction in production by the 
second largest producer, Alcan. In addition, tourism decreased and Reynolds Jamaica Mines, Ltd. left the 
Jamaican industry. 



Government and politics 













^^^*^ m ^ m ^^^mZ^M 






^^M^fl 


;■ .! 


*t 












jbeB 


y- 




Inside the Parliament of Jamaica 



Main article: Politics of Jamaica 

Further information: Foreign relations of Jamaica 

Jamaica is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy, with 

[22] 
Queen Elizabeth II serving as the Jamaican monarch. J However, as 

Elizabeth II is shared as head of state of fifteen other countries and 

resides mostly in the United Kingdom, she is thus often represented as 

Queen of Jamaica in Jamaica and abroad by the Governor-General of 

T231 
Jamaica. J The governor- general is nominated by the Prime Minister of 

Jamaica and the entire Cabinet and appointed by the monarch. All the 

members of the Cabinet are appointed by the governor-general on the 

advice of the prime minister. The monarch and the governor-general 

serve largely ceremonial roles, apart from their potent reserve power to 

dismiss the prime minister or parliament. 

Jamaica's current constitution was drafted in 1962 by a bipartisan joint committee of the Jamaican legislature. It 
came into force with the Jamaica Independence Act, 1962 of the United Kingdom parliament, which gave 
Jamaica independence. 

The Parliament of Jamaica is bicameral, consisting of the House of Representatives (Lower House) and the 
Senate (Upper House). Members of the House (known as Members of Parliament or MPs) are directly elected, 
and the member of the House of Representatives who, in the governor-general's best judgement, is best able to 
command the confidence of a majority of the members of that House, is appointed by the governor-general to be 
the prime minister. Senators are nominated jointly by the prime minister and the parliamentary Leader of the 
Opposition and are then appointed by the governor-general. 

In February 2006, Portia Simpson-Miller was elected by delegates of the ruling People's National Party (PNP) to 
replace P. J. Patterson as president of the party. At the end of March 2006, when Patterson demitted office, 
Simpson-Miller became the first female Prime Minister of Jamaica. Former Prime Minister Patterson had held 
office since the 1992 resignation of Michael Manley. Patterson was re-elected three times, the last being in 2002. 

On 3 September 2007, Bruce Golding of the Jamaica Labour Party was voted in as Prime Minister-Designate 
after achieving a 33 - 27 seat victory over Portia Simpson-Miller and the PNP in the 2007 Jamaican general 
election. Portia Simpson-Miller conceded defeat on 5 September 2007. J On 11 September 2007, after being 
sworn in by Governor-General Kenneth Hall, The Hon. Bruce Golding assumed office as Prime Minister of 
Jamaica. 



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Jamaica has traditionally had a two-party system, with power often 
alternating between the People's National Party and Jamaica Labour 
Party (JLP). Over the past decade a new political party called the 
National Democratic Movement (NDM) emerged in an attempt to 
challenge the two-party system, though it has become largely irrelevant 
in this system, as it garnered only 540 votes of the over 800,000 votes 
cast in the 3 September elections. Jamaica is a full and participating 
member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). 

Parishes 

Main article: Parishes of Jamaica 





Embassy of Jamaica in Washington, 
D.C. 



Jamaica is divided into 14 parishes, which are grouped into three historic counties that have no administrative 
relevance. 



Cornwall 
County 


Capital 


km 2 


Middlesex 
County 


Capital 


km 2 


Surrey County 


Capital 


km 2 


1 


Hanover 


Lucea 


450 


6 


Clarendon 


May Pen 


1,196 


11 


Kingston 


Kingston 


25 


2 


Saint Elizabeth 


Black River 


1,212 


7 


Manchester 


Mandeville 


830 


12 


Portland 


Port Antonio 


814 


3 


Saint James 


Montego Bay 


595 


8 


Saint Ann 


St. Ann's Bay 


1,213 


13 


Saint 
Andrew 


Half Way 
Tree 


453 


4 


Trelawny 


Falmouth 


875 


9 


Saint 
Catherine 


Spanish 
Town 


1,192 


14 


Saint 
Thomas 


Morant Bay 


743 


5 


Westmoreland 


Savanna- 
la-Mar 


807 


10 


Saint Mary 


Port Maria 


611 











Military 

Main article: Jamaica Defence Force 

The Jamaica Defence Force (JDF) is the small but professional military force of Jamaica. The JDF is based on 
the British military model with organisation, training, weapons and traditions closely aligned with 
Commonwealth realms. Once chosen, officer candidates are sent to one of several British or Canadian basic 
officer courses depending on which arm of service they are selected for. Enlisted soldiers are given basic training 
at JDF Training Depot, Newcastle or Up Park Camp, both in St. Andrew. As with the British model, NCOs are 
given several levels of professional training as they rise up the ranks. Additional military schools are available for 
speciality training in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom. 

The JDF is directly descended from the British West India Regiment formed during the colonial era. * The 



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West India Regiment was used extensively by the British Empire in policing the empire from 1795 to 1926. 
Other units in the JDF heritage include the early colonial Jamaica Militia, the Kingston Infantry Volunteers of 
WWI and reorganised into the Jamaican Infantry Volunteers in World War II. The West Indies Regiment was 
reformed in 1958 as part of the West Indies Federation, after dissolution of the Federation the JDF was 
established. 

The Jamaica Defence Force (JDF) comprises an infantry Regiment and Reserve Corps, an Air Wing, a Coast 
Guard fleet and a supporting Engineering Unit. J The infantry regiment contains the 1st, 2nd and 3rd (National 
Reserve) battalions. The JDF Air Wing is divided into three flight units, a training unit, a support unit and the 
JDF Air Wing (National Reserve). The Coast Guard is divided between seagoing crews and support crews who 
conduct maritime safety and maritime law enforcement as well as defence-related operations. J The role of the 
support battalion is to provide support to boost numbers in combat and issue competency training in order to 
allow for the readiness of the force. J The 1st Engineer Regiment was formed due to an increased demand for 

military engineers and their role is to provide engineering services whenever and wherever they are needed. J 
The Headquarters JDF contains the JDF Commander, Command Staff as well as Intelligence, Judge Advocate 



office, Administrative and Procurement sections. 



[30] 



In recent years the JDF has been called on to assist the nation's police, the Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF), in 
fighting drug smuggling and a rising crime rate which includes one of the highest murder rates in the world. JDF 
units actively conduct armed patrols with the JCF in high-crime areas and known gang neighbourhoods. There 
has been vocal controversy as well as support of this JDF role. In early 2005, an Opposition leader, Edward 
Seaga, called for the merger of the JDF and JCF. This has not garnered support in either organisation nor among 
the majority of citizens. 



Geography and environment 

Main article: Geography of Jamaica 

Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean. J It lies between 
latitudes 17° and 19°N, and longitudes 76° and 79°W. Mountains, 

including the Blue Mountains, dominate the inland. They are surrounded 

T321 
by a narrow coastal plain. J Chief towns and cities include the capital 

Kingston, Portmore, Spanish Town, Mandeville, Ocho Rios, Port 
Antonio, Negril, and Montego Bay. J Jamaica has the seventh largest 
natural harbour in the world, Kingston Harbour.^ * Tourist attractions 
include Dunn's River Falls in St. Ann, YS Falls in St. Elizabeth, the Blue 
Lagoon in Portland, and Port Royal, which was the site of an earthquake 

that helped form the island's Palisadoes. [35][36][37][38] 

The climate in Jamaica is tropical, with hot and humid weather, although 
higher inland regions are more temperate. J Some regions on the south 
coast, such as the Liguanea Plain and the Pedro Plains, are relatively dry 

rain-shadow areas. J Jamaica lies in the hurricane belt of the Atlantic 
Ocean and because of this, the island sometimes experiences significant 

storm damage. J Hurricanes Charlie and Gilbert hit Jamaica directly in 
1951 and 1988, respectively, causing major damage and many deaths. In 
the 2000s (decade), hurricanes Ivan, Dean, and Gustav also brought 
severe weather to the island. 




Doctor's Cave Beach Club is a popular 
destination in Montego Bay. 




The picturesque Dunn's River Falls in 
Ocho Rios. 



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Flora and fauna 

Jamaica's climate is tropical, supporting diverse ecosystems with a wealth 
of plants and animals. 

Jamaica's plant life has changed considerably over the centuries. When 
the Spanish arrived in 1494, except for small agricultural clearings, the 
country was deeply forested. The European settlers cut down the great 
timber trees for building purposes and cleared the plains, savannas, and 
mountain slopes for cultivation. Many new plants were introduced 
including sugarcane, bananas, and citrus trees. 

Areas of heavy rainfall contain stands of bamboo, ferns, ebony, 
mahogany, and rosewood. Cactus and similar dry-area plants are found 
along the south and southwest coastal area. Parts of the west and 
southwest consist of large grasslands, with scattered stands of trees. 

The Jamaican animal life, typical of the Caribbean, includes highly 
diversified wildlife with many endemic species found nowhere else on 
earth. As with other oceanic islands, land mammals are made up almost 
entirely of Bats. The only non-bat native mammal extant in Jamaica is 
the Jamaican Hutia, locally known as the coney. Introduced mammals 
such as Wild Boar and the Small Asian Mongoose are also common. 

Jamaica is also home to many reptiles, the largest of which is the American Crocodile, however it is only present 
within the Black River and a few other areas. Lizards such as Anoles, Iguanas and snakes such as racers and the 
Jamaican Boa (the largest snake on the island) are common. None of Jamaica's native snakes are dangerously 
venomous to humans. J One species of freshwater turtle is native to Jamaica, the Jamaican Slider. It is found 
only on Jamaica, Cat Island, and a few other islands in The Bahamas. In addition, many types of frogs are 
common on the island, especially Treefrogs. Birds are abundant, and make up the bulk of the endemic and native 
vertebrate species. Beautiful and exotic birds such as the Jamaican Tody and the Doctor Bird (the national bird) 
can be found among a large number of others. Insects and other invertebrates are abundant, including the world's 
largest centipede, the Amazonian Giant Centipede, and the Homerus Swallowtail, the Western Hemisphere's 
largest butterfly. 

Jamaican waters contain considerable resources of fresh- and saltwater fish. J The chief varieties of saltwater 
fish are Kingfish, Jack, Mackerel, Whiting, Bonito, and Tuna. Fish that occasionally enter freshwater and 
estuarine environments include Snook, Jewfish, Mangrove snapper, and Mullets. Fish that spend the majority of 
their lives in Jamaica's fresh waters include many species of Livebearers, Killifish, freshwater Gobies, the 
Mountain Mullet, and the American Eel. Tilapia have been introduced from Africa for aquaculture, and are very 
common. 

Among the variety of terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems are dry and wet limestone forests, rainforest, 
riparian woodland, wetlands, caves, rivers, seagrass beds and coral reefs. 

The authorities had recognized the tremendous significance and potential of this aspect of their heritage and 
designated some of the more 'fertile' areas 'protected'. Among the island's protected areas are the Cockpit 
Country, Hellshire Hills, and Litchfield forest reserves. In 1992, Jamaica's first marine park, covering nearly 6 
square miles (about 15 km ), was established in Montego Bay. 

The following year Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park was created on roughly 300 square miles 



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(780 km ) of wilderness that supports thousands of tree and fern species and rare animals. 

Demographics 

Further information: Demographics of Jamaica and Jamaican peoples 



Ethnic origins 

According to the 2001 census, the majority of Jamaica's population is of 
African descent (referring to those who have origins mainly in Africa). 
The most common ethnic groups among all Africans taken to Jamaica 

were the Akan (known as the "Coromantee") and the Igbo. J 
Multiracial Jamaicans form the second largest racial group many of 
whom also have some Irish ancestry although most mixed-race people on 

the island self-report simply as "Jamaican". ^ ^ ^ J Jamaicans of 
Indian and Chinese ancestry, form the next largest racial groups after 
multiracial Jamaicans. Lebanese, Syrian, English, Scottish, Irish, and 
German Jamaicans make up a smaller racial minority but are still very 

influential both socially and economically. J In recent years, immigration 
has increased, coming mainly from China, Haiti, Cuba, Colombia, and 
other Latin American countries; 20,000 Latin Americans currently reside 
in Jamaica. About 7,000 Americans also reside in Jamaica, as well as 
many first generation American, British and Canadian of Jamaican 





T 4- 




m i " 


m 




- 


.,-••" 






FniUlNlhKHll 


Population of Jamaica (in thousands) 
from 1961-2003 



descendant. 



[49] 



Language 

Main articles: Jamaican Patois and Jamaican English 




Streets of Kingston, the capital of 
Jamaica 



The official language of Jamaica is English. Jamaicans primarily speak an 

English- African Creole language known as Jamaican Patois, which has become known widely through the spread 
of Reggae music. Jamaican Patois was formed from a base of mainly English words with elements of re-formed 
grammar, together with a little vocabulary from African languages and Native American words. Some archaic 
features are reminiscent of Irish English. 

Emigration 

Main article: Jamaican diaspora 

Many Jamaicans have emigrated to other countries, especially to the United Kingdom, the United States, and 

Canada. In the case of the United States, about 20,000 Jamaicans per year are granted permanent residence. J 
The great number of Jamaicans living abroad has become known as the Jamaican diaspora. There has also been 

emigration of Jamaicans to Cuba. J The scale of emigration has been widespread and similar to other 

Caribbean entities such as Puerto Rico, Guyana, and The Bahamas. It is estimated that up to 2.5 million 

T521 
Jamaicans and Jamaican descendants live abroad. J An estimated 60% of the highly educated people of 

Jamaica now live abroad. J 

Concentrations of expatriate Jamaicans are quite considerable in numberous cities in the United States, including 



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New York City, Buffalo, the Miami metro area, Atlanta, Chicago, Orlando, Tampa, Washington, D.C., 
Philadelphia, Hartford, Providence and Los Angeles. Jamaicans in the United Kingdom number an estimated 
800,000 making them by far the country's largest African-Caribbean group. Large scale migration from Jamaica 
to the UK occurred primarily in the 1950s and 1960s (when the country was still under British rule). Jamaican 

communities exist in most large UK cities. J In Canada, the Jamaican population is centred in Toronto, and 
there are smaller communities in cities such as Hamilton, Montreal, Vancouver and Ottawa. 

Crime 

Main article: Crime in Jamaica 

See also: Prisons in Jamaica and LGBT rights in Jamaica 

Jamaica has had one of the highest murder rates in the world for many years, according to UN estimates. ^ ^ 

T571 
Some areas of Jamaica, particularly cities such as Kingston, experience high levels of crime and violence. J 

Many Jamaicans are hostile toward LGBT and intersex people. J Various mob attacks against gay people have 

been reported, ^ ^ J prompting human-rights groups to call Jamaica "the most homophobic place on 

earth." [61] 



Religion 

Main article: Religion in Jamaica 

Christianity is the largest religion practised in Jamaica. According to the 
2001 census, the country's largest denominations are the Church of God 
of Prophecy (24% of the population), Seventh-day Adventist Church 
(11%), Pentecostal (10%), Baptist (7%), Anglican (4%), Roman Catholic 
(2%), United Church (2%), Methodist (2%), Moravian (1%) and 

Plymouth Brethren (\%y J The Christian faith gained credibility as 
British Christian abolitionists and Baptist missionaries joined educated 
former slaves in the struggle against slavery.^ J 

The Rastafari movement had 24,020 adherents, according to the 2001 

census. J Other religions in Jamaica include Jehovah's Witnesses (2% 

population), the Baha'i faith, which counts perhaps 8,000 adherents^ J 

and 21 Local Spiritual Assemblies, J Buddhism, and Hinduism. J There is a small population of Jews, about 

200, who describe themselves as Liberal-Conservative. J The first Jews in Jamaica trace their roots back to 

early 15th century Spain and Portugal. J Muslim groups in Jamaica claim 5,000 adherents. J 



1 









Mandeville Church in Manchester 
Parish. Founded in 1816. 



Culture 

Main article: Culture of Jamaica 

Further information: Music of Jamaica, Jamaican cuisine, and Jamaican literature 

Though a small nation, Jamaican culture has a strong global presence. The musical genres reggae, ska, mento, 
rocksteady, dub, and, more recently, dancehall and ragga all originated in the island's vibrant, popular urban 
recording industry. Jamaica also played an important role in the development of punk rock, through reggae and 



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ska. Reggae has also influenced American rap music, as they both share their 
roots as rhythmic, African styles of music. Some rappers, such as The Notorious 
B.I.G. and Heavy D, are of Jamaican descent. Internationally known reggae 
musician Bob Marley was also Jamaican. 

Many other internationally known artists were born in Jamaica including Millie 
Small, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Peter Tosh, Bunny Wailer, Big Youth, Jimmy Cliff, 
Dennis Brown, Desmond Dekker, Beres Hammond, Beenie Man, Shaggy, Grace 
Jones, Shabba Ranks, Super Cat, Buju Banton, Sean Paul, I Wayne, Bounty 
Killer and many others. Band artist groups that came from Jamaica include Black 
Uhuru, Third World Band, Inner Circle, Chalice Reggae Band, Culture, Fab Five 
and Morgan Heritage. The genre jungle emerged from London's Jamaican 
diaspora. The birth of hip-hop in New York City, New York also owed much to 
the city's Jamaican community. 

Ian Fleming, who lived in Jamaica, repeatedly used the island as a setting in the 
James Bond novels, including Live and Let Die, Doctor No, For Your Eyes Only, 
The Man with the Golden Gun and Octopussy and The Living Daylights. In 
addition, James Bond uses a Jamaica-based cover in Casino Royale. So 
far, the only James Bond film adaptation to have been set in Jamaica is 
Doctor No. Filming for the fictional island of San Monique in Live and 
Let Die took place in Jamaica. 



Journalist and author H. G. de Lisser (1878-1944) used his native 
country as the setting for his many novels. Born at Falmouth, de Lisser 
worked as a reporter for the Jamaica Times at a young age and in 1920 
began publishing the magazine Planters' Punch. The White Witch of 
Rose hall is one of his better known novels. He was named Honourary 
President of the Jamaican Press Association, and worked throughout his 
professional career to promote the Jamaican sugar industry. 




Marcus Garvey, Father of the 
Back to Africa Movement and 
Jamaica's first National Hero. 




Bob Marley, the most famous reggae 
artist from Jamaica. 



The American film Cocktail, starring Tom Cruise, is one of the more 

popular films to depict Jamaica. A look at delinquent youth in Jamaica is 

presented in the 1970s musical crime film The Harder They Come, starring Jimmy Cliff as a frustrated (and 

psychopathic) reggae musician who descends into a murderous crime spree. Another popular Jamaican-based 

film is the 1993 comedy Cool Runnings which is loosely based on the true story of Jamaica's first bobsled team 

trying to make it in the Winter Olympics. 

Errol Flynn lived with his third wife Patrice Wymore in Port Antonio in the 1950s. He was responsible for 
developing tourism to this area, popularising raft trips down rivers on bamboo rafts. J 

The island is famous for its Jamaican jerk spice which forms a popular part of Jamaican cuisine. Jamaica is also 
home to Red Stripe beer and Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffee. 



National symbols 

(From the Jamaica Information Service^ J 



National Bird — Red-billed Streamertail (aka Doctor Bird) (a Hummingbird, Trochilus polytmus) 
National Flower - Lignum vitae (Guiacum officinale) 
National Tree — Blue Mahoe (Hibiscus talipariti elatum) 



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National Fruit - 
National Motto 



- Ackee (Blighia sapida) 

- "Out of Many, One People." 



Sport 



Main article: Sport in Jamaica 

See also: Cricket in the West Indies and Athletics in Jamaica 




Usain Bolt at the Berlin 
World Championships 2009 



Sport is an integral part of national life in Jamaica and the island's athletes tend to 
perform to a standard well above what might ordinarily be expected of such a 

small country. J While the most popular local sport is cricket, on the 
international stage Jamaicans have tended to do particularly well at Track and 
Field.^ 71 " 72 ] 

The country was one the venues of 2007 Cricket World Cup and West Indies 
cricket team is one of the only 10 ICC full member teams who participate in 
international Test Cricket. J The Jamaica national cricket team competes 
regionally, and also provides players for the West Indies. Sabina Park is the only 
test venue in the island, but the Greenfield Stadium (Trelawny) is also used for 

cricketJ 74 " 75 ] 



Since independence Jamaica has consistently produced world class athletes in 

track and field. J In Jamaica involvement in athletics begins at a very young 
age and most high schools maintain rigorous athletics programs with their top 
athletes competing in national competitions (most notably the VMBS Girls and 
Boys Athletics Championships) and international meets (most notably the Penn Relays). In Jamaica it is not 
uncommon for young athletes to attain press coverage and national fame long before they arrive on the 
international athletics stage. 

Over the past six decades Jamaica has produced dozens of world class sprinters including Olympic and World 
Champion Usain Bolt, world record holder in the 100m for men at 9.58s, and 200m for men at 19.19s. Other 
noteworthy Jamaican sprinters include Arthur Wint - the first Jamaican Olympic Gold Medalist, Donald 
Quarrie - Olympic Champion and former 200m world record holder, Merlene Ottey, Delloreen Ennis-London, 
Shelly- Ann Fraser-Pryce - the current World and Olympic 100m Champion, Kerron Stewart, Aleen Bailey, Juliet 
Cuthbert, Veronica Campbell-Brown, Sherone Simpson, Brigitte Foster-Hylton, Yohan Blake, Herb McKenley, 
George Rhoden—Olympic Gold Medalist, Deon Hemmings - Olympic Gold Medalist as well as former 100m 
world record holder and 2x 100m Olympic finalist and Gold medal winner in the men's 2008 Olympic 4x1 00m 
Asafa Powell. 

Jamaica has also produced several world class amateur and professional boxers including Trevor Berbick and 
Mike McCallum. First generation Jamaican athletes have continued to make a significant impact on the sport 
internationally, especially in the United Kingdom where the list of top British boxers born in Jamaica or of 
Jamaican parents includes Lloyd Honeyghan, Chris Eubank, Audley Harrison, David Haye, Lennox Lewis and 
Frank Bruno. 

Association football and horse-racing are other popular sports in Jamaica. The national football team qualified 
for the 1998 FIFA World Cup. 

The Jamaica national bobsled team was once a serious contender in the Winter Olympics, beating many 



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well-established teams. Chess, and Basketball are widely played in Jamaica which are supported by the Jamaica 
Chess Federation (JCF), and the Jamaica Basketball Federation (JBF). Netball is also very popular on the island, 
with the Jamaica national netball team called The Sunshine Girls consistently ranking in the top five in the 
world \-dtation needed] 

The Jamaica national rugby league team is made up of players who play in Jamaica, and UK-players from 
professional and semi professional teams in the UK. J Their first international was a 37-22 loss to the United 
States national rugby league team in November 2009. J Rugby league in Jamaica is growing with universities 
and high schools taking up the sport. ^ J The JRLA Championship is the main rugby league competition in 
the country. J The Hurricanes Rugby League are a professional rugby league team who are hoping to compete 
in either the USA Rugby League or the AMNRL by 2013 during that time they will be training young players 
aged 14-19 who will be part of the Hurricanes RL Academy in the hope of developing into full time professional 
players. 

Education 

Main article: Education in Jamaica 

The emancipation of the slaves heralded in the establishment of the Jamaican education system for the masses. 
Prior to emancipation there were few schools for educating locals. Many sent their children off to England to 
access quality education. 

After emancipation the West Indian Commission granted a sum of money to establish Elementary Schools, now 

known as All Age Schools. Most of these schools were established by the churches. J This was the genesis of 
the modern Jamaican school system. 

Presently the following categories of schools exist: 

■ Early childhood - Basic, Infant and privately operated pre- school. Age cohort - 2 - 5 years. 

■ Primary - Publicly and privately owned (Privately owned being called Preparatory Schools). Ages 3-12 
years. 

■ Secondary - Publicly and privately owned. Ages 10-19 years. The high schools in Jamaica may be either 
single-sex or co-educational institutions, and many schools follow the traditional English grammar school 
model used throughout the British West Indies. 

■ Tertiary - Community Colleges, Teachers' Colleges with The Mico Teachers' College (now The MICO 
University College) being the oldest founded in 1836,The Shortwood Teachers' College (which was once 
an all female teacher training institution), Vocational Training Centres, Colleges and Universities - Publicly 
and privately owned. There are five local universities namely: The University of the West Indies (Mona 
Campus); the University of Technology, Jamaica formerly The College of Art Science and Technology 
(CAST); the Northern Caribbean University formerly West Indies College; the University College of The 
Caribbean and the International University of the Caribbean. 

Additionally, there are many community and teacher training colleges. 

Education is free from the early childhood to secondary levels. There are also opportunities for those who cannot 
afford further education in the vocational arena through the Human Employment and Resource Training- 
National Training Agency (HEART Trust-NTA) programme L J and through an extensive scholarship network for 
the various universities. 

Students are taught Spanish in school from the primary level upwards; about 40-45% of educated people in 
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Jamaica knows some form of Spanish. 



Economy 



Main article: Economy of Jamaica 

Jamaica is a mixed economy with both state enterprises and private 
sector businesses. Major sectors of the Jamaican economy include 
agriculture, mining, manufacturing, tourism, and financial and insurance 
services. Tourism and mining are the leading earners of foreign exchange. 
Half the Jamaican economy relies on services, with half of its income 
coming from services such as tourism. An estimated 1.3 million foreign 

tourists visit Jamaica every year. J 







A beach in Negril with a hotel and 
restaurant 




Supported by multilateral financial institutions, Jamaica has, since the 
early 1980s, sought to implement structural reforms aimed at fostering 
private sector activity and increasing the role of market forces in 
resource allocation. Since 1991, the government has followed a 
programme of economic liberalization and stabilization by removing 
exchange controls, floating the exchange rate, cutting tariffs, stabilising 
the Jamaican currency, reducing inflation and removing restrictions on 
foreign investment. Emphasis has been placed on maintaining strict fiscal 
discipline, greater openness to trade and financial flows, market 
liberalisation and reduction in the size of government. During this period, 
a large share of the economy was returned to private sector ownership 
through divestment and privatisation programmes. 

The macroeconomic stabilisation programme introduced in 1991, which 

focused on tight fiscal and monetary policies, has contributed to a 

controlled reduction in the rate of inflation. The annual inflation rate 

decreased from a high of 80.2% in 1991 to 7.9% in 1998. Inflation for FY1998/99 was 6.2% compared to 7.2% 

in the corresponding period in CUU1997/98. The Government of Jamaica remains committed to lowering 

inflation, with a long-term objective of bringing it in line with that of its major trading partners. 

After a period of steady growth from 1985 to 1995, real GDP decreased by 1.8% and 2.4% in 1996 and 1997, 
respectively. The decrease in GDP in 1996 and 1997 was largely due to significant problems in the financial 
sector and, in 1997, a severe island- wide drought (the worst in 70 years) that drastically reduced agricultural 
production. In 1997, nominal GDP was approximately J$220,556.2 million (US$6,198.9 million based on the 
average annual exchange rate of the period). 

The economy in 1997 was marked by low levels of import growth, high 
levels of private capital inflows and relative stability in the foreign 
exchange market. 



Recent economic performance shows the Jamaican economy is 
recovering. Agricultural production, an important engine of growth 
increased 15.3% in third quarter of 1998 compared to the corresponding 
period in 1997, signaling the first positive growth rate in the sector since 
January 1997. Bauxite and alumina production increased 5.5% from 
January to December, 1998 compared to the corresponding period in 




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1997. January's bauxite production recorded a 7. 1 % increase relative to Fishing boats and bauxite cargo ships 
January 1998 and continued expansion of alumina production through share the waterways near Alligator 
2009 is planned by Alcoa. J Tourism, which is the largest foreign Pond, Jamaica 
exchange earner, showed improvement as well. In the third quarter of 

1998, growth in tourist arrivals accelerated with an overall increase of 

8.5% in tourism earnings in 1998 when compared to the corresponding period in 1997. Jamaica's agricultural 
exports are sugar, bananas, coffee, rum,and yams. 

Jamaica is the fifth largest exporter of bauxite in the world, after Australia, China, Brazil and Guinea. 

Jamaica has a wide variety of industrial and commercial activities. The aviation industry is able to perform most 
routine aircraft maintenance, except for heavy structural repairs. There is a considerable amount of technical 
support for transport and agricultural aviation. Jamaica has a considerable amount of industrial engineering, light 
manufacturing, including metal fabrication, metal roofing, and furniture manufacturing. Food and beverage 
processing, glassware manufacturing, software and data processing, printing and publishing, insurance 
underwriting, music and recording, and advanced education activities can be found in the larger urban areas. The 
Jamaican construction industry is entirely self-sufficient, with professional technical standards and guidance. J 

Since the first quarter of 2006, the economy of Jamaica has undergone a period of staunch growth. With inflation 
for the 2006 calendar year down to 6.0% and unemployment down to 8.9%, the nominal GDP grew by an 

unprecedented 2.9%. J An investment programme in island transportation and utility infrastructure and gains in 
the tourism, mining, and service sectors all contributed this figure. All projections for 2007 show an even higher 
potential for economic growth with all estimates over 3.0% and hampered only by urban crime and public 
policies. 

In 2006, Jamaica became part of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) as one of the pioneering 
members. 

The global economic downturn had a significant impact on the Jamaican economy for the years 2007 to 2009, 
resulting in negative economic growth. The government implemented a new Debt Management Initiative, the 
Jamaica Debt Exchange (JDX) on January 14, 2010. The initiative would see holders of Government of Jamaica 
(GOJ) bonds returning the high interest earning instruments for bonds with lower yields and longer 
maturities. The offer was taken up by over 95% of local financial institutions and was deemed a success by the 
government. Owing to the success of the JDX program, the Bruce Golding-led government was successful in 
entering into a borrowing arrangement with the IMF on Ferbruary 4,2010 for the amount of US$1. 27b. The loan 

agreement is for a period of three years. ^ J 

Infrastructure 

Transport 

Further information: Transport in Jamaica 

The transport infrastructure in Jamaica consists of roadways, railways and air transport, with roadways forming 
the backbone of the island's internal transport system. 

Roadways 

Main article: Roads in Jamaica 



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamaica 



The Jamaican road network consists of almost 13 049 miles (21,000 kilometres) of roads, of which over 9 321 

miles (15,000 kilometres) is paved. J The Jamaican Government has, since the late 1990s and in cooperation 
with private investors, embarked on a campaign of infrastructural improvement projects, one of which includes 
the creation of a system of freeways, the first such access-controlled roadways of their kind on the island, 
connecting the main population centres of the island. This project has so far seen the completion of 21 miles (33 
kilometres) of freeway. 

Railways 

Main article: Railways of Jamaica 

Railways in Jamaica no longer enjoy the prominent position they once did, having been largely replaced by 
roadways as the primary means of transport. Of the 169 miles (272 kilometres) of railway found in Jamaica, only 

35 miles (57 kilometres) remain in operation, currently used to transport bauxite. J 

On April 13, 2011, limited passenger service was resumed between May Pen, Spanish Town and Linstead. 




Air Jamaica Airbus A340 landing at 
London Heathrow Airport, England. 
(2002) 



Air transport 

There are three international airports in Jamaica with modern terminals, 
long runways, and the navigational equipment required to accommodate 
the large jet aircraft used in modern and air travel: Norman Manley 
International Airport in Kingston, Ian Fleming International Airport in 
Boscobel, Saint Mary Parish, and the island's largest and busiest airport, 
Sir Donald Sangster International Airport in the resort city of Montego 
Bay. Norman Manley and Sangster International airports are home to the 
country's national airline, Air Jamaica. In addition there are local 
commuter airports at Tinson Pen (Kingston), Port Antonio, and Negril 
which cater to internal flights only. Many other small, rural centres are 
served by private fields on sugar estates or bauxite mines. 

Ports, shipping and lighthouses 

See also: Lighthouses in Jamaica 

Owing to its location in the Caribbean Sea in the shipping lane to the Panama Canal and relative proximity to 
large markets in North America and emerging markets in Latin America, Jamaica receives high container traffic. 
The container terminal at the Port of Kingston has undergone large expansion in capacity in recent years to 

handle growth both already realised as well as that which is projected in coming years. J Montego Freeport in 
Montego Bay also handles a variety of cargo like (though more limited than) the Port of Kingston, mainly 
agricultural products. 

There are several other ports positioned around the island, including Port Esquivel in St. Catherine 
(WINDALCO), Rocky Point in Clarendon, Port Kaiser in St. Elizabeth, Port Rhoades in Discovery Bay, 
Reynolds Pier in Ocho Rios, and Boundbrook Port in Port Antonio. 

To aid the navigation of shipping, Jamaica operates nine lighthouses. 



Energy 



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Jamaica depends on petroleum imports to satisfy its national energy needs. J Many test sites have been explored 

for oil, but no commercially viable quantities have been found. J The most convenient sources of imported oil 
and motor fuels (diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel) are from Mexico and Venezuela. 

Jamaica's electrical power is produced by diesel (bunker oil) generators located in Old Harbour. Other smaller 
power stations (most owned by the Jamaica Public Service Company - the island's electricity provider) support 
the island's electrical grid including the Hunts Bay Power Station, the Bogue Power Station, the Rockfort Power 
Station and small hydroelectric plants on the White River, Rio Bueno, Morant River, Black River (Maggotty) 

and Roaring River. J A wind farm, owned by the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica, was established at 
Wigton, Manchester. J 

Jamaica has successfully operated a SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor of 20 kW capacity since the early 1980s, 
but there are no plans to expand nuclear power at present. J 

3 T891 

Jamaica imports approximately 80,000 barrels (13,000 m ) of oil energy products per day, L J including asphalt 

and lubrication products. Just 20% of imported fuels are used for road transportation, the rest being used by the 

bauxite industry, electricity generation, and aviation. 

Jamaica produces enormous quantities of hydrous ethanol (5% water content), most of which appears to be 
consumed as beverages, and none of it used as motor fuel. Facilities exist to refine hydrous ethanol feedstock 
into anhydrous ethanol (0% water content), but the process appears to be uneconomic at this time and the 

facility remains idle . ^ J 
Communication 

Jamaica has a fully digital telephone communication system with a mobile penetration of over 95%. J 

The country's three mobile operators - Cable and Wireless (marketed as LIME - Landline, Internet, Mobile and 
Entertainment), Digicel, and Oceanic Digital (operating as MiPhone and now known as Claro since late 2008) - 
have spent millions in network upgrade and expansion.Both Digicel and Oceanic Digital were granted licences in 
2001 to operate mobile services in the newly liberalised telecom market that had once been the sole domain of 
the incumbent Cable and Wireless monopoly. Digicel opted for the more widely used GSM wireless system, 
while Oceanic opted for the CDMA standard. Cable and Wireless, which had begun with TDMA standard, 
subsequently upgraded to GSM, and currently utilises both standards on its network. 

With wireless usage increasing, landlines supplied by Cable and Wireless have declined from just over half a 
million to roughly about three hundred thousand as of 2006. J In a bid to grab more market share, Cable and 
Wireless recently launched a new land line service called HomeFone Prepaid that would allow customers to pay 
for minutes they use rather than pay a set monthly fee for service, much like prepaid wireless service. 

A new entrant to the Jamaican communications market, Flow Jamaica, recently laid a new submarine cable 
connecting Jamaica to the United States. This new cable increases the total number of submarine cables 
connecting Jamaica to the rest of the world to four. 

Two more licences were auctioned by the Jamaican government to provide mobile services on the island, 
including one that was previously owned by AT&T Wireless but never utilised, and one new licence. 

See also 



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■ Outline of Jamaica 

■ Index of Jamaica-related articles 

■ Commonwealth of Nations 

■ International rankings of Jamaica 

■ List of Jamaicans 

References 

j A a c e rp^ e £j^ World Factbook - Jamaica (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook 
/geos/jm.html) . Retrieved 2007-06-27. 

2. * abcd "Jamaica" (http://ww.iirf. or^ 
scsm=l&ssd=l&sort=country&ds-.&br=l&c=343& 

s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=31&pr.y=13). International 
Monetary Fund, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/201 l/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2011& 
scsm=l&ssd=l&sort=country&ds-.&br=l&c=343& 

s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=31&pr.y=13. Retrieved 
2011-04-21. 

3. A "Human Development Report 2010" (http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2010_EN_Tablel.pdf) . United Nations. 
2010. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2010_EN_Tablel.pdf. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 

4. A "Taino Dictionary" (http://web.archive.Org/web/20071016055722/http://www.uctp.org/VocesIndigena.html) (in 
Spanish). The United Confederation of Taino People. Archived from the original (http://www.uctp.org 
/Voceslndigena.html) on 2007-10-16. http://web.archive.Org/web/20071016055722/http://www.uctp.org 
/Voceslndigena.html. Retrieved 2007-10-18. 

5 . A http://www.jis . go v. jm/special_sections/Independence/symbols . html 

6. A http://www.royal.gov. uk/monarchandcommonwealth/jamaica/jamaica.aspx 

7. A http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Jamaica/jam62.html 

8. A "Jamaica country profile" (http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1190968.stm) . BBC News. May 
26, 2010. http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1190968.stm. Retrieved 11 October 2010. 

9. A "Jamaica - Largest Cities" (http://www.geonames.org/JM/largest-cities-in-jamaica.html) . GeoNames. 
http://www.geonames.org/JM/largest-cities-in-jamaica.html. Retrieved 11 October 2010. 

jq A a c Mrpj^ Taino of Jamaica (Jamaica)" (http://www.jamaicans.com/articles/primearticles/taino.shtml) . 

Jamaicans.com. 2001-04-01. http://www.jamaicans.com/articles/primearticles/taino.shtml. Retrieved 2009-07-04. 

11. A "Jamaican National Heritage Trust" (http://web.archive.Org/web/20070928013715/http://www.jnht.com 
/archaeology/barbican_rescue.php) . Web.archive.org. 2007-09-28. Archived from the original (http://www.jnht.com 
/archaeology/barbican_rescue.php) on 2007-09-28. http://web.archive.org/web/20070928013715/http: 
//www.jnht.com/archaeology/barbican_rescue.php. Retrieved 2010-06-26. 

12. A Pickering, Keith A.. "A Christopher Columbus Timeline" (http://www.columbusnavigation.com/cctl.shtml) . 
http://www.columbusnavigation.com/cctl.shtml. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 

13. A "History of Jamaica" (http://www.jnht.com/jamaica/hist_spanish.php) . Jamaica National Heritage Trust. 
http://www.jnht.com/jamaica/hist_spanish.php. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 

14. A a "Spanish Town" (http://www.jnht.com/heritage_site. php?id=217) . Jamaica National Heritage Trust. 
http://www.jnht.com/heritage_site. php?id=217. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 

15. A a "Jamaica's English History" (http://www.jnht.com/jamaica/hist_english.php) . Jamaica National Heritage Trust. 
http://www.jnht.com/jamaica/hist_english.php. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 

16. A "Town of Montego Bay info" (http://www.mobay.com/town4.htm) . Mobay.com. 2007-05-07. 
http://www.mobay.com/town4.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-04. 

17. A Henry Morgan: The Pirate Who Invaded Panama in 1671 (http://www.historynet.com/henry-morgan-the-pirate- 
who-invaded-panama-in-1671.htm) . Historynet.com. 

18. A a Donovan, J. (1910). Jamaica. [[Catholic Encyclopedia (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08270a.htm) . New 
York: Robert Appleton Company] 

19. A A failed settler society: marriage and demographic failure in early Jamaica (http://findarticles.eom/p/articles 
/mi_m2005/is_nl_v28/ai_16106981/pg_2) , Journal of Social History, Fall, 1994, by Trevor Burnard 

20. aU Benitez, Suzette. "The Maroons" (http://scholar.library.miami.edu/slaves/Maroons/individual_essays 



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History of Jamaica - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Jamaica 



History of Jamaica 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

Jamaica, the third largest Caribbean island, was inhabited 
by Arawak natives when it was first sighted by the second 
voyage of Christopher Columbus on May 5, 1494. Columbus 
himself was stranded on Jamaica from 1503 to 1504 during 
his fourth voyage. The Spanish settled in Jamaica in 1509 
and held the island against many privateer raids from their 
main city, now called Spanish Town, which served as capital 
of Jamaica from its founding in 1534 until 1872. In 1655 
Jamaica was conquered by the English, although the Spanish 
did not relinquish their claim to the island until 1670. 

Jamaica became a base of operations for privateers, 
including Captain Henry Morgan, operating from the main 
English settlement Port Royal. In return these privateers kept 
the other colonial powers from attacking the island. 
Following the destruction of Port Royal in the great 
earthquake of 1692 refugees settled across the bay in 
Kingston which by 1716 had become the biggest town in 
Jamaica and became the capital city in 1872. Until the early 
19th century Africans were captured, kidnapped, and forced 
into slavery to work on plantations when sugarcane became 
the most important export of the island. 




The aftermath of the 1882 Kingston fire. 



Many slaves had arrived in Jamaica via the Atlantic slave 

trade during the same time enslaved Africans arrived in North America. During this time there were many racial 
tensions, and Jamaica had one of the highest instances of slave uprisings of any Caribbean island. J After the 
British crown abolished slavery in 1834, the Jamaicans began working toward independence. Since 
independence in 1962 there have been political and economic disturbances, as well as a number of strong 
political leaders. 



Contents 


■ 1 Spanish rule: 1509-1655 


■ 2 British rule: 1655-1962 


■ 3 Independent Jamaica 


■ 4 See also 


■ 5 References 


■ 6 Notes 


■ 7 Further reading 


■ 8 External links 



Spanish rule: 1509-1655 



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The first Spanish settlement was founded in 1509 near St Anne's Bay and named Seville. In 1534 the settlers 
moved to a new healthier site they named Villa de la Vega, which the English renamed Spanish Town when they 
conquered the island in 1655. This settlement served as the capital of both Spanish and English Jamaica from its 
foundation in 1534 until 1872 after which the capital was moved to Kingston. In the 1640s many people were 
attracted to Jamaica, which had a reputation for stunning beauty, not only in reference to the island but also to 
the natives. In fact, pirates were known to desert their raiding parties and stay on the island. Spanish Jamaica 
was subject to many privateer attacks, before the final conquest of the island by the English in 1655. The English 
were subject to several unsuccessful Spanish counter-attacks after they occupied the island. 

The 1907 Catholic Encyclopedia states, "A review of the period of Spanish occupation is one which reflects 
very little credit on Spanish colonial administration in those days. Their treatment of the aboriginal inhabitants, 
whom they are accused of having practically exterminated, Morales Padron 



British rule: 1655-1962 

Spanish resistance continued for some years thereafter, in some 
cases with the help of the maroons, but Spain never succeeded in 
retaking the island. Under early English rule Jamaica became a 
haven of privateers, buccaneers, and occasionally outright pirates: 
Christopher Myngs, Edward Mansvelt, and most famously, Henry 
Morgan. 

The English established their main coastal town at Port Royal and by 
1659, two hundred houses, shops, and warehouses surrounded the 
fort. The town was destroyed by an earthquake in 1692, after which 
Kingston became the main coastal settlement. 




4 



A depiction of daily life in Jamaica from the 
early 19th century. Watercolor, ink, and 
pencil. Created between 1808 and 1816. 



The cultivation of sugar cane and coffee by African slave labour 
made Jamaica one of the most valuable possessions in the world for 

more than 150 years. The colony's slaves, who outnumbered their white masters by a ratio of 20:1 in 1800, 
mounted over a dozen major slave conspiracies (the majority of which were organized by Coromantins), and 
uprisings during the 18th century, including Tacky 's revolt in 1760. Escaped slaves known as Maroons 
established independent communities in the mountainous interior that the British were unable to suppress, 
despite major attempts in the 1730s and 1790s. One Maroon community was expelled from the island after the 
Second Maroon War in the 1790s, and those Maroons eventually became part of the core of the Creole 
community of Sierra Leone. The colonial government enlisted the Maroons in capturing escaped plantation 
slaves. The British also used Jamaica's free people of color, 10,000 strong by 1800, to keep the enslaved 
population in check. During the Christmas holiday of 1831, a large-scale slave revolt known as the Baptist War 
broke out. It was organised originally as a peaceful strike by Samuel Sharpe. The rebellion was suppressed by the 
militia of the Jamaican plantocracy and the British garrison ten days later in early 1832. 

Because the loss of property and life in the 1831 rebellion, the British Parliament held two inquiries. The results 
of these inquiries contributed greatly to the abolition of slavery as of August 1, 1834 throughout the British 
Empire. However the Jamaican slaves bound to their former owners' service, albeit with a guarantee of rights, 
until 1838 under what was called the Apprenticeship System. The freed population still faced significant 
hardships, marked by the October 1865 Morant Bay rebellion led by and Paul Bogle. It was brutally repressed. 
George William Gordon, a friend of Paul Bogle, was hanged because he was thought to have contributed to the 
riot even though he was not a part of its organization or execution. The sugar crop was declining in importance in 
the late 19th century and the colony diversified into bananas. 



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In 1866 the Jamaican legislature renounced its powers, and the country became a crown colony. 

In 1872 the capital was moved to Kingston, as the port city had far outstripped the inland Spanish Town in size 
and sophistication. 

Some measure of self-government was restored in the 1880s, when islanders gained the right to elect nine 
members of a legislative council. 

The establishment of Crown Colony rule resulted over the next few decades in the growth of a middle class of 
low-level public officials and police officers drawn from the mass of the population whose social and political 
advancement was blocked by the colonial authorities. 

The Great Depression had a serious impact both on the emergent middle class and the working class of the 
1930s. In the spring of 1938 sugar and dock workers around the island rose in revolt. Although the revolt was 
suppressed it led to significant changes including the emergence of an organized labour movement and a 
competitive party system. 

Independent Jamaica 

Jamaica gained a degree of local political control in the mid- 1940s. The People's National Party (PNP) was 
founded in 1938. Its main rival, the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) was established five years later. The first 
elections under universal adult suffrage were held in 1944. Jamaica joined nine other UK territories in the 
Federation of the West Indies in 1958 but withdrew after Jamaican voters rejected membership in 1961. Jamaica 
gained independence on August 6, 1962, remaining a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The first prime 
minister was Alexander Bustamante of the Jamaica Labour Party. 

Initially, power swapped between the People's National Party and the Jamaican Labour Party regularly. Michael 
Manley was the first PNP prime minister in 1972. He introduced socialist policies and relations with Cuba. His 
second-term elections marked the start of repeated political violence. When the PNP lost power in 1980 Edward 
Seaga immediately began to reverse the policies of his predecessor, bringing in privatization and seeking closer 
ties with the USA. When the PNP and Manley returned to power in 1989 they continued the more moderate 
policies and were returned in the elections of 1993 and 1998. Manley resigned for health reasons in 1992 and 
was succeeded as leader of the PNP by Percival Patterson. 

Historically, Jamaican emigration has been heavy. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, many 
Jamaicans migrated to Central America, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic to work in the banana and 
canefields. In the 1950s the primary destination was to the United Kingdom; but since the United Kingdom 
restricted emigration in 1962, major flow has been to the United States and Canada. The heaviest flow of 
emigration, particularly to New York and Miami, occurred during the 1990s and continues to the present day due 
to high economical crisis. About 20,000 Jamaicans emigrate to the United States each year; another 200,000 visit 
annually. New York, Hartford, CT, Miami, and Fort Lauderdale are among the U.S. cities with the largest 
Jamaican population. In New York, over half the Jamaican expatriate population resides in Brooklyn. 
Remittances from the expatriate communities in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada make 
increasingly significant contributions to Jamaica's economy. 

See also 

■ British colonization of the Americas 

■ History of the Americas 

■ History of the British West Indies 

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Monarchy of Jamaica - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy_of_Jamaica 



Monarchy of Jamaica 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

The Monarchy of Jamaica is a constitutional system of 
government in which a hereditary monarch is the 

sovereign and head of state of Jamaica, J forming the 
core of the country's Westminster-style parliamentary 
democracy. The terms Crown in Right of Jamaica, Her 
Majesty in Right of Jamaica, or The Queen in Right of 
Jamaica may also be used to refer to the entire executive 
of the government of Jamaica. Though the Jamaican 
Crown has its roots in the British Crown, it has evolved to 
become a distinctly Jamaican institution, represented by it 
own unique symbols. 

The present monarch is Elizabeth II - officially titled 
Queen of Jamaica - who has reigned as such since 6 
August 1962. She, her consort, and other member of the 
Royal Family undertake various public and private 
functions across Jamaica and on behalf of the country 
abroad. However, the Queen is the only member of the 
Royal Family with any constitutional role, holding 

ultimate executive authority, J though her Royal 
Prerogative remains bound by laws enacted by her in 
parliament and by conventions and precedents, leaving 
the day-to-day exercise of executive power to her 
Cabinet. While several powers are the sovereign's alone, 
most of the royal constitutional and ceremonial duties in 
Jamaica are carried out by the Queen's representative, the 
Governor-General. 



Queen of Jamaica 

MONARCHY 




Coat of arms of Jamaica 




Incumbent: 
Elizabeth H 



Style: 

Heir apparent: 

First monarch: 

Formation: 



Her Majesty 
Charles, Prince of Wales 
Elizabeth II 
6 August 1962 



The Jamaican monarch, besides reigning in Jamaica, 

separately serves as monarch for each of fifteen other 

Commonwealth countries known as Commonwealth realms. This developed from the former colonial 

relationship of these countries to Britain, but they are now independent and the monarchy of each is legally 

distinct. 



Contents 



1 International and domestic aspects 

■ 1.1 Title and style 

■ 1.2 Finance 

■ 1.3 Succession 

2 Personification of the state 

3 Constitutional role 

■ 3.1 Executive (Queen-in-Council) 

■ 3.1.1 Foreign affairs 



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy_of_Jamaica 



■ 3.2 Parliament (Queen-in-Parliament) 


■ 3.3 Courts (Queen-on 


-the-Bench) 


■ 4 History 




■ 5 Popularity 




■ 6 Republicanism 




■ 7 See also 




■ 7.1 Other realms 




■ 7.2 Other 




■ 8 References 





International and domestic aspects 



Further information: Commonwealth realm: The Crown in the Commonwealth realms 

Jamaica has the same person as their monarch as other Commonwealth realms. Each country is sovereign and 
independent of the others, J meaning the Jamaican monarchy has both a separate and a shared character, and 
the monarchy has also thus ceased to be an exclusively British institution, although it has often been called 
British since this time (in both legal and common language) for reasons historical, political, and of convenience. 
On all matters of the Jamaican state, the monarch is advised solely by Jamaican Ministers of the Crown. J and, 
effective with the Jamaica Independence Act, 1962, no British or other realm government can advise the 
monarch on matters pertinent to Jamaica. 

Given these arrangements, it is considered impossible for the monarch of Jamaica to receive an ambassador 
from, or send an ambassador to, any country of which he or she is also monarch; essentially sending an 
ambassador to him or herself. Instead, the practice of sending High Commissioners developed, wherein an 
individual is sent to be a representative in one realm of the government in another. 

Title and style 

The shared and domestic aspects of the Crown are also highlighted in the sovereign's Jamaican title, currently 
Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Jamaica and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head 
of the Commonwealth. The sovereign's role specifically as Queen of Jamaica, as well as her status as monarch of 
other nations, is communicated by mentioning Jamaica separately from, but along with, the Queen's other lands. 
Typically, the sovereign is styled Queen of Jamaica, and is addressed as such when in Jamaica or performing 
duties on behalf of Jamaica abroad. 

Finance 

The sovereign only draws from Jamaican coffers for support in the performance of her duties when in Jamaica or 
acting as Queen of Jamaica abroad; Jamaicans do not pay any money to the Queen, either towards personal 
income or to support royal residences outside of Jamaica. This applies equally to other members of the Royal 
Family. Normally, tax dollars pay only for the costs associated with the Governor-General in the exercise of the 
powers of the Crown, including travel, security, residences, offices, ceremonies, and the like. 

Succession 

Succession is by male-preference primogeniture governed by the provisions of the Act of Settlement, 1701, and 



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the Bill of Rights, 1689. This legislation limits the succession to the natural (i.e. 
non-adopted), legitimate descendants of Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and 
stipulates that the monarch cannot be a Roman Catholic, nor married to one, 
and must be in communion with the Church of England upon ascending the 
throne. Though these constitutional laws, as they apply to Jamaica, still lie 
within the control of the British parliament, via adopting the Statute of 
Westminster both the United Kingdom and Jamaica agreed not to change the 
rules of succession without the unanimous consent of the other realms, unless 
explicitly leaving the shared monarchy relationship; a situation that applies 
symmetrically in all the other realms, and which has been likened to a treaty 
amongst these countries. J Thus, Jamaica's line of succession remains identical 
to that of the United Kingdom. 

Upon a demise of the Crown (the death or abdication of a sovereign) it is 
customary for the accession of the new monarch to be publicly proclaimed by 
the Governor-General. Regardless of any proclamations, the late sovereign's 
heir immediately and automatically succeeds, without any need for 
confirmation or further ceremony; hence arises the phrase "The King is dead. 
Long live the King!" Following an appropriate period of mourning, the monarch is also crowned in the United 
Kingdom, though this ritual is not necessary for a sovereign to reign; for example, Edward VIII was never 
crowned, yet was undoubtedly king during his short time on the throne. All incumbent viceroys, judges, civil 
servants, legislators, military officers, etc., are not affected by the death of the monarch. After an individual 
ascends the throne, he or she typically continues to reign until death. Monarchs are not allowed to unilaterally 
abdicate; the only monarch to abdicate, Edward VIII, did so before Jamaica was independent, and, even then, 
only with the authorization of specials Acts of Parliament in the Dominions. 




Charles, Prince of Wales, is the 
heir apparent to the Jamaican 
throne. 



Personification of the state 



■ * 








K^V VmP' 




^B""v k!- 1 ^! • JC'I 


P^^r '•' Hfrofl 


Royal Standard of Jamaica 



Further information: The Crown 



Since the independence of Jamaica, the sovereign's role as monarch of 
Jamaica has been recognised and promoted as separate to his or her 
position as monarch of the United Kingdom. J From the beginning of 
Queen Elizabeth IPs reign onwards, royal symbols in Jamaica were 
altered or new ones created to make them distinctly Jamaican, such as 
the augmentation of the Royal Arms of Jamaica in 1962 and Queen's 
Royal Standard for Jamaica, created in 1962. J Today the sovereign is 

regarded as the personification, or legal personality, of the Jamaican state. Therefore, the state is referred to as 
Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Jamaica; for example, if a lawsuit is filed against the government, the 
respondent is formally described as Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Jamaica, or simply Regina. As such, the 
monarch is the owner of all state lands (called Crown land), buildings and equipment (called Crown held 
property), state owned companies (called Crown Corporations), and the copyright for all government 
publications (called Crown copyright), as well as guardianship of foster children (called Crown wards), in his or 
her position as sovereign, and not as an individual. Government staff are also employed by the monarch, as are 
the Governor-General, judges, members of the Jamaica Defence Force, police officers, and parliamentarians, 
who all technically work for the monarch. Many employees of the Crown were once required by law to recite an 
oath of allegiance to the monarch before taking their posts, in reciprocation to the sovereign's Coronation Oath, 
wherein he or she promises "to govern the Peoples of ... [Jamaica] ... according to their respective laws and 
customs". J Save for that taken by senators, J the oaths of allegiance were altered in 2002, removing mention 



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ofihQmonaich. [citationneededi 

Constitutional role 

Jamaica's constitution is made up of a variety of statutes and conventions that are either British or Jamaican in 
origin, which gives Jamaica a similar parliamentary system of government to the other Commonwealth realms, 
wherein the role of the Queen and the Governor-General is both legal and practical. The Crown is regarded as a 
corporation, in which several parts share the authority of the whole, with the Queen as the person at the centre 
of the constitutional construct, J meaning all powers of state are constitutionally reposed in the monarch, who is 
represented by the Governor-General - appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister of 
Jamaica. J Most of the Queen's domestic duties are performed by this vice-regal representative, though she is 
briefed through regular communications from her Jamaican ministers, and holds audience with them whenever 
possible. J 

All institutions of government are said to act under the sovereign's authority; the vast powers that belong to the 
Crown are collectively known as the Royal Prerogative. Parliamentary approval is not required for the exercise 
of the Royal Prerogative; moreover, the consent of the Crown must be obtained before either of the houses of 
parliament may even debate a bill affecting the sovereign's prerogatives or interests. While the Royal Prerogative 
is extensive, it is not unlimited; for example, the monarch does not have the prerogative to impose and collect 
new taxes - such an action requires the authorization of an Act of Parliament. The government of Jamaica is also 
thus formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government. Further, the constitution instructs that any change to the 
position of the monarch, or the monarch's representative in Jamaica, requires the consent of a two-thirds 
majority of each house of parliament. J 

Executive (Queen-in-Council) 

In Jamaica's constitutional system, one of the main duties of the Crown is to appoint a prime minister,^ J who 
thereafter heads the Cabinet and advises the monarch and Governor-General on how to execute their executive 
powers over all aspects of government operations and foreign affairs; this requirement is, unlike in other 

Commonwealth realms where it is a matter of convention, constitutionally enshrined in Jamaica. J Though the 
monarch's power is still a part of the executive process - the operation of the Cabinet is technically known as the 
Queen-in-Council (or Governor-in-Council) - the advice tendered is typically binding. Since the death of Queen 
Anne in 1714, the last monarch to head the British Cabinet, the monarch reigns but does not rule. This means 
that the monarch's role, and thereby the viceroys' role, is almost entirely symbolic and cultural, acting as a 
symbol of the legal authority under which all governments and agencies operate, while the Cabinet directs the 
use of the Royal Prerogative, which includes the privilege to declare war, maintain the Queen's peace, and direct 
the actions of the Jamaica Defence Force, as well as to summon and prorogue parliament, and call elections. 
However, it is important to note that the Royal Prerogative belongs to the Crown, and not to any of the ministers, 
though it may sometimes appear that way, J and the royal figures may unilaterally use these powers in 
exceptional constitutional crisis situations. There are also a few duties which must be specifically performed by, 
or bills that require assent by, the Queen. These include signing the appointment papers of Governors-General, 
the confirmation of awards of Jamaican honours, and the approval of any change in her Jamaican title. 

In accordance with convention, the monarch or Governor-General, to maintain the stability of government, must 
appoint as prime minister the individual most likely to maintain the support of the House of Representatives: 
usually the leader of the political party with a majority in that house, but also when no party or coalition holds a 
majority (referred to as a minority government situation), or other scenarios in which the Governor-General's 
judgement about the most suitable candidate for prime minister has to be brought into play. The Governor- 



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General also appointes to Cabinet the other ministers of the Crown, who are, in turn, accountable to the 
democratically elected House of Representatives, and through it, to the people. The Queen is informed by her 
viceroy of the acceptance of the resignation of a prime minister and the swearing-in of a new prime minister and 
other members of the ministry. 

Members of various executive agencies, and other officials are appointed by the Crown. The commissioning of 
privy councillors, senators, the Speaker of the Senate, Supreme Court justices also falls under the Royal 
Prerogative, though these duties are specifically assigned to the Governor-General by the constitution. J Public 
inquiries are also commissioned by the Crown through a Royal Warrant, and are called Royal Commissions. 

Foreign affairs 

The Royal Prerogative also extends to foreign affairs: the sovereign or Governor-General negotiates and ratifies 
treaties, alliances, and international agreements. As with other uses of the Royal Prerogative, no parliamentary 
approval is required; however, a treaty cannot alter the domestic laws of Jamaica; an Act of Parliament is 
necessary in such cases. The Governor-General, on behalf of the Queen, also accredits Jamaican High 
Commissioners and ambassadors, and receives diplomats from foreign states. In addition, the issuance of 
passports falls under the Royal Prerogative, and, as such, all Jamaican passports are issued in the monarch's 
name. 

Parliament (Queen-in-Parliament) 

The sovereign, along with the Senate and the House of Representatives, is one of the three components of 
Parliament, * called the Queen-in-Parliament. The authority of the Crown therein is embodied in the mace for 
each house, J which both bear a crown at their apex. Per the constitution, the monarch does not, however, 
participate in the legislative process; the viceroy does, though only in the granting of Royal Assent. J Further, 
the constitution outlines that the Governor-General alone is responsible for summoning, proroguing, and 
dissolving parliament, J after which the writs for a general election are usually dropped by the Governor- 
General at Government House. The new parliamentary session is marked by the State Opening of Parliament, 
during which either the monarch or the Governor-General reads the Speech from the Throne. As the monarch 
and viceroy cannot enter the House of Representatives, this, as well as the bestowing of Royal Assent, takes 
place in the Senate chamber; Members of Parliament are summoned to these ceremonies from the Commons by 
the Crown's messenger, the Usher of the Black Rod, after he knocks on the doors of the lower house that have 
been slammed closed on him, to symbolise the barring of the monarch from the assembly. 

All laws in Jamaica are enacted only with the viceroy's granting of Royal Assent; usually done by the Governor- 
General, with the Broad Seal of Jamaica. Thus, all bills begin with the phrase "BE IT ENACTED by The Queen's 
Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Representatives of 
Jamaica, and by the authority of the same, as follows..." 

Courts (Queen-on-the-Bench) 

The sovereign is deemed the fount of justice, and is responsible for rendering justice for all subjects, known in 
this role as the Queen on the Bench. However, he or she does not personally rule injudicial cases; instead, 

judicial functions are performed in his or her name by what are termed Her Majesty's Justices of the Peace} J 
Hence, the common law holds that the sovereign "can do no wrong"; the monarch cannot be prosecuted in his or 
her own courts for criminal offences. Civil lawsuits against the Crown in its public capacity (that is, lawsuits 
against the government) are permitted; however, lawsuits against the monarch personally are not cognizable. In 
international cases, as a sovereign and under established principles of international law, the Queen of Jamaica is 

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not subject to suit in foreign courts without her express consent. The sovereign, and by extension the Governor- 
General, also exercises the prerogative of mercy} J and may pardon offences against the Crown, either before, 
during, or after a trial. In addition, the monarch also serves as a symbol of the legitimacy of courts of justice, and 
of their judicial authority. An image of the Queen or the Coat of arms of Jamaica is always displayed in Jamaican 
courtrooms. 

History 

In 1966 Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, accompanied by his son, Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, toured 
Jamaica as part of his visit there to open that year's Commonwealth Games. J 

Popularity 

Prior to the Queen's 2002 visit, the newspaper Jamaica Gleaner said "So as Jamaica looks back, let it also look 
forward. Let this visit not so much renew old ties as cement new ones."^ J The BBC reported that "despite 
republican sentiments in the country she was given an enthusiastic welcome. " L J A poll taken in 2002 showed 
that 57% of Jamaicans thought that the Queen's visit to Jamaica as part of Her Golden Jubilee tour was 

important" 6 " 17 ] 

Republicanism 

Individuals in both major political parties in Jamaica have voiced support for making Jamaica a republic in the 

last few years: In September 2003, then Prime Minister of Jamaica P.J. Patterson called for Jamaica to abolish 

the monarchy by 2007. J Bruce Golding, a former prime minister, also pledged that Jamaica shall "take steps to 

amend the constitution to replace the Queen with a Jamaican President who symbolises the unity of the nation". 
[19][20] 

Current Prime Minister Portia Simpson-Miller has expressed her intention to make Jamaica a republic to 
coincide with the country's 50th anniversary of independence in August 2012. ^ J 

See also 

Other realms 

■ Current Commonwealth realms 
Other 

■ Figurehead 

■ Governor-General of Jamaica 

■ House of Windsor 

■ Royal descent 

■ Monarchies in the Americas 

■ List of monarchies 

References 



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Realm of New Zealand - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Realm_of_New_Zealand 



Realm of New Zealand 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

The Realm of New Zealand is the entire area in which the Queen in right of New Zealand is head of state. The 
Realm comprises New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau and the Ross Dependency in Antarctica, ^ and 
is defined by a 1983 Letters Patent constituting the office of Governor-General of New Zealand. J 



Contents 


■ 1 Governor-General 


■ 2 Sovereignty within the Realm 


■ 2.1 Cook Islands and Niue 


■ 2.2 New Zealand 


■ 2.3 Tokelau 


■ 2.4 Ross Dependency 


■ 2.5 Summary 


■ 3 Future of the Realm 


■ 4 See also 


■ 5 References 


■ 6 External links 



Governor-General 

Main article: Governor -General of New Zealand 

The Governor-General of New Zealand represents the head of state (Elizabeth II, in her capacity as Queen of 
New Zealand) in the area of the Realm. Essentially, Governors-General take on all the dignities and reserve 
powers of the head of state. As of 2011 the Governor-General is Rt Hon Sir Jerry Mateparae. 



Sovereignty within the Realm 

Cook Islands and Niue 

Both the Cook Islands and Niue are said to be self-governing 
in free association with New Zealand. The New Zealand 
Parliament is not empowered to unilaterally pass legislation 
in respect of these countries. In foreign affairs and defence 
issues New Zealand acts on behalf of these countries but 
only with their advice and consent. 

As the Governor-General is resident in New Zealand, the 

Cook Islands Constitution provides for the distinct position 

of Queen's Representative. This individual is not subordinate to the Governor-General and acts as the local 

representative of the Queen in right of New Zealand. As of 2005 Sir Frederick Tutu Goodwin is the Queen's 

Representative to the Cook Islands. This arrangement effectively allows for the de facto independent actions of 




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internal and most external areas of governance. 

According to the Niue's Constitution of 1974, the Governor-General of New Zealand acts as the Queen's 
representative. 

In the Cook Islands and Niue the New Zealand High Commissioner is the diplomatic representative from New 
Zealand. John Carter is the New Zealand High Commissioner to the Cook Islands. As of 2009, Anton Ojala is the 
New Zealand High Commissioner to Niue. 

Despite their close relationship to New Zealand, both the Cook Islands and Niue maintain some diplomatic 
relations in their own name. Both countries maintain High Commissions in New Zealand and have New Zealand 
High Commissioners resident in their capitals. In Commonwealth practice, High Commissioners represent their 
governments, not the Head of State. 

New Zealand 

New Zealand proper consists of the following island groups: 

■ the North Island, South Island and neighbouring coastal islands, all contained within the 16 regions of New 
Zealand 

■ the Chatham Islands to the east, contained within the Chatham Islands Territory 

■ the Kermadec Islands to the north and sub-Antarctic islands to the south, all outside local authority 
boundaries and inhabited only by a small number of research and conservation staff 

Tokelau 

Tokelau has a lesser degree of de jure independence than the Cook Islands and Niue have, and had been moving 
toward free association status. New Zealand's representative in Tokelau is the Administrator of Tokelau and has 
the power to overturn rules passed by the general fono. The people of Tokelau have generally rejected accepting 
a system of governance with equal powers to that of Niue and the Cook Islands by the means of several 

referenda conducted by New Zealand and with the United Nations request. J 

Ross Dependency 

The Ross Dependency is constitutionally part of New Zealand. J The Governor-General of New Zealand is also 
the Governor of the Ross Dependency. The Ross Dependency includes McMurdo Station, operated by the 
United States, which does not recognise New Zealand sovereignty of Ross Dependency. The application of 
Sovereignty within the Dependency is subsequent upon the enforcement of terms found within the Antarctic 
Treaty. 

Summary 



Area 


Representative Head of the 
of the Queen Government 


Legislature Capital Population Land Area 


US New Zealand 


Governor- 
General 


Prime 
Minister 


House of 
Representatives 


Wellington 


4,414,400 


268,680 km 2 


jH|g] Cook Islands 


Queen's 
Representative 


Prime 
Minister 


Parliament of 
the Cook 
Islands 


Avarua 


21,388 


236 km 2 



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« Niue 


Representative 
of the Queen 
(the Governor- 
General of New 
Zealand) 


Premier 


Niue Assembly 


Alofi 


2,145 


260 km 2 


j^l Tokelau 


Administrator 


Ulu-o- 
Tokelau 
(Head of the 
Council of 
Ongoing 
Government) 


General Fono 


None 


1,405 


10 km 2 


H^JRoss 
Dependency 


Governor 


Chief 
Executive 


None 


Scott Base 


Scott Base: 

10-80; 

McMurdo 

Station: 

200-1000 

(seasonally) 


450,000 km 2 



Future of the Realm 

Within New Zealand there exists some support^ ^ J f or a New Zealand republic. Should New Zealand become a 
republic it will retain the Ross Dependency and Tokelau as dependent territories and the Realm of New Zealand 

would continue to exist without New Zealand, the Ross Dependency and Tokelau. J This would not be a legal 
hurdle to a New Zealand republic as such, and both the Cook Islands and Niue would retain their status as 
associated states with New Zealand, as New Zealand shares its Head of State with the Cook Islands and Niue in 
the same way the Commonwealth realms share a Head of State. However, a New Zealand republic would 
present the issue of independence to the Cook Islands and Niue. Thus, a number of options for the future of the 
Realm of New Zealand exist should New Zealand become a republic: 

■ A New Zealand republic with the Cook Islands and Niue remaining in free association with New Zealand, 
but retaining the Queen of New Zealand as their head of state; 

■ A New Zealand republic with the Cook Islands and Niue having a new republican head of state as their 
head of state and becoming independent states; 

■ A New Zealand republic with the Cook Islands and Niue having their own heads of state, but retaining 

their status of free association with New Zealand. J 

See also 

■ Dominion of New Zealand 

■ Ross Dependency 

■ Commonwealth realm 

■ Monarchy of New Zealand 

■ Monarchy of the Cook Islands 

■ Monarchy of Niue 

■ History of Samoa - a country formerly under New Zealand administration as League of Nations mandate 
and UN Trust Territory 

■ History of Nauru - a country where New Zealand was nominal co-trustee along with the with the United 
Kingdom during a period of League of Nations mandate and later UN Trust Territory under effective 



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Australian administration. 

References 

1. A New Zealand's Constitution (http://www.gg.govt.nz/role/constofnz.htm) , New Zealand government, retrieved 20 
November 2009 

2. A Letters Patent Constituting the Office of Governor-General of New Zealand (SR 1983/225) 
(http://www.legislation.govt.nz/regulation/public/1983/0225/latest/DLM90805. html?search=ts_act_waste_resel) , 
New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office, retrieved 20 November 2009 

3. A "Tokelau decolonisation high on agenda" (http://www.nzherald.co. nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=l& 
objectid=105 10595) . The New Zealand Herald. NZPA. 17 May 2008. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news 
/article.cfm?c_id=l&objectid=105 10595. Retrieved 23 November 2011. 

4. A http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Foreign-Relations/Antarctica/l-New-Zealand-and-Antarctica/index.php 

5. A A July 2005 poll published in The Press showed 27% support for the question "Do you support New Zealand 
becoming a republic?", and 67% opposition. 

6. A A Sunday Star-Times poll, published 20 January 2006, stated there was 47% support for a New Zealand republic, 
and 47% support for the monarchy. 

7. A a Townend, Andrew (2003). "The Strange Death of the Realm of New Zealand: The Implications of a New 
Zealand Republic for the Cook Islands and Niue" (http://www.austlii.edu.au/nz/joumals/VUWI^Rev/2003/34.html) . 
Victoria University of Wellington Law Review. http://www.austlii.edu.au/nz/joumals/VUWLRev/2003/34.html. 
Retrieved 25 July 2010. 

External links 

■ Letters Patent constituting the office of Governor-General of New Zealand (http://www.dpmc.govt.nz 
/cabinet/manual/letters_patent_constituting.html) — gives explanation for "Realm of New Zealand" 

■ "Cook Islands" (http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Countries/Pacific/Cook-Islands.php) (NZ Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs) 

■ "Niue" (http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Countries/Pacific/Niue.php) (NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs) 

■ "New Zealand and the Tokelau Islands" (http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Foreign-Relations/Pacific/Tokelau 
/index. php) (NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs) 

■ "Ross Dependency" (http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Foreign-Relations/l-Global-Issues/Antarctica/l-New- 
Zealand-Relationship-with-Antarctica/rossdependency.php) (NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs) 

Retrieved